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Cumulative Impacts of Human Interventions and Climate Change on Mangrove Ecosystems of South and Southeast Asia: An Overview  [PDF]
Rajarshi DasGupta,Rajib Shaw
Journal of Ecosystems , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/379429
Abstract: The paper provides an insight into the chronological extinction of the Indo-Malayan mangroves along the South and Southeast Asian coast and categorizes several area-specific anthropogenic and climatic factors that triggered the annihilation of 1.9 million ha of diverse mangroves. On a regional scale, coastal agricultural land development and shrimp farming were identified as major factors accounting for 90% of the reported loss. The paper also focuses on the existing mangrove management framework of nine developing countries of this region and conducts a comparative analysis of the prevailing legislative arrangement for mangrove management. In general, weak enforcements of legal measures and improper monitoring have been identified as major drawbacks in conservation and restoration initiatives. On the other hand, this paper strongly encourages the prospects of community-based mangrove management (CBMM) and provides good examples from the ecoregion through comparative case studies. Finally, it concludes with recommendations that outline a suitable mangrove management strategy involving more community empowerment, legalization and mainstreaming of comanagement initiatives, inclusive benefit sharing, and regional cooperation for transboundary ecosystem management. 1. Introduction Mangrove forests, still abundant in South and Southeast Asia, are amongst the world’s most fragile ecosystems and continue to disappear under the increased threat of climate change and human interventions. Researchers from all over the world agree on the fact that the existence of mangroves forests is under great risk due to fragmentation of the habitats. Moreover, ecosystem services offered by the mangroves are likely to be lost completely within the next 100 years [1]. Globally, mangroves are disappearing at an alarming rate of 1 to 2% per year, faster than the adjacent coral reefs or tropical rainforests [1–3]. Deforestation led by increasing demand for land and climate change events such as rise of sea level and reduction in freshwater flow are considered as major players behind the continuous annihilation of mangroves; however, climate change events may impact to only 10–15% reduction of mangrove habitats in distant future, whereas the immediate threat comes from uncontrolled exploitation and deforestation [3]. The consequent impacts of such losses resulted in serious concern amongst conservationists and exposed the coastal communities to a further increased threat of climate change and hydrometeorological disasters. Large stretches of the subtropical and tropical coastlines
An Overview of Impacts of Land Use Change on Climate
土地利用变化对气候影响的研究进展

Mao Huiqin,Yan Xiaodong,Xiong Zhe,
毛慧琴
,延晓冬,熊喆

气候与环境研究 , 2011,
Abstract: Worldwide land use changes are being driven by the demand of food,fiber,water,and shelter to more than six billion people.Land use change is becoming an important anthropogenic forcing of global climate system as referred by IPCC AR4(IPCC,2007).The impacts of land use change on climate system can be divided into two major processes,that is biogeophysical and biogeochemical.The authors reviewed relative researches and hot topics on the two processes,respectively,and introduced two methodologies of assessing ...
The Impacts of Climate Change on Business  [PDF]
Deepmala Shrestha
Crossing the Border: International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies , 2014, DOI: 10.3126/ctbijis.v2i1.10816
Abstract: Demands are increasing on businesses to do their part to respond to the threat of climate change based on their influential position within the global community. If companies can effectively integrate strategy, people, processes and technology in the pursuit of initiatives that respond to climate change, the result can be a powerful tool of long-term value creation. But what exactly are the impacts of climate change on businesses is the focus of the study? Varying levels of appreciation of the effects of climate change on business operations are rooted in the difference between direct and indirect impacts of climate change. So, the question is how business gets impacted by direct and indirect differences? Some of these effects are potentially threatening to sustainable high performance changing climatic conditions. What are some specific steps businesses can take to respond to both the threats and opportunities presented by climate change? To support a fact-based discussion of the business impact of climate change, primary qualitative survey conducted to Nepalese business houses and as secondary of a global context. Business initiatives in response to climate change are generally spread across a broad range of activities, risking fragmentation. Climate change may transform parts of our planet, the context and presumptions by which businesses typically operate today. This transformation is a result of both the direct impacts of climate change on business operations, as well as its indirect effects. Many business leaders feel a profound responsibility to do their part to respond to the pressing global challenge represented by climate change. But apart from this sense of societal obligation, business leaders must also be attuned to how climate change is altering the dynamics of markets, competition and profitability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ctbijis.v2i1.10816 Crossing the Border: International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies Vol.2(1) 2014: 93-112 ?
CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON WATER RESOURCES  [PDF]
T.M. CORNEA,M. DIMA,D. ROCA
Aerul ?i Apa : Componente ale Mediului , 2011,
Abstract: Climate change impacts on water resources – The most recent scientific assessment by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) [6] concludes that, since the late 19th century, anthropogenic induced emissions of greenhouse gases have contributed to an increase in global surface temperatures of about 0.3 to 0.6o C. Based on the IPCC’s scenario of future greenhouse gas emissions and aerosols a further increase of 2o C is expected by the year 2100. Plants, animals, natural and managed ecosystems, and human settlements are susceptible to variations in the storage, fluxes, and quality of water and sensitive to climate change. From urban and agricultural water supplies to flood management and aquatic ecosystem protection, global warming is affecting all aspects of water resource management. Rising temperatures, loss of snowpack, escalating size and frequency of flood events, and rising sea levels are just some of the impacts of climate change that have broad implications for the management of water resources. With robust scientific evidence showing that human-induced climate change is occurring, it is critical to understand how water quantity and quality might be affected. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the environmental risks caused by climate anomalies on water resources, to examine the negative impacts of a greenhouse warming on the supply and demand for water and the resulting socio-economic implications.
Evaluation of a statistical downscaling procedure for the estimation of climate change impacts on droughts
L. Vasiliades, A. Loukas,G. Patsonas
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2009,
Abstract: Despite uncertainties in future climates, there is considerable evidence that there will be substantial impacts on the environment and human interests. Climate change will affect the hydrology of a region through changes in the timing, amount, and form of precipitation, evaporation and transpiration rates, and soil moisture, which in turn affect also the drought characteristics in a region. Droughts are long-term phenomena affecting large regions causing significant damages both in human lives and economic losses. The most widely used approach in regional climate impact studies is to combine the output of the General Circulation Models (GCMs) with an impact model. The outputs of Global Circulation Model CGCMa2 were applied for two socioeconomic scenarios, namely, SRES A2 and SRES B2 for the assessment of climate change impact on droughts. In this study, a statistical downscaling method has been applied for monthly precipitation. The methodology is based on multiple regression of GCM predictant variables with observed precipitation developed in an earlier paper (Loukas et al., 2008) and the application of a stochastic timeseries model for precipitation residuals simulation (white noise). The methodology was developed for historical period (1960–1990) and validated against observed monthly precipitation for period 1990–2002 in Lake Karla watershed, Thessaly, Greece. The validation indicated the accuracy of the methodology and the uncertainties propagated by the downscaling procedure in the estimation of a meteorological drought index the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) at multiple timescales. Subsequently, monthly precipitation and SPI were estimated for two future periods 2020–2050 and 2070–2100. The results of the present study indicate the accuracy, reliability and uncertainty of the statistical downscaling method for the assessment of climate change on hydrological, agricultural and water resources droughts. Results show that climate change will have a major impact on droughts but the uncertainty introduced is quite large and is increasing as SPI timescale increases. Larger timescales of SPI, which, are used to monitor hydrological and water resources droughts, are more sensitive to climate change than smaller timescales, which, are used to monitor meteorological and agricultural droughts. Future drought predictions should be handled with caution and their uncertainty should always be evaluated as results demonstrate.
Implementation of Forest Policy in Greece in Relation to Biodiversity and Climate Change  [PDF]
Konstantinos Spanos, Dionysios Gaitanis, Asimina Skouteri, Panos Petrakis, Ioannis Meliadis
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2018.83012
Abstract: This is a review article based on literature (national and international) and empirical approach. A general overview on research priority areas on biodiversity and approaches and tools to provide information for forest policy implementation on biodiversity are briefly summarized. Challenges for biodiversity research and related policy in Europe and Greece are depicted. General information on forests, protected areas and forest management in Greece is also presented. Major actions and measures for conservation of forest biodiversity in Greece are described and analysed. The implementation of forest policy in Greece (including the adoption of International constitutional frame) in relation to biodiversity protection and climate change is also analysed. Priorities identified by the Strategic Plan of Rural Development 2007-2013 in Greece in order to adapt to climate change, are also presented. Furthermore, the National institutional framework (Legislation) and strategic targets for biodiversity conservation in Greece are synoptically presented. Finally, major conclusions and future challenges are highlighted.
