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Challenges of the Knowledge Society , 2013,
Abstract: The Copyright System as established by the Bern Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works1, did not provide the necessary protection to those “parties” involved in bringing the work to the public, although it represented a major role in promoting the work. So it was necessary for the legal protection to be regulated in order to allow them to benefit from the entire moral and economic attributes resulted from their work. To remedy the absence of protection due to copyright applicable traditional rules, a new protection system was created: that of related rights2. On international level, this led to the adoption in 1961 of the Rome Convention for the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organizations3, considered in the literature4 as arising of the Bern Convention, alongside the TRIPS Agreement and the WIPO Treaties in this filed.
Constructing the rights and duties of slave-owners as socio-historic context of the New Testament  [cached]
H. Goede
In die Skriflig , 2009, DOI: 10.4102/ids.v43i3.239
Abstract: This article aims to construct the rights and duties of slave- owners in antiquity as part of the socio-historical context of the New Testament. In order to achieve this aim, the primary sources referring to Greek, Roman and Jewish law of slavery will first be described. Three aspects of the law of slavery, namely legal definitions of freedom and slavery, the legal status of slaves, and the rights of slave-owners are investigated in Greek, Roman and Jewish law. Relevant texts from these sources are then identified, analysed and interpreted. The re- sults of this process of analysis and interpretation are used to construct the legal context within which the exhortations directed at slave-owners in the New Testament should be read. We submit that Jewish law provided a sound alternative legal and religious context to the writers of the New Testament addressing Christian slave-owners. This alternative context functioned as a counterweight to the strict legal contexts pro- vided by Greek and Roman law.
Auditing Economic Policy in the Light of Obligations on Economic and Social Rights  [PDF]
Essex Human Rights Review , 2008,
Abstract: One of the things we have learned so far is that the realization of human rights, especially economic and social rights, requires resources as well as laws. The availability and use of resources is strongly influenced by the type of economic policies that States Parties implement. This paper considers how concerned citizens might audit economic policies from a human rights perspective, with a particular focus on economic and social rights. It draws on an ongoing project, directed by Radhika Balakrishnan, advised by Diane Elson, and funded by the Ford Foundation, on economic policy and economic and social rights in Mexico and the USA. The project brings together human rights experts and activists who are focussing on economic and social rights, and economists who are critical of the neo-liberal economic policies being pursued by so many governments and international economic policy institutions, such as the IMF and World Bank. (Amartya Sen has called these critical economists ‘non-conformist economists’, because they do not conform to the currently dominant forms of economic analysis and policy prescription). These economists share the concerns of the human rights community about poverty, deprivation and inequality; and draw on a range of other approaches to economic policy, including Keynesian, human development and feminist economics approaches. The project aims to audit key economic polices in the two countries in the light of human rights obligations, and the analysis produced by ‘non-conformist’ economists.
the enforcement of socio-economic rights
RJ de Beer, S Vettori
Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad , 2007,
Abstract: In recent years the South African legislature has made a very bold attempt to improve the socio-economic conditions of citizens. Amongst others, the Social Assistance Act 59 of 1992 provides for monthly payments to citizens under certain prescribed conditions. In situations where other legislation does not provide a remedy for those unable to care for themselves the Constitution provides for justiciable socio-economic rights. Unfortunately legislative rights alone have proved insufficient and all too frequently the constitutional values and aspirations of human dignity and equality have had a ‘hollow ring’. The most obvious reason for this failure of delivery on the part of the government is of course a shortage of financial resources. Another reason has been a simple disregard for the terms of legislation and court orders by organs of the state and state employees. The authors are of the view that in order to avoid such a dire result, the courts, given their broadly framed constitutional powers, should be adventurous in crafting means to ensure that their orders are properly implemented and adhered to. This article explores the role that courts can play in ensuring proper implementation of both the terms of social security legislation as well as the implementation of court orders with reference to well-fare judgments in the Eastern-Cape.
Socio-economic status of Dog owners in Nagpur city of Maharashtra  [cached]
A.D. Sawaimul,M.G. Sahare,S.Z. Ali,L.V. Patil
Veterinary World , 2009,
Abstract: The survey was carried out to study socioeconomic status of 50 dog owners in Nagpur of Maharashtra.The result revealed the businessmen (38%) are more interested in dog keeping followed by government servants (16%) and student (12%). [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000): 229-229]
Transnational Obligations in the field of Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights  [cached]
Felipe Gómez Isa
Revista Electrónica de Estudios Internacionales , 2009,
Abstract: Given that States, particularly developing States, are more exposed than ever before to actions taken by other States, International Organizations, and Transnational Corporations, there is a pressing need to carefully reflect on the obligations States may have with regard to the effects that their international activities have on the economic, social and cultural rights (ESC rights) of people living in another country. Unlike extraterritorial obligations in the field of civil and political rights and International Humanitarian Law, the discussion on the transnational obligations in the area of ESC rights has not received much attention so far.
