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A comparison of four scoring methods based on the parent-rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire as used in the Dutch preventive child health care system
Mathilde R Crone, Anton GC Vogels, Femke Hoekstra, Philip DA Treffers, Sijmen A Reijneveld
BMC Public Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-106
Abstract: We included 711 (of 814) children (response: 87%) aged 7–12 undergoing routine health assessments in nine PCH services across the Netherlands. Child health professionals interviewed and examined children and parents. Prior to the interview, parents completed the SDQ and the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), which were not shown to the professionals. The CBCL and data about the child's current treatment status were used as criteria for the validity of the SDQ. We used four SDQ scoring approaches: an elevated SDQ Total Difficulties Score (TDS), parent-defined difficulties, an elevated score for emotional symptoms, conduct problems or hyperactivity in combination with a high impairment score, and a combined score: an elevated score for any of these three methods.The Cohen's Kappa ranged from 0.33 to 0.64 for the four scoring methods with the CBCL scores and treatment status, generally indicating a moderate to good agreement. All four methods added significantly to the identification of problems by the PCH. Classification based on the TDS yielded results similar to more complicated methods.The SDQ is a valid tool for the identification of psychosocial problems by PCH. As a first step, the use of a simple classification based on the SDQ TDS is recommended.Psychosocial problems such as behavioural, emotional, and educational problems are very prevalent among children and adolescents, and may interfere severely with everyday functioning. Only a minority of the children with such problems receive mental health care. In a study of more than 2,000 Dutch children, only 13% of the children with behavioural and emotional problems had been referred to mental health services in the year prior to the assessment [1]. Early treatment, however, may reduce these problems if they are accurately identified [2].In the Netherlands, the Preventive Child Health Care (PCH) system is one of the most important low-threshold services for the early identification of emotional and behavioural prob
Scale Validation of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in Iranian Children
Ahmad Ghanizadeh,Ahad Izadpanah,Gholamreza Abdollahi
Iranian Journal of Psychiatry , 2007,
Abstract: "n Objective: "n To study the validity and reliability of the Persian version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). "nMethod: The data for this study was collected from the psychiatric clinic of Hafez hospital and 16 regular schools in four regions of Shiraz using stratified random sampling .The 25 items of the SDQ were completed for 379 boys and 377 girls. The 756 participants aged 3-18 were divided to 3 groups according to age classification.The SDQ was completed by parents, teachers and adolescents according to their age. Clinical interview was performed for 155 children and adolescents who referred to the psychiatric clinic. "nResults: The mean age of the children was 10.3 years (SD=3.6, range 3-18 years). Children were divided to 3 groups: 1) among the participants 17 (2.3%) were aged 3-4 years,; 2) 409 (54%) were aged 4-11 years, and 3) 330 (43.7%) were aged 11-16 years. Good internal consistencies were found for the self report SDQ scales (mean for subscales 0.628). For the teacher SDQ scales, the internal consistencies were lower than the self-report scales (mean for subscales 0.454). The lowest internal consistencies were found for the parents SDQ scales. There was sufficient convergent and discriminant validity. "nConclusions: The Persian translation of the self reported SDQ has acceptable psychometric properties. Internal consistency of the self-report SDQ was good.The mean inter-informant correlations of the SDQ scales were satisfactory.
О некоторых трудностях перевода норвежских модальных глаголов на русскии язык
(On Some Difficulties in Translating Norwegian Modal Verbs to Russian)

Olga Komarova
Poljarnyj Vestnik , 2004,
Abstract: The article deals with the translation of Norwegian modal verbs into Rus- sian. The difficulties are often due to different linguistic means of ex- pressing modality in these two languages. While the modal meaning of Norwegian modal verbs is adequately understood and rendered into Rus- sian with the help of modal adverbs, particles and adjectives, some diffi- culty arises in constructing the correct form of the copula verb быть in the Russian translation. The author points out certain aspects of Norwegian modal verb se- mantics and usage, in particular the multiplicity of their modal meanings as stated in Norwegian and Russian dictionaries, and shows that the right way to solve problems of translation into Russian lies in the analysis of both the grammatical and semantic structure of the Norwegian sentence. Mistakes can occur in taking one type of subordinate clause for another (e.g. condition vs. reason) or in neglecting specific cases of usage when the modal verb is used in certain types of clauses with a purely structural function, and as such is not translated into Russian. The article provides a potential learner of Russian with some practi- cal hints on the best way of translating the verbs skulle, ville and kunne in some specific contexts.
