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Antioxidant Activity and Volatile and Phenolic Profiles of Essential Oil and Different Extracts of Wild Mint (Mentha longifolia) from the Pakistani Flora  [PDF]
Tahseen Iqbal,Abdullah Ijaz Hussain,Shahzad Ali Shahid Chatha,Syed Ali Raza Naqvi,Tanveer Hussain Bokhari
Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/536490
Abstract: The antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging capacity of the essential oil and three different extracts of wildly grown Mentha longifolia (M. longifolia) were studied. The essential oil from M. longifolia aerial parts was isolated by hydrodistillation technique using Clevenger-type apparatus. The extracts were prepared with three solvents of different polarity (n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol) using Soxhlet extractor. Maximum extract yield was obtained with methanol (12.6?g/100?g) while the minimum with dichloromethane (3.50?g/100?g). The essential oil content was found to be 1.07?g/100?g. A total of 19 constituents were identified in the M. longifolia oil using GC/MS. The main components detected were piperitenone oxide, piperitenone, germacrene D, borneol, and β-caryophyllene. The total phenolics (TP) and total flavonoids (TF) contents of the methanol extract of M. longifolia were found to be significantly higher than dichloromethane and hexane extracts. The dichloromethane and methanol extracts exhibited excellent antioxidant activity as assessed by 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging ability, bleaching β-carotene, and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation assays. The essential oil and hexane extract showed comparatively weaker antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. The results of the study have validated the medicinal and antioxidant potential of M. longifolia essential oil and extracts. 1. Introduction Free radicals are considered to initiate oxidation that leads to aging and causes diseases in human beings [1, 2]. Moreover, activated oxygen incorporates reactive oxygen species (ROS) which consists of free radicals (1O2, , , ONOO?) and nonfree radicals (H2O2, NO, and R–OOH) [3]. ROS are liberated by virtue of stress, and thus, an imbalance is developed in the body that damages cells in it and causes health problems [2, 4]. Moreover, oxidation in processed foods, enriched with fats and oils, during storage leads to spoilage and quality deterioration [5]. The use of synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) have been restricted because of their carcinogenicity and other toxic properties [3, 6]. Thus, the interest in natural antioxidants has increased considerably. Natural antioxidants can be phenolic compounds (tocopherols, flavonoids, and phenolic acids) and carotenoids (lutein, lycopene, and carotene). Growing evidence has shown an inverse correlation between the intake of dietary antioxidants and
Ileal Relaxation Induced by Mentha longifolia (L.) Leaf Extract in Rat  [PDF]
Mohammad Kazem Gharib Naseri,Zahra Gharib Naseri,Maryam Mohammadian,Marzie Omidi Birgani
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: The effect of Mentha longifolia (L.) leaf hydroalcoholic extract (MLE) was examined on rat ileal smooth muscle contractions. Last portion of ileum from male adult Wistar rat was mounted in an organ bath containing Tyrode solution. The tissue was contracted by carbachol (CCh, 10 μM), KCl (60 mM) and BaCl2 (4 mM) and then MLE (0.0625-1 mg mL-1) was added to the bath cumulatively. The effect of MLE on KCl-induced contraction was examined after tissue incubation with propranolol (1 μM), naloxone (1 μM) and Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 μM). The effect of MLE on CaCl2-induced ileal contraction in Ca2+-free with high potassium Tyrode solution was also evaluated. The role of potassium channels was examined by ileum incubation (5 min) with tetraethylammonium (TEA, 1 mM). The results showed that KCl-, CCh and BaCl2-induced ileal contractions were inhibited (p<0.001) by cumulative concentrations of MLE with the same potency. In addition, MLE (0.25-1 mg mL-1) inhibited (p<0.01) ileal contractions induced by CaCl2 (0.45-2.7 mM) in a concentration-related manner. The antispasmodic effect of MLE was affected neither by propranolol, L-NAME nor by naloxone. The MLE concentration-response curve was shifted to the right (p<0.05) by tissue incubation with TEA. From results it may be suggested that Mentha longifolia hydroalcoholic leaf extract induces its spasmolytic activity mainly through disturbance in calcium mobilization and partly by potassium channels activation. Present results show that Mentha longifolia leaf extract exerts relaxant effects on intestinal smooth muscle, consistent with the traditional use of the plant to treat gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea and colic.
