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An Improved AOMDV Routing Protocol for Airspace Communication Network  [PDF]
Xi Zhang, Tao Zhang
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2017.108B017
The airspace communication network based on spacecraft has a wide range of applications in regional information enhancement and emergency communication. In this paper, a routing algorithm for congestion degree detection of multipath routing (CD_AOMDV) is proposed. The method of combining the whole congestion degree detection and local congestion degree detection before service initiation is adopted. Timely and accurate judgment of the congestion degree reduced the loss rate of the hot nodes, so the average packet loss rate reduced. Simulation results show that compared with the traditional AOMDV protocol, the CD_AOMDV proposed in this paper has reduced the packet loss and improved delay performance, which is more suitable for the airspace communication network.
Improved LEACH Routing Communication Protocol for a Wireless Sensor Network  [PDF]
Fuzhe Zhao,You Xu,Ru Li
International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/649609
Abstract: A WSN (wireless sensor network) consists of thousands of sensor nodes with limited energy, memory, and computation capability. The applications of WSN in some extreme environment make sensor nodes difficult to replace once they use up the resource. Hence, many researchers in this field focus on how to design a property routing protocol to prolong the life span of the network. The classical hierarchical protocols such as LEACH and LEACH-C have better performance in saving the energy consumption. However, the choosing formula neglecting the change of nodes' energy will make the nodes acting as cluster heads too many times die early owing to the consumption of too much energy. Also, the high frequency of reclustering wastes certain amount of energy. In order to make the energy distribute more evenly among different nodes, we improve the tradition equation used for selecting cluster heads with considering the dynamic change of nodes’ energy. Meanwhile, we propose to establish a vice cluster head for each cluster during the communication process, which aims to diminish the energy consumption spent on the reclustering and prolong the time of being in a steady-state phase. Simulations show that our improved protocol performs better than the LEACH and the LEACH-C. 1. Introduction WSN (wireless sensor network) [1] consists of more than hundreds of small sensor nodes which have limited power, memory, and computational capabilities. The application of the WSN involves many fields, such as the military battlefield, forest fire detection, and other extreme environments [2]. In these situations, it is difficult to replace the dead nodes caused by energy’s depletion with new ones to supply energy for the system. Therefore, making sensor nodes working as long as possible is the main method to maximize the lifecycle of the system. Because the energy’s consumption of sensor node mainly originates from the long distance transmission of data along the routing path, an efficient routing path formed by the routing protocol will have a great impact on the energy’s consumption [3]. So how to design an energy-efficient routing protocol becomes the main goal for the wireless sensor network. The conventional wire routing protocol cannot adapt to the wireless sensor network due to the inherent property of WSN. Hence, many protocols have been proposed to satisfy the need of WSN. The cluster idea present in [4, 5] has a significant reflection to the research of WSN routing protocols. It organizes the sensor nodes into different clusters, with a cluster head in each cluster executing
An Improved AODV Routing Protocol For Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks
International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering , 2013,
Abstract: Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANETs) is self-configuring network of mobile nodes connected by wireless links. Self-configurability and fast deployment feature of the MANET makes it most attractive choice for users. Routing in such networks is a key issue which decides network performance. Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) is one of the widely used reactive routing algorithms. Energy consumption and delay are the main concern for a number of researchers. Due to unbalanced node usage, some of the battery powered nodes drain out faster than others. This leads to route re-discovery causing larger average end to end delay and more control overhead. In this paper we are presenting an improved AODV (I-AODV) protocol. The proposed protocol introduces a stability factor which conserves and stabilizes energy among the nodes, and a delay reduction mechanism which reduces the average end-to-end delay of the network. NS-2 simulator is used to compare performances of AODV and I-AODV. Simulation results are observed for wireless network scenarios with variation of node mobility, pause time, network area and packet sent rate. The results show that the energy consumption and end to end delay in mobile scenarios decreases significantly, without much affecting the other QoS parameters. In addition proposed protocol improved packet delivery.
Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2009,
Abstract: Recently, wireless network industry for the ubiquitous generation is growing quickly. Especially, IEEE 802.15.4 is one of special issues of the networking technology for sensor network. Then, many researchers are studying it for enhanced performance. But many researchers are not focusing on developing routing protocol. So we had proposed improved AODV routing protocol in previous research. But it had studied about performance analysis based on IEEE 802.11. In this paper, we proposed improved routing protocol using AODV (Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector) for sensor network. The simulation result is analyzed and compared based on IEEE 802.11 and IEEE 802.15.4.
Improved Multi-Path and Multi-Speed Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks
S. Saqaeeyan,M. Roshanzadeh
International Journal of Computer Network and Information Security , 2012,
Abstract: In our presented paper by proposing a optimum routing protocol, in some of Quality of Service achieved improvements in the field of reliability in data sending to destination and load balancing in wireless sensor network. In our proposed protocol, to ensure that a data packet correctly send to the destination, it used of an improved hybrid method based on multipath data sending. The routing decisions in this method are by considering the remaining energy of nodes that are in neighbors of sender nodes. Simulation results shows that release rate of data packets in this method is reduced and reliability in data sending to destination is increased. Also, the energy efficiency of sensor nodes effectively improved and thus increase the overall lifetime of wireless sensor networks.
