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Fatty acid composition of milk produced in organic and conventional dairy herds in Italy and Slovenia  [cached]
A. Lavrencic,A. Levart,J. Salobir
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2007.1s.437
Abstract: Thirty eight bulk milk samples were collected from 19 organic and conventional farms in Italian Region of Friuli Venezia Giulia and Slovene Regions of Obalno-Krasˇka and Gorisˇka with the aim to determine variation in fatty acid (FA) composition between two States and between two production systems. Results show that milk from Slovene organic farms contain the highest proportion of saturated FA (SFA; 70.32 %) and the lowest proportion of monounsaturated FA (MUFA; 25.49 %). Milk from both production systems in Slovenia contained greater proportions of n-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA; 0.99 and 1.20 % in conventional and organic farms, respectively) and lower proportions of n-6 PUFA (2.60 and 2.33 % in conventional and organic farms, respectively) than Italian milk samples (0.54 and 0.68 % n-3 PUFA and 3.03 and 3.39 % n-6 PUFA in conventional and organic farms, respectively). The ratio between n-6 and n-3 PUFA was thus lower in Slovene than in Italian milk samples, yet they did not differ statistically between production systems within the States. Slovene milk samples contained higher proportions of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 0.72 and 0.64 % in conventional and organic farms, respectively) than Italian milk samples (0.45 and 0.49 % in conventional and organic farms, respectively).
Health benefit of bioactive substances in cow’s milk  [cached]
Terezija Silvija Marenjak,Nina Polji?ak-Milas,Ivan?ica Dela?
Mljekarstvo , 2006,
Abstract: The very first and an essential food provided to offspring of all mammals is milk. The importance of milk and dairy products in human diet, as promoters of good health, is still investigated. Since milk's composition is rather complex, its constituents have been for many years on the priority list of research, with their positive and negative effects on human health. Milk is composed of various substances with bioactive properties and therefore milk was given an epithet of functional food. The high diversity in chemical structure enables milk constituents to support particular physiological functions of organism, and express curing effects which is scientifically proven. The scientists and researchers are still discussing possible influencesof particular bioactive components from cow’s milk on human well being, and their assessments are very often controversial. In this paper the presently known bioactive substances in cow’s milk and theirs potential implications on human health are reported, pointing the directions for further research, particularly related to increase of the most useful and the most effective milk components for the prevention of pathological processes and disease development.
Presence of inhibitory substances in raw milk in the area of Montenegro  [cached]
Nikoleta Nikoli?,Slavko Mirecki,Maja Blagojevi?
Mljekarstvo , 2011,
Abstract: The Dairy Laboratory at Biotechnical Faculty in Podgorica tested using microbiological inhibitor test - Delvotest Accelerator, presence of inhibitory substances in raw milk produced on dairy farms of individual producers, cooperates of Montenegrian dairies. During period of six months, 6161 samples of raw milk were tested and it was determined that 478 samples or 7.84 % were positive. This is a significantly higher percentage of positive samples in comparison to European Union countries, but it is not surprising, considering that in these countries there is a decades-old regular system for antibiotic residues control in milk, while in Montenegro testing is provided on level of annual monitoring. The results of analysis indicate that in Montenegro, it is necessary to introduce regular systematic control of residues of antibiotics and other inhibitory substances in raw milk.
QUALITY AND SAFETY OF ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL MILK
F. Conte,S. Agosta
Italian Journal of Food Safety , 2008, DOI: 10.4081/ijfs.2008.2.37
Abstract: Today little scientific data have been published endorsing the perception that organic and sustainable production systems will result in improved food quality. Some comparative investigations reveal no major differences between organic milk (OM) and conventional milk (CM); contradictory results on OM require more information of these products. The results on quality and safety of OM and CM are presented here, with the aim to compare the composition and microbiological parameters of productions. The survey did not reveal differences between physical, chemicals and microbiological parameters of samples from OM and from CM. An improvement of hygienic conditions of both kind of examined farms was suggested to the producers and implemented.
Exopolymeric substances (EPS) produced by petroleum microbial consortia
Cruz, Georgiana F. da;Angolini, Célio F. F.;Santos Neto, Eugênio V. dos;Loh, Watson;Marsaioli, Anita J.;
Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-50532010000800016
Abstract: microbial consortia recuperated of crude oil samples from the pampo sul field, campos basin, rj, produced biosurfactants in mineral media containing glucose and 9,10-dihydrophenantrene, n-nonadecane, nonadecanoic acid, slightly biodegraded crude oil (p1) or heavily biodegraded crude oil (p2) as carbon sources. the production of exopolimeric substances (eps) and petroleum biodegradation do not necessarily occur simultaneously. the eps analyses by infrared and eletronspray ionization mass spectrometry (esi-ms) revealed a mixture of surfactine isoforms. the biosurfactants reduced the surface tension of water and zinder medium from 72.4 and 55.7 to 28.6 mn m"1. additionally, this surfactant emulsified different oils in water with performances similar to or better than of a conventional surfactant, tween 80.
A Novel Approach for Foreign Substances Detection in Injection Using Clustering and Frame Difference  [PDF]
Guiliang Lu,Yu Zhou,Yao Yu,Sidan Du
Sensors , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/s111009121
Abstract: This paper focuses on developing a novel technique based on machine vision for detection of foreign substances in injections. Mechanical control yields spin/stop movement of injections which helps to cause relative movement between foreign substances in liquid and an ampoule bottle. Foreign substances are classified into two categories: subsiding-slowly object and subsiding-fast object. A sequence of frames are captured by a camera and used to recognize foreign substances. After image preprocessing like noise reduction and motion detection, two different methods, Moving-object Clustering (MC) and Frame Difference, are proposed to detect the two categories respectively. MC is operated to cluster subsiding-slowly foreign substances, based on the invariant features of those objects. Frame Difference is defined to calculate the difference between two frames due to the change of subsiding-fast objects. 200 ampoule samples filled with injection are tested and the experimental result indicates that the approach can detect the visible foreign substances effectively.