Scientific Annals of Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi. New Series, Section 2. Vegetal Biology , 2009,
Abstract: Topsin M is a common systemic fungicide used as protective/curative substance for alimentary and medicinal plants. That is why it is relevant to evaluate the influence of Topsin M upon the anatomical features of Mentha longifolia, a volatile oil producing medicinal plant and parental species for the hybrid Mentha×piperita. We analysed the anatomical features using cross section through vegetative organs (stems and leaves) belonging to treated and untreated plants. The structure of epidermis in the leaves of Mentha longifolia L. (Huds.) was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).We noticed more quantitative changes than qualitative changes under antifungal Topsin M treatment.
Scientific Annals of Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi. New Series, Section 2. Vegetal Biology , 2008,
Abstract: Topsin M is a common systemic fungicide used as protective/curative substance for alimentary and medicinal plants. That is why it is relevant to evaluate the influence of topsin M upon the morphological features of Mentha longifolia, a volatile oil producing medicinal plant and parental species for the hybrid Mentha × piperita. We noticed statistical significant variations (oneway Anova) of the dimensional features of the leaves from topsin M treated plants comparing to the control.
Scientific Annals of Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi. New Series, Section 2. Vegetal Biology , 2011,
Abstract: The article analyzed the histo-anatomy of the vegetative organs of species Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds collected from Negre ti (Vaslui). On the surface of the vegetative organs was identified the presence of tectorial and secretory hairs. Volatile oil was extracted from the aerial parts of the plant using a Clevenger device, and with a GC-MS (Gas Chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry) there were identified the chemical compounds. It was recorded the presence of 25 chemical compounds, five of them representing 75.42% of the total obtained oil.
Preliminary study of the antimicrobial activity of Mentha x villosa Hudson essential oil, rotundifolone and its analogues
Arruda, Thúlio. A.;Antunes, Rossana M.P.;Cat?o, Raissa M.R.;Lima, Edeltrudes O.;Sousa, Dami?o P.;Nunes, Xirley P.;Pereira, Maria S.V.;Barbosa-Filho, José M.;Cunha, Emidio V. L. da;
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-695X2006000300005
Abstract: essential oils present antimicrobial activity against a variety of bacteria and yeasts, including species resistant to antibiotics and antifungicals. in this context, this work aims at the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of mentha x villosa hudson ("hortel? da folha miúda"), its major component (rotundifolone) and four similar analogues of rotundifolone (limonene oxide, pulegone oxide, carvone epoxide and (+)-pulegone) against strain standards of staphylococcus aureus atcc 25923, e. coli atcc 25922, pseudomona aeruginosa atcc 27853, candida albicans atcc 76645 and one strain of meticilin - resistant staphylococcus aureus - mrsa (171c) from human clinic. the method of the diffusion in plates with solid medium was used. the results showed that the oil of mentha x villosa, rotundifolone, limonene oxide and (+)-pulegone, are similar regarding the antimicrobial activity against the tested strains of s. aureus and c. albicans. all of the products present antimocrobial potential with antibacterial activity for s. aureus atcc 25923 and antifungal activity for c. albicans atcc 76645. none of the products presented antimicrobial activity for the strains of e. coli atcc 25922 and p. aeruginosa atcc 27853, representatives of the gram negative bacteria.
Mentha longifolia syrup in secondary amenorrhea: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trials
Roshanak Mokaberinejad, Nafiseh Zafarghandi, Soodabeh Bioos, Fataneh Hashem Dabaghian, Mohsen Naseri, Mohammad Kamalinejad, Gholamreza Amin, Ali Ghobadi, Mojgan Tansaz, Ali Akhbari, Mohammadali Hamiditabar
DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2008-2231-20-97
Abstract: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study was conducted in 120 women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. Treatment consisted of sequential oral syrup, 45 ml (15 ml three times a day) for 2 weeks. If the patients did not have menstruation after 2 weeks of taking the medication, we would wait for two more weeks. If the patients had menstruation at each stage of using the drug, we started it one week after the end of menstruation. But if the patients had not menstruate after four weeks (two-week using of drug and waiting for two more weeks), the previous steps were repeated. The drug and placebo were repeated in three cycles of menstruation. Bleeding was documented by the patient on diary cards. The primary outcome variable was the occurrence (yes/no) of bleeding during the first treatment cycle. The secondary efficacy outcome was the regularity of bleeding pattern during the three cycles of the study.The number of women with bleeding during the first cycle were higher in the drug group as in the placebo group (68.3% vs. 13.6%; p?<?0.001). The regularity of bleeding throughout the study was markedly better in the drug group compared with those given placebo (33.3% vs. 3.3%; p?<?0.001). No notable complication or side effect was reported in relation to Mentha longifolia L. syrup.In conclusion, Mentha longifolia L. syrup is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective choice in inducing bleeding and maintaining regular bleeding in women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea.Secondary amenorrhea (SA) is defined as the cessation of menses for 6 months in female previously irregular menstrual pattern, or the cessation of menses for 3 consecutive months [1]. It has, on the other hand, been specifically defined in various ways, some of which overlap with oligomenorrhea (infrequent menstrual flow at intervals of 39 days to 6 months or 5–7 cycles in a year) [2,3]. The overall prevalence of secondary amenorrhea in among women of reproductive age
Chemotaxonomic significance of flavonoids, coumarins and triterpenes of Augusta longifolia (Spreng.) Rehder, Rubiaceae-Ixoroideae, with new insights about its systematic position within the family
Choze, Rafael;Delprete, Piero G.;Li?o, Luciano M.;
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-695X2010000300002
Abstract: augusta has traditionally been placed in the tribe rondeletieae, subfamily cinchonoideae. however, recent molecular phylogenies positioned it near to wendlandia (ixoroideae), but locate a. longifolia near to the clade ixoroidinae ii. the study of a. longifolia afforded two coumarins, five flavonoids, three triterpenoids and one benzoic acid derivative. these metabolites reinforce the separation of augusta as a monospecific genus, and lindenia as a genus of three species, closely related to wendlandia.
