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Relationship among Iranian EFL Students’ Foreign Language Anxiety, Foreign Language Listening Anxiety and Their Listening Comprehension  [cached]
Samaneh Serraj,Noreen bt. Noordin
English Language Teaching , 2013, DOI: 10.5539/elt.v6n5p1
Abstract: Anxiety is an influential factor in a foreign language learning domain and plays a crucial role in language learners’ performance. The following study was conducted to explore the possible impact of Foreign Language Anxiety and Foreign Language Listening Anxiety on language learners’ listening skill. The researcher was interested to know the correlation that could exist among the three variables: Listening Comprehension, Foreign Language Anxiety and Foreign Language Listening Anxiety. The participants of the study were 210 Iranian EFL students in Iran. The study revealed that there was -.414 correlations between FLLA and listening comprehension and -.214 correlations between FLA and listening comprehension whereas FLA and FLLA enjoyed a .513 correlation. It can be concluded that the relationship between Foreign Language Anxiety and Foreign Language Listening Anxiety of the participants are in accordance with each other. Furthermore the result shows that the impact of FLLA on Iranian students’ listening comprehension skill is significantly more problematic. Therefore it is recommended that FL teachers and learners should be more aware of the hindering effect of FLA and FLLA in particular on the process of teaching and learning the listening comprehension.
The Relationship between Gender and Iranian EFL Learners’ Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA)  [PDF]
Fakhri Mesri
International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Foreign language anxiety is widely used to describe the feeling of tension and apprehension, which is specifically associated with foreign language learning contexts, including listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA) is related to foreign language anxiety and language-skill-specific anxiety, and fairly recently identified as distinguished from other forms of anxiety. FLCA is a more general type of anxiety in learning a foreign language with a strong speaking anxiety element; and low self-confidence is identified as an important component of its construct. Research shows that FLCA is a complex, multi-dimensional phenomenon; it has many potential sources; and it interferes with the acquisition, retention, and production of a foreign language. It seems that in most of English classes in Iran little attention has been paid to the role of the gender on EFL learners' Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA). Hence, this study attempted to investigate the relationship between EFL learners’ Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA) with regard to gender. The data were gathered through questionnaire: the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986).The participants were 52 students studying English at Salmas University. The findings revealed a significant relationship between FLCA and females. It was recommended that foreign language teachers should be aware of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA) level, its causes and results. The study also offers some context-specific pedagogical implications for Iranian EFL teachers and practitioners.
The Role of Religious Orientation, Psychological Well-Being, and Self-Esteem in Iranian EFL Learners’ Language Achievement  [PDF]
Elham Moradi, Jahanbakhsh Langroudi
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2013.34043
Abstract: The present study aimed at finding the relationship of religious orientation (RO), psychological well-being (PWB), and self-esteem (SE) with language achievement (LA) among Iranian EFL learners. Furthermore, it investigated the predictability of dependent variable (LA) using all independent and predictor variables (RO, PWB, and SE). 126 senior and junior students majoring in English Translation and English Literature at Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman participated in the study. To obtain the required data, three questionnaires were utilized: Allport and Ross’s (1967) Intrinsic-Extrinsic Religious Orientation Scale (IEROS) to measure extrinsic and intrinsic religious orientations, Short Measurement of Psychological Well-Being by Clarke, Marshall, Ryff, and Wheaton (2001) to measure psychological well-being, and finally, The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale by Rosenberg (1965) to assess self-esteem. Moreover, participants’ GPAs in major courses were used as indicators of their language achievement. For analysis of data, Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Regression analysis were used. The results revealed that there was a significant positive relationship between IRO, PWB, and SE with LA and a significant negative relationship between ERO and LA. Additionally, all the independent variables together could predict LA and accounted for 95 percent of variability of students’ GPA.
English Language Learning Anxiety among Iranian EFL Freshman University Learners
Hamidah Yamat,Farinaz Shirani Bidabadi
Research Journal of Applied Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjasci.2012.413.420
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify university freshmen s anxiety in foreign language classrooms and offer some strategies to decrease their anxiety. It explored how students felt towards learning how to listen, speak, read and write in English. Another aim was to find out whether there was a significant difference between males and females level of anxiety. A group of 26 males and 37 female Iranian freshmen were randomly selected from which 2 males and 2 females were then selected for the open-ended structured questions. The data were collected through a Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA) and open-ended structured questionnaires. The descriptive analysis indicated that these freshmen experienced the anxiety of being evaluated negatively in English classrooms. The findings also demonstrated that there was no statistically significant difference between the mean scores of male and female learners foreign language learning anxiety. The open-ended structured questionnaire findings demonstrated that the participants felt anxious and nervous while learning the language skills of English. This study implies a non-threatening environment significant to enhance language learning.