Comparison of fatty acid composition in conventional and organic milk  [cached]
Anka Popovi? Vranje?,Milan Krajinovi?,Jelena Kecman,Sne?ana Trivunovi?
Mljekarstvo , 2010,
Abstract: The goal of the scientific research was to establish the differences between fatty acid composition in conventional milk and milk produced according to the organic production principles. In the period between February and December in 2009, the samples of raw conventional milk were analysed using the gas chromographic method to determine the fatty acid composition. Conventional milk was produced at the farm with around 700 dairy cows of Holstein breed. The farm is located in the Vrbas municipality. Organic milk was sampled from ten smaller farms with 12 dairy cows of Simmental breed on the average, located in clean environment of Fru ka Gora slopes (Grabovo settlement). The results of fatty acids content were processed with the statistical package (Statistica 9), and a significant differences were determined with t-test and shown as statistically significant (p<0.05) and highly statistically significant (p<0.01). Conventional milk had a higher content of the monounsaturated fatty acids in comparison with organic milk (p<0.05). In terms of polyunsaturated and omega-3 fatty acids content, organic milk was richer in comparison with conventional milk and these differences were statistically highly significant (p<0.01). The differences in the content of saturated and omega-6 fatty acids were not shown as statistically significant (p>0.05). The ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 in organic milk was lower than in conventional milk, which is crucial to human health. The differences in fatty acid composition between conventional and organic milk may result from different feeding practices, because the organic breeding of cows is primarily based on grazing, while the conventional breeding implies mixed ration.
Somatic Cell Counts and Quality of Goat Milk Produced in the Central Region of Mexico
M. Fernandez,H. Castillo-Juarez,J.R. Gonzalez-Montana,F.J. Fernandez,H. Castaneda Vazquez,J.A. Saltijeral-Oaxaca
Research Journal of Dairy Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Although, Mexico is the main goat milk producer of the American continent, there are no published data regarding the quality of its milk. This is the first study on quality assessment of goat milk realized in Mexico, in terms of the percentage of fat, protein and lactose, as well as for fat contents, total solids and Somatic Cell Count (SCC). Samples were taken from 1st to 7th lactation clinically healthy goats yielding in 6 Mexican farms with high level of management, with an average lactation length of 318 days. The mean percentage of fat, protein, lactose and total solids in the analyzed milk were 3.7, 2.7, 4.5 and 11.9, respectively. The mean daily production was 3.7 kg and the average SCC was 493,000 mL 1. The effects of farm, lactation number, sampling month, interaction between farm and sampling month and the random effect of goat nested in farm on milk constituents and SCC were analyzed using mixed models for repeated measurements. SCC was affected by all the study effects (p<0.01). Relationship between SCC and milk production was analyzed and results showed that high milk production was accompanied by low SCC, which might be associated to a dilution effect.
Textural characteristics of fermented milk beverages produced by kombucha
Milanovi? Spasenija D.,Ili?i? Mirela D.,Durakovi? Katarina G.,Vuki? Vladimir R.
Acta Periodica Technologica , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/apt0940063m
Abstract: Rheological properties of fermented dairy products are very important parameters of the product quality. The behaviour of gel formed during fermentation of milk is influenced by a great number of factors, such as: milk composition, starter culture, flavourings addition, etc. The aim of this research was to examine the influence of fat content, and kombucha inoculum concentration on textural characteristics of fermented milk beverages: firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and viscosity index after production and during 10 days of storage. Higher fat content of beverage affects the firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and viscosity index, while higher amount of inoculum in beverages has an opposite effect on textural characteristics of samples during storage.
Composition of Triacylglycerols in Fats of Cow and Goat Milk Produced in Four Zones of Mexico  [PDF]
Rey Gutiérrez Tolentino, Salvador Vega y León, Mario Noa Pérez, Marta Coronado Herrera, Acacia Ramírez Ayala, José Jesús Pérez González, Beatriz Schettino Bermúdez, Rutilio Ortiz Salinas, Marcela Vazquez Francisca, Juan Gabriel Rivera Martínez
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2015.66058
Abstract: The study of the triacylglycerols (TAG) by gas chromatography (GC) using capillary columns is an efficient technique for the determination of some characteristics of quality of fats and oils. The objective of the present study was to determine by GC the content of TAG present in fat of cow and goat milk produced in four zones of Mexico. According to criteria established in Mexican Standardization, 25 samples were obtained of 1 L of ultra-pasteurized cow milk (UHT) and 27 and 48 of raw cow and goat milk, respectively. The fat was extracted from all of the milk samples by detergent solution, and was stored at 20 until its analysis. The chromatographic conditions made it possible to identify and quantify TAG of 28 to 54 numbers of carbons, which were analyzed under descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. For the cow milk fat, the statistical analyses indicated significant difference (p < 0.05) in the TAG C34, C50 and C52, and for the goat milk fat in the TAG of C36 to C52. No equality of means was found among the TAG of the cow and goat milk fat. This study offers an advance in the characterization of the TAG present in the cow and goat milk fat produced in Mexico.
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