The validity, reliability and normative scores of the parent, teacher and self report versions of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in China  [cached]
Du Yasong,Kou Jianhua,Coghill David
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1753-2000-2-8
Abstract: Background The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) has become one of the most widely used measurement tools in child and adolescent mental health work across the globe. The SDQ was originally developed and validated within the UK and whilst its reliability and validity have been replicated in several countries important cross cultural issues have been raised. We describe normative data, reliability and validity of the Chinese translation of the SDQ (parent, teacher and self report versions) in a large group of children from Shanghai. Methods The SDQ was administered to the parents and teachers of students from 12 of Shanghai's 19 districts, aged between 3 and 17 years old, and to those young people aged between 11 and 17 years. Retest data was collected from parents and teachers for 45 students six weeks later. Data was analysed to describe normative scores, bandings and cut-offs for normal, borderline and abnormal scores. Reliability was assessed from analyses of internal consistency, inter-rater agreement, and temporal stability. Structural validity, convergent and discriminant validity were assessed. Results Full parent and teacher data was available for 1965 subjects and self report data for 690 subjects. Normative data for this Chinese urban population with bandings and cut-offs for borderline and abnormal scores are described. Principle components analysis indicates partial agreement with the original five factored subscale structure however this appears to hold more strongly for the Prosocial Behaviour, Hyperactivity – Inattention and Emotional Symptoms subscales than for Conduct Problems and Peer Problems. Internal consistency as measured by Cronbach's α coefficient were generally low ranging between 0.30 and 0.83 with only parent and teacher Hyperactivity – Inattention and teacher Prosocial Behaviour subscales having α > 0.7. Inter-rater correlations were similar to those reported previously (range 0.23 – 0.49) whilst test retest reliability was generally lower than would be expected (range 0.40 – 0.79). Convergent and discriminant validity are supported. Conclusion We report mixed findings with respect the psychometric properties of the Chinese translation of the SDQ. Reliability is a particular concern particularly for Peer Problems and self ratings by adolescents. There is good support for convergent validity but only partial support for structural validity. It may be possible to resolve some of these issues by carefully examining the wording and meaning of some of the current questions.
A Study of the Concurrent Validity between the Boxall Profile and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire  [PDF]
Caroline Couture,Paul Cooper,Egide Royer
International Journal of Emotional Education , 2011,
Abstract: The aim of the study is to establish the level of concurrent validity between the Boxall Profile, a diagnostic instrument used by teachers and teaching assistants in nurture groups, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, a widely used screening instrument in the fields of education, mental health and social work. 202 children and adolescents attending nurture groups in England, aged 3-14 years, participated in the study. . These consisted of142 boys and 60 girls and came from 25 schools in 8 LEAs. School staff completed the Boxall Profile and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for all pupils. . The results show a high degree of concordance between the two instruments, with both measures appearing to identify similar behavioural characteristics in the same children. Scores in specific domains of the Boxall Profile are shown to predict performance on particular sub-scales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. These preliminary findings support the validity claims of the Boxall Profile, indicating that it is a reliable tool for both diagnostic and research purposes.
The structure and use of the teacher and parent Maltese Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire  [PDF]
Carmel Cefai,Liberato Camilleri,Paul Cooper,Lara Said
International Journal of Emotional Education , 2011,
Abstract: The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) (Goodman, 1997) is one of the most commonly used measures of mental health in children and young people and has been translated into more than forty languages. This paper discusses the translation of the SDQ in Maltese and explores the structure and use of the teacher and parent Maltese translations. 4797 school teachers and 2865 parents completed the Maltese teacher and parent SDQ respectively. The results indicate that the Maltese SDQ, particularly the teacher version, meets the basic psychometric properties which make it a useful index of social, emotional and behaviour difficulties and prosocial behaviour amongst Maltese children and young people. Exploratory factor analysis suggests that the Maltese version clearly discriminates between difficulty and prosocial behaviour, and that it may be closer in fit to a three factor model, namely internalized difficulties, externalized difficulties and prosocial behaviour. While there are a number of variations, which may be explained by the local educational and socio-cultural context, Maltese mean scores are quite comparable with international SDQ norms. In view of a number of limitations, however, the use of the Maltese SDQ needs to be used with caution and further research into its psychometric properties is suggested.