Effect of Task Experience on Iranian EFL Learners Level of Anxiety and Performance on Task-based Tests
Khalil Motallebzadeh,Sepideh Mirzaee,Purya Baghaei
Theory and Practice in Language Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.4304/tpls.2.1.86-91
Abstract: Anxiety, which changes into stress and nervous tension while taking a test, is usually considered as a destructive factor for test-takers. Many EFL/ESL teachers and testing scholars have tried to reduce this debilitative anxiety (Tóth, 2007). Recently, there has been an increased motivation toward development of performance-based tests in most language teaching programs, focusing on test-takers’ actual proficiency rather than their abstract knowledge of L2 rules. This new trend has led to a new challenge: test-takers’ unfamiliarity with performance-based tasks and as a result, increased test-taking anxiety. The present study is an attempt to examine the effect of learners’ experience of language tasks on the level of their anxiety in performance-based or task-based tests. In addition, this research tried to find the relationship between learners’ anxiety and the quality of their performances in such tests. To conduct this study, 300 Iranian EFL students studying at the Islamic Azad University, Iran, were randomly selected. The participants were asked to sit for a pretest, as a homogenizing instrument. 100 participants, meeting the requirements of the test, were randomly divided into 2 experimental and 2 control groups. The participants also completed Horwitz Second Language Anxiety Questionnaire (HSLAQ, 1991). Tasks coaching and practice were given to the participants in experimental group as treatment. Subsequently, participants' performances in both groups were compared on the results of a performance-based test. Furthermore, in order to measure the learners’ increased or decreased level of anxiety, the participants were asked to take HSLAQ after treatment. The results revealed that task experience can significantly reduce participants’ anxiety level in task/performance-based tests.
Investigating Foreign Language Speaking Anxiety within the EFL Learner's Interlanguage System: The Case of Iranian Learners
Masoud Mahmoodzadeh
Journal of Language Teaching and Research , 2012, DOI: 10.4304/jltr.3.3.466-476
Abstract: The present study is an attempt to investigate the status of the EFL learner's interlanguage system as dealt with foreign language (FL) speaking anxiety in the classroom. The objective of the study is first to specifically determine the extent to which Iranian EFL learners attribute their FL speaking anxiety to the constituents of their interlanguage system and second to indicate the related gender and level-based differences among the participants. To this end, the researcher divided the general notion of interlanguage system into its three main researchable constituents: interlanguage phonology, interlanguage grammar, and 'interlanguage meaning system' and then attempted to design a self-reporting questionnaire with a five Likert-type scale mainly on the basis of FLCAS developed by Horwitz, et. al. (1986). After analyzing the results, the findings indicated that the participants were more likely to attribute their most FL speaking anxiety experienced in the classroom to their interlanguage meaning system as compare with the other two subsets of their interlanguage system. In terms of the gender differences, the results suggested that the female participants were found to be more prone to experiencing FL speaking anxiety within the framework of their interlanguage system. With respect to level differences, the results demonstrated that gaining more FL knowledge may not necessarily lead to a substantial reduction in experiencing FL speaking anxiety, since more proficient participants were more subject to the anxiety-provoking factors within their interlanguage system than less proficient participants.