A Probabilistic Protocol for Multihop Routing in VANETs  [PDF]
Junichiro Fukuyama
Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/185791
Abstract: Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) allow communications over sequences of vehicles with radio devices. There are many possible applications over a VANET such as traffic jam warning, collision warning, parking lot reservations, camera picture feed , and so forth. There have been quite a few results in the area seeking for a fast and reliable communication protocol due to their potential. VANETs, however, are pointed out as difficult for numerical optimizations due to frequent changes in their topologies. As a result, heuristic methods such as GPSR have been mainly used for routing packets over multihop communications. In this paper, we present an algorithm to precompute the probability that communication is possible between specified source and destination in a VANET, under certain mathematical assumption. The proposed new protocol for multihop communication refers to a lookup table containing the precomputed data to decide a good packet forwarder quickly. We create a simulation testbed that seems challenging for all the existing multihop routing protocols for VANETs, in which we test ours. We see much improved performances over GPSR after the algorithm is refined for some practical issues.
An Improved Approach for Working outside the MANET by Extending MANET Routing Protocol  [PDF]
Rashween Kuar Saluja
International Journal of Computer Science Issues , 2012,
Abstract: Mobile ad-hoc network have the attributes such as wireless connection, continuously changing topology, distributed operation and ease of deployment. We present a design space analysis of the problem of providing Internet connectivity for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). For widening the coverage area of the MANET there is a growing need to integrate these ad hoc networks to the Internet. For this purpose we need gateways which act as bridges between different protocols architectures. In this paper the AODV reactive routing protocol is extended to support the communication between the MANET and the Internet.
A Cognitive Improved Hierarchical AODV Routing Protocol for Cognitive Wireless Mesh Network  [PDF]
Pei Tingrui,Zhao Zhi,Zeng Wenli,Zhang Zhaoxia
Information Technology Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Routing is the main research issue in the development of Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs). Many of the routing approaches have been borrowed from Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) to achieve routing solutions in WMNs but are not ideal or optimal and do not utilize the characteristics of WMNs to fulfill their benefits. Moreover, these approaches don’t take into account the cognitive radio environment. In this study, we propose an improved hierarchical AODV routing protocol based on cognitive radio (CIH-AODV) for cognitive wireless mesh network, which exhibits better scalability and performance in the network and incurs less routing overhead for finding alternate routes when a route is lost. Furthermore, we present a novel technique for CIH-AODV termed fresh route detection which is designed to support cognitive radio. We make comparison between AODV and CIH-AODV in our simulation using NS-2. Simulation results show that the metrics of CIH-AODV are better than or comparable to AODV in hybrid WMNs and the protocol is suitable for the cognitive radio environment.
A SCPS-NP Routing Algorithm Based on Mobile IP Routing  [cached]
Kai Hu,He Yang,Hong Jiang,Shu Jiang
International Journal of Information Technology and Computer Science , 2010,
Abstract: Space communication protocol is a challenging problem in the future of space network. Now Mobile IP routing is very popular in the wireless communication network. The research shows the Mobile IP network has the much similar features to the space network. A Space Communications Protocol Specification Network Protocol (SCPS-NP) routing algorithm based on Mobile IP routing is proposed in the paper. Firstly, some basic knowledge about SCPS is introduced. The flooding routing algorithm in SCPS-NP protocol is studied. A new routing algorithmoptimized Mobile IP routing algorithm based on QoS is proposed. In order to verify the effects of the algorithm, A simulation model using NS2 network simulation tools is built and the comparisons between traditional Mobile IP routing and improved SCPS-NP routing are provided. The results show that optimized routing algorithm based on QoS could achieve better performance than traditional Mobile IP. Further, a working prototype based on SCPS-NP Gateway is implemented to test the algorithm’s application. It shows that algorithm based on Mobile IP routing can be used inthe future space network.
Queuing Methodology Based Power Efficient Routing Protocol for Reliable Data Communications in Manets  [PDF]
Giddaluru Madhavi,M. K. Kaushik
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a wireless network that uses multi-hop peer-to- peer routing instead of static network infrastructure to provide network connectivity. MANETs have applications in rapidly deployed and dynamic military and civilian systems. The network topology in a MANET usually changes with time. Therefore, there are new challenges for routing protocols in MANETs since traditional routing protocols may not be suitable for MANETs. In recent years, a variety of new routing protocols targeted specifically at this environment have been developed, but little performance information on each protocol and no realistic performance comparison between them is available. This paper presents the results of a detailed packet-level simulation comparing three multi-hop wireless ad hoc network routing protocols that cover a range of design choices: DSR, NFPQR, and clustered NFPQR. By applying queuing methodology to the introduced routing protocol the reliability and throughput of the network is increased.
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