Ensembles and uncertainty in climate change impacts  [PDF]
Pete Falloon,Suraje Dessai,Jill Johnson,Ann-Kristin Koehler
Frontiers in Environmental Science , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fenvs.2014.00033
Abstract: The increasing use of multi-member climate model ensembles for making future climate impact assessments presents both opportunities for understanding uncertainties, and challenges for interpreting the results. We outline current approaches to assessing uncertainties in climate impacts, statistical methods for assessing uncertainties, issues regarding model integration and complexity, and ways in which uncertainty frameworks can be used to inform adaptation decisions, with case studies focused on agriculture. Finally, we highlight future research needs and provide recommendations for making further progress.
Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies on Tourism in Nepal  [PDF]
Lekha Nath Bhandari
Crossing the Border: International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies , 2014, DOI: 10.3126/ctbijis.v2i1.10817
Abstract: Favorable climatic conditions at destinations are key attractions for tourists. Weather can ruin the vacation while climate can devastate a holiday destination. Climate change not only impacts on tourism directly by changes in temperature, extreme weather events and other climatic factors, but it will also transform the natural environment that attracts tourists. Despite the global nature of tourism industry and its economic contributions, scholars of climate change research have hardly acknowledged the threat of climate change to the tourism industry. Tourism scholars have rectified this situation to a certain extent by demonstrating how the industry has become vulnerable to climate change and drawing attention to the need for adaptation and mitigation strategies specific to this sector. Thus, this paper will provide an overview of climate change challenges in tourism destinations especially in the mountain regions, with specific reference to Nepal. It outlines several adaptation and mitigation strategies at the local, regional and national levels. Climatic effects on high mountains are very specific; climate change is likely to trigger the rates and intensity of natural hazards such as landslides, avalanches and flooding with dramatic consequences for tourism destinations. The paper outlines adaptation strategies for tourism stakeholders, resident communities and governments and emphasizes that climate change strategies in the tourism sector must be considered as a collaborative effort, with considerations for institutional development, diversification of opportunities, for the sustainable development. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ctbijis.v2i1.10817 Crossing the Border: International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies Vol.2(1) 2014: 113-126
Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Global Hydropower  [PDF]
Byman Hamududu,Aanund Killingtveit
Energies , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/en5020305
Abstract: Currently, hydropower accounts for close to 16% of the world’s total power supply and is the world’s most dominant (86%) source of renewable electrical energy. The key resource for hydropower generation is runoff, which is dependent on precipitation. The future global climate is uncertain and thus poses some risk for the hydropower generation sector. The crucial question and challenge then is what will be the impact of climate change on global hydropower generation and what are the resulting regional variations in hydropower generation potential? This paper is a study that aims to evaluate the changes in global hydropower generation resulting from predicted changes in climate. The study uses an ensemble of simulations of regional patterns of changes in runoff, computed from global circulation models (GCM) simulations with 12 different models. Based on these runoff changes, hydropower generation is estimated by relating the runoff changes to hydropower generation potential through geographical information system (GIS), based on 2005 hydropower generation. Hydropower data obtained from EIA (energy generation), national sites, FAO (water resources) and UNEP were used in the analysis. The countries/states were used as computational units to reduce the complexities of the analysis. The results indicate that there are large variations of changes (increases/decreases) in hydropower generation across regions and even within regions. Globally, hydropower generation is predicted to change very little by the year 2050 for the hydropower system in operation today. This change amounts to an increase of less than 1% of the current (2005) generation level although it is necessary to carry out basin level detailed assessment for local impacts which may differ from the country based values. There are many regions where runoff and hydropower generation will increase due to increasing precipitation, but also many regions where there will be a decrease. Based on this evaluation, it has been concluded that even if individual countries and regions may experience significant impacts, climate change will not lead to significant changes in the global hydropower generation, at least for the existing hydropower system.
Climate Change Vulnerability and Impacts Analysis in Kenya  [PDF]
Samwel N. Marigi
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2017.61004
Abstract: In this paper, observed climate change impacts in the country were collated and tabulated to provide the baseline information on the prevalent climate hazards associated with the impacts. Available climate and socio-economic datasets for the country were then subjected to the GeoClim software analyses in order to generate the spatial patterns of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity parameters. Composite layers of these parameters were overlayed to generate the vulnerability map. Finally, effectiveness of the country’s existing policies and capacities in addressing the vulnerabilities has been evaluated. Results have revealed that the entire country is vulnerable. However, the Northern parts as well as the Southern tip of the coastal strip are the most vulnerable. Flood and drought hazards result in the greatest impacts to the Kenyan society. Significant gaps and weaknesses have been observed in the existing policies and capacities which render them inadequate to effectively address the vulnerability. It is concluded that the country urgently requires a raft of measures to address the current and future vulnerabilities presented by climate change.
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