The Impact of Test Anxiety on Test Performance among Iranian EFL Learners  [cached]
Parviz Birjandi,Minoo Alemi
Brain. Broad Research in Artificial Intelligence and Neuroscience , 2010,
Abstract: As an affective factor, test-taking anxiety has been investigated in different contexts in the past two decades. However, the mixed results of the relationship between test-taking anxiety and L2 learners’ test performance show that the instrumentation for the assessment of test-taking anxiety and the factors comprising the construct of test-taking anxiety trait requires more investigation in order to shed more light on the issue. To this end, a test-taking anxiety questionnaire (Sarason, 1975) [27] and a general English test were administered to 164 ESP students of Engineering enrolled in a B.A. program to document (a) the degree of their test taking anxiety, (b) the relationship between test-taking anxiety and test performance, and (c) the factor loadings of anxiety based on exploratory factor analysis. The results show that L2 learners’ test anxiety is rather low, with most of its components having no significant negative correlation with test performance. The results of exploratory factor analysis reveal the loading of test anxiety trait on the rather overlapping three factors of specific test anxiety, general test anxiety, and test preparation anxiety. However, out of these factors, general test anxiety, due to its functioning at the higher-order affective level, has a significant negative correlation with test performance. By contrast, test preparation anxiety, in view of facilitating test performance, manifests a positive, albeit non-significant, correlation with test performance. The results have two implications: (a) as the correlations and loadings on test anxiety factors proved to be of both negative and positive types, the anxiety questionnaire is not monolithic and hence it is not a proper measure in case the linear relationship between test anxiety and test performance is the focus of the study; and (b) test anxiety does not seem to much influence on test performance at the micro- test-specific level.
The Role of Teachers in Reducing/Increasing Listening Comprehension Test Anxiety: A Case of Iranian EFL Learners  [cached]
Naser Atasheneh,Ahmad Izadi
English Language Teaching , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/elt.v5n3p178
Abstract: Three components have been introduced for foreign language learning anxiety in the literature: Test anxiety, fear of negative evaluation and communication apprehension. This study teases out the first of the three components with special focus on listening comprehension test to investigate the correlation between listening test results and foreign language anxiety. More importantly, the study aims at questioning the role teachers can play in either alleviating or aggravating the anxiety which has been triggered in the listening test takers. For this purpose, a number of 60 intermediate-level EFL learners participated in the study. To measure the level of anxiety in the testees, a modified and translated version of foreign language class anxiety scale (FLCAS) (developed by Horwtiz, Horwitz, and Cope, p. 1986) was used to be correlated with the testees’ scores in listening comprehension test. The results showed a moderate but significant negative correlation between FLCAS and listening comprehension (r=-.469). To answer the second research question, the high anxious participants underwent a treatment, which was designed to alleviate their foreign language learning anxiety. Immediately after the treatment, another listening comprehension test was administered to them to find out whether the treatment session can influence the test results. Using the statistical technique of t-test, the results showed that the high anxious informants had a significant improvement in the second listening comprehension test results due to the reduction of their level of anxiety in the treatment session. Finally, some suggestions were made to the teachers who seek to alleviate the amount of anxiety in their students.
Investigating the Relationship among Test Anxiety, Gender, Academic Achievement and Years of Study: A Case of Iranian EFL University Students  [cached]
Mohsen Rezazadeh,Mansoor Tavakoli
English Language Teaching , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/elt.v2n4p68
Abstract: The construct of anxiety plays a major role in one’s life. One of these anxieties is test anxiety or apprehension over academic evaluation. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between gender, academic achievement, years of study and levels of test anxiety. This investigation is a descriptive analytic study and was done on 110 undergraduate students from University of Isfahan. The Suinn’s Test Anxiety Questionnaire with 48 questions was used to gather the data. For analysis of data correlation coefficient and chi square test were used. The findings revealed that female students have a higher level of test anxiety in contrast to male students. The average of test anxiety score among female students was higher. Also a statistically significant negative correlation was observed between test anxiety and academic achievement. There was no meaningful relationship between test anxiety and years of study.
Investigating foreign language anxiety in Iranian classrooms: The effect of gender  [cached]
Mahmoodzadeh, Masoud
International Journal of Research Studies in Language Learning , 2013,
Abstract: In an attempt to delve into the issue of affective variables related to language learning, the present study focuses on the influence of gender on learners' foreign language anxiety in the Iranian context. The objective of this case study is first to determine the extent to which Iranian EFL learners perceive foreign language anxiety in matched-gender and mixed-gender classrooms and second to see if there is any significant difference between the two types of the investigated classrooms. To this end, a 16 items self-reporting questionnaire with a five Likert-type scale was designed. The developed questionnaire was then given to 96 Iranian lower intermediate EFL learners to complete it. After analyzing the collected data, the findings indicated that mixed-gender classrooms can be considered as an anxiety-provoking teaching context in Iran, since the presence of the opposite gender in EFL classrooms was found to cause statistically significant amount of language anxiety among Iranian learners. The study also offers some context-specific pedagogical implications for Iranian EFL teachers and practitioners.
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