Problems of Realization of Social and Economic Human Rights
Viktor Kushyk
NaUKMA Research Papers. Law , DOI: 10.18523/2617-2607.2018.21-24
Abstract: The article addresses the problems of realization of social and economic human rights in the context of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, as well as their connection with civil and political rights. It is drawn to the fact that there are certain contradictions between the principles enshrined in the declaration. The author raises the issue of dignity, cultural differences, and justice in the distribution of public goods. The question of the state’s responsibilities in the provision of social and economic rights is considered. States have a primary responsibility for the social and economic well-being of their citizens. Fair economic growth must play a decisive role in this area, and it is important to consolidate the link between the economic policy and the human rights. The support of the international community should, to a certain extent, be conditional on the governments of individual countries fulfilling their own responsibilities. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights leaves open the question of the placement of social and economic rights in the constitutions of the countries and the issue of their judicial protection. The most effective instrument for realizing these rights will be the development of social legislation, rather than the general provisions of social rights in the constitutions of countries. However, the problems faced by many states can not be fully solved by the efforts of the state alone. The question of morality is the interpretation of the provisions of the Declaration on Social and Economic Rights as an obligation of the international community to act to prevent poverty in the world. The possibility of involving not only states but also international enterprises in the process of combatting poverty is considered. On the basis of the Declaration, the companies and other interested parties begin to formulate sectoral standards of human rights. Possible ways to implement social and economic rights at the local and global levels are also discussed.
Challenges of the Knowledge Society , 2012,
Abstract: Purpose of the paper is to highlight how the economy evolved in the Florida county comparison with neighboring counties in economic crisis that society through the difficult years. also study and make acomparison in terms of demographic characteristics, respectively, compared between young and old, labor migration, etc. form., indices that are decisive for evaluating the economic situation of the county above mentioned. Economically, the county is in the connection between the economy and sub-mountainous and mountainous plains. The specificity of its resources, Gorj is a leading energy suppliers of the country, both as primary energy (coal, oil) and processed (heat and electricity)1. Results and statistical sources that Gorj currently produces more than 20% of the thermoelectric power of2. In terms of population below national averages Gorj is the fourth in the region after Olt and Valcea. Is medium in size, being the third after Dolj and Valcea. In terms of urbanization, Gorj is below the national average and third in the region after Dolj and Mehedinti. After the general level of development, the county is in a less favorable position, because the permanent part is characterized by a lower level of development.
Using Private Rights to Manage Natural Resources: Is Stewardship Linked to Ownership?
Patrick W. Gilmour,Robert W. Day,Peter D. Dwyer
Ecology and Society , 2012, DOI: 10.5751/es-04770-170301
Abstract: There is increasing interest in privatizing natural resource systems to promote sustainability and conservation goals. Though economic theory suggests owners of private property rights have an incentive to act as resource stewards, few studies have tested this empirically. This paper asks whether private rights-owners were more conservative with respect to their management opinions than nonrights-owners in five Australian abalone (Haliotis spp.) fisheries. Multiple regression analyses were used to link opinions to demographic, economic, and attitudinal variables. In contrast to standard economic assumptions, nonrights-owners suggested more conservative catch limits than did rights-owners, confirming qualitative observations of behavior in management workshops. Differing views about the condition of the resource and differing levels of experience contributed to these results. The first of its kind, this study directly demonstrates that private rights do not necessarily promote the greatest level of stewardship. This has substantial implications for how natural resources are governed globally, but also warns against applying simplistic behavioral assumptions to complex social-ecological systems.
The role played by the South African human rights commission's economic and social rights reports in good governance in South Africa
D Horsten
Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad , 2006,
Abstract: The preamble of the Constitution of South Africa, 1996 (the Constitution) contains the commitment to, amongst other things, establish a society based on democratic values, social justice and fundamental human rights, lay the foundations for a democratic and open society in which government is based on the will of the people and every citizen is equally protected by law and improve the quality of life of all citizens and free the potential of each person. One of the methods used to achieve these objectives is the inclusion of enforceable socio-economic rights in the Chapter 2 Bill of Rights. Despite numerous debates surrounding the issue of enforceability of socioeconomic rights, it has become evident that these rights are indeed enforceable. Not only does section 7(2) of the Constitution place the state under an obligation to respect, protect, promote and fulfil all rights in the Bill of Rights, including socio-economic rights, but the Constitutional Court has in various decisions passed judgment on issues relating to socio-economic rights, underpinning the fact that these rights are indeed enforceable. The fact that socio-economic rights have been included in the Bill of Rights and are enforceable is, however, not sufficient to achieve the aims set out in the preamble. In order for these rights to be of any value to the people they seek to protect, they need to be implemented. One of the ways in which the implementation of these rights is monitored is by means of the South African Human Rights Commission's annual Economic and Social Rights Reports. The aim of this contribution is to assess these reports and to establish the degree to which they contribute to good governance in South Africa with reference to, inter alia, the constitutional mandate of the South African Human Rights Commission, the reporting procedure and the evaluation of reports.
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