Effect of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizers on Growth and Oil Yield of Indigenous Mint (Mentha longifolia L.)  [PDF]
Mahmoud S. Alsafar,Younis M. Al-Hassan
Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: A field study was conducted to determine the effect of different rates of application of N and P fertilizers at different time intervals on the growth and essential oil yield of indigenous mint (Mentha longifolia) during 2000-2001 and 2001-2002 cropping seasons. The response of growth and essential oil yield of crop to different fertilizer treatments was consistent in both the years. The Leaf Area Index (LAI) increased significantly with the increasing the rate of fertilizer application from 75/50 kg N/P2O5/ha (F4) to 100/75 kg N/P2O5/ha (F5) than the control and the lower rates of fertilizer application. Application of 75/50 kg N/P2O5/ha significantly increased the total dry matter and essential oil yield. Essential oil yield increased with the corresponding increase in the total number of leaves/plant and leaf area. The time of fertilizer application did not affect significantly the essential oil yield in both the cropping seasons. Overall, the essential oil yield of indigenous (wild) mint was maximum in F4 treatment (75/50 kg N/P2O5/ha) under the agro-ecological conditions of Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia.
Effect of Mentha longifolia on FSH Serum Level in Premature Ovarian Failure  [PDF]
Roshanak Mokaberinejad, Elham Akhtari, Mojgan Tansaz, Soodabeh Bioos, Mohammad Kamalinejad, Nafiseh Zafarghandi, Ali Ghobadi, Farnaz Sohrabvand, Ali Akhbari
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2014.47053

Purpose: Premature ovarian failure (POF) includes cessation of normal ovarian function before age 40, causing amenorrhea, menopausal symptoms and general health problems. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) can be administered in order to prevent menopausal symptoms, osteoporosis and vascular complications. Due to the contraindications and side effects of HRT and the increasing demand for alternative therapeutic modalities, we used Mentha longifolia, which is known in the Iranian traditional medicine (ITM), as being able to cause menstrual bleeding in women with early amenorrhea and decreased FSH serum. Methods: In this pilot study, we report twenty seven amenorrheic women with POF who were referred to the Iranian traditional medicine clinic in Tehran and treated by Mentha longifolia. All those patients had high FSH levels and amenorrhea. They were in their fertility age, between 30 to 40 years old. They were asked to take a cup of herbal tea which was steeped with Mentha longifolia tea three times a day for 2 weeks in 3 menstural cycles. If the patients developed menstruation, the FSH serum level was measured immediately; otherwise they had an FSH measurement one month after the beginning of therapy. Results: Mean age of patients was 36.44 ± 1.5 years. Mean FSH level before treatment was 79.13 ± 19.17 mIU/ml, and after treatment was 27.83 ± 16.14 mIU/ml. In four patients who did not have any response, mean range of FSH was 82.37 ± 19.75 mIU/ml before treatment and afterwards it was 81.97 ± 21.52 mIU/ml. After treatment with herbal teas, there was a significant decrease in FSH (79.39 ± 19.17 to 27.83 ± 16.14 mIU/ml, p value < 0.001). All patient except four (14.81%) had mensturation after taking the herbal medicine. Those four patients showed no decrease in FSH level. More of the patients who used medicinal tea achieved regular monthly bleeding when followed for three cycles.

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