The factor structure of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in Greek adolescents
George Giannakopoulos, Chara Tzavara, Christine Dimitrakaki, Gerasimos Kolaitis, Vasiliki Rotsika, Yannis Tountas
Annals of General Psychiatry , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1744-859x-8-20
Abstract: A representative nationwide sample of 1,194 adolescents (11 to 17 years old) completed the questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to assess the factor structure of the SDQ.CFA supported the original five-factor structure. The modification of the model provided some improvements. Internal consistency was acceptable for total difficulties, emotional symptoms and prosocial behaviour scale, moderate for hyperactivity/inattention scale and inadequate for peer and conduct problems scale. Older adolescents (aged 15 to 17 years) reported more hyperactivity/inattention and conduct problems than younger ones (aged 11 to 14 years) and girls reported more emotional symptoms and less prosocial behaviour problems than boys. Adolescents of low socioeconomic status (SES) reported more difficulties than those of medium and high SES.The Greek SDQ could be potentially considered as a community-wide screening instrument for adolescents' emotional and behavioural problems.Although the prevalence rates of adolescents' emotional and behavioural problems are high internationally, only a small percentage of adolescents eventually make use of mental health services [1,2]. Validated instruments with the potential to detect children at risk for developing psychosocial problems are, therefore, of crucial importance. Professionals can use such instruments as tools to assess the nature of these problems as a first step for further diagnosis, to prioritise cases as well as to evaluate the effects of an intervention [3-5].The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a brief instrument developed primarily for screening purposes, such as selecting at risk cases for further assessment and treatment [6]. The SDQ has been translated into more than 40 languages in recent years, meeting the need for a practical, economic and user-friendly instrument. Versions are available for self-reporting by 11 to 16 year olds as well as for parents and teachers of 4 to 16 year olds. T
Reliability and validity of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in Greek adolescents and their parents  [PDF]
George Giannakopoulos, Christine Dimitrakaki, Kalliroi Papadopoulou, Chara Tzavara, Gerasimos Kolaitis, Ulricke Ravens-Sieberer, Yannis Tountas
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.511239
Abstract: The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a brief screening measure of emotional and behavioural difficulties in children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to assess reliability and validity of the Greek version of the SDQ. A representative Greek sample of 1194 adolescents (aged 11 to 17 years) and their parents completed the SDQ along with other measures. Internal consistency reliability was determined by calculation of the Cronbach α coefficient. Varimax Orthogonal Transformation was conducted to test the factor structure of the questionnaire. Validity was further examined by investigating the correlation of the SDQ with the KIDSCREEN questionnaire and its association with demographic factors. The inter-rater agreement between parent and self-reports was analyzed with Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were computed to determine test-retest stability. For both parent and the self-report SDQ versions, most items loaded onto their predicted factors in consistency with the originally proposed five-factor structure. Internal consistency reliability was acceptable with a Cronbach α above 0.70 for all SDQ scales except for conduct and peer problems. Inter-rater correlations ranged from 0.33 to 0.45. Test-retest stability was good (ICCs > 0.60). Correlation coefficients between the SDQ and KIDSCREEN questionnaire were significant. Small effect sizes (d > 0.5) of the socioeconomic status were found for all of the SDQ scale mean scores. In conclusion, the SDQ was found to have satisfying psychometric properties and could be suitable for assessing emotional and behavioural problems in Greek adolescents.
Screening Foster Children for Mental Disorders: Properties of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire  [PDF]
Stine Lehmann, Einar R. Heiervang, Toril Havik, Odd E. Havik
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102134
Abstract: Background High prevalence of mental disorders among foster children highlight the need to examine the mental health of children placed out of home. We examined the properties of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in screening school-aged foster children for mental disorders. Methods Foster parents and teachers of 279 foster children completed the SDQ and the diagnostic interview Developmental and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA). Using the diagnoses derived from the DAWBA as the standard, we examined the performance of the SDQ scales as dimensional measures of mental health problems using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. Recommended cut-off scores were derived from ROC coordinates. The SDQ predictive algorithms were also examined. Results ROC analyses supported the screening properties of the SDQ Total difficulties and Impact scores (AUC = 0.80–0.83). Logistic regression analyses showed that the prevalence of mental disorders increased linearly with higher SDQ Total difficulties scores (X2 = 121.47, df = 13, p<.001) and Impact scores (X2 = 69.93, df = 6, p<.001). Our results indicated that there is an additive value of combining the scores from the Total difficulties and Impact scales, where scores above cut-off on any of the two scales predicted disorders with high sensitivity (89.1%), but moderate specificity (62.1%). Scores above cut-off on both scales yielded somewhat lower sensitivity (73.4%), but higher specificity (81.1%). The SDQ multi-informant algorithm showed low discriminative ability for the main diagnostic categories, with an exception being the SDQ Conduct subscale, which accurately predicted the absence of behavioural disorders (LHR? = 0.00). Conclusions The results support the use of the SDQ Total difficulties and Impact scales when screening foster children for mental health problems. Cut-off values for both scales are suggested. The SDQ multi-informant algorithms are not recommended for mental health screening of foster children in Norway.
The role of Trait Emotional Intelligence and social and emotional skills in students’ emotional and behavioural strengths and difficulties: A study of Greek adolescents’ perceptions.  [PDF]
Maria S. Poulou
International Journal of Emotional Education , 2010,
Abstract: The emergence of the Trait Emotional Intelligence construct shifted the interest in personality research to the investigation of the effect of global personality characteristics on behaviour. A second body of research in applied settings, the Social and Emotional Learning movement, emphasized the cultivation of emotional and social skills for positive relationships in a school environment. In this paper we investigate the role of both personality traits and social and emotional skills, in the occurrence of emotional and behavioural strengths and difficulties, according to adolescent students’ self-perceptions. Five hundred and fifty-nine students from state secondary schools in Greece, aged 12-14 years old, completed The Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Adolescent Short Form, The Matson Evaluation of Social Skills with Youngsters, and The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. It was found that students with higher Trait Emotional Intelligence and stronger social and emotional skills were less likely to present emotional, conduct, hyperactivity and peer difficulties and more likely to present prosocial behaviour. Gender was a significant factor for emotional difficulties and grade for peer difficulties. The paper describes the underlying mechanisms of students’ emotional and behavioural strengths and difficulties, and provides practical implications for educators to improve the quality of students’ lives in schools.
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