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Considerations regarding the Valuation and Valorization of Cultural Heritage  [PDF]
Filip IORGULESCU,Felicia ALEXANDRU,Georgiana Camelia CRE?AN,Meral KAGITCI
Theoretical and Applied Economics , 2011,
Abstract: This paper presents the theoretical framework for the valuation of cultural heritage and of the economic effects produced by investments in the preservation and restoration of cultural heritage. The following methods are considered: impact studies, hedonic pricing method, contingent valuation method and travel cost method. The paper focuses on methodological issues, difficulties encountered when implementing the methods, as well as on their specific limitations. Moreover, each method is illustrated through the results of quantitative studies in the field.
Assessing the Value of Cultural Heritage Resources: Limitations andImprovements of the Contingent Valuation Method
文化遗产资源的价值评价:CVM的局限性及几点改进

CUI Weihua,LIN Feifei,
崔卫华
,林菲菲

资源科学 , 2010,
Abstract: The contingent valuation method (CVM) is one of the most commonly used andeffective tools to value non-market resources. Reasonable application of CVM requires a shift fromqualitatively describing change processes for the valuation of heritage resources to quantify them.However, it appears that cases and studies regarding applications of CVM to the field of culturalheritage are far fewer than that to the environmental field. The authors discussed the particularity inthe use of the CVM to value cultural heritage especially in China based on a literature review andcase studies. First, limitations involved in the CVM, including its scope effect, hypothesis anduncertainties were investigated. It was suggested that all of such deficiencies could be improved orevaded through the development of CVM and well design of questionnaire. Second, regardingapplicable fields of CVM, it was found that it is necessary to broaden the applicable fields of CVM.Third, the strengths and limitations of critical techniques like willingness to pay (WTP) andwillingness to accept (WTA), and the guidance techniques (OE, PC and DC) of CVM werediscussed. At last, the particularity of cultural heritage resources, i.e., the richness and complex ofthe value of cultural heritage, the impacts of people's points of views about value on culturalheritage and the intangible assets of increasing welfare resulting from protection of culturalheritage were elaborated. On the basis of this, the authors put forward several suggestions in regardto improvements of the CVM. It was drawn that 1) selecting WTP for the index is more reasonable.On the one hand, WTP has more advantages than WTA. On the other hand, WTP can be understoodmore easily by Chinese people; 2) dichotomous choice (DC) can simulate market pricing tobehavior better. It is more convenient for the survey respondents to answer. Therefore, one wouldgain more reasonable results using DC when the target audiences are not familiar with the subjectlike cultural heritage; 3) the payment vehicle option should account for local people's habits andpreferences. As such, a variety of vehicles in the light of different objects and areas can beemployed; and 4) the target audience option should not only take into account the grade of culturalheritage resources, but also the ability to pay and education levels of selected groups. It is moreimportant to emphasize the latter for developing countries such as China. This paper can offer somemeaningful suggestions for improving the application of the CVM in the field of cultural heritage.
The role of cultural and heritage education at Bakoni Malapa Open Air Museum: demonstrations of cultural practices and craftwork techniques
Dan Musinguzi,Israel Kibirige
International Journal of Intangible Heritage , 2009,
Abstract: Open air museums are of vital importance in preserving and safeguarding cultureand intangible heritage. This paper explores how Bakoni Malapa Open Air Museum preserves the culture of the Bakoni people by showcasing their cultural heritage and educating visitors about it. Although various methods are used to preserve the culture of the Bakoni people, this paper’s analyses are based on just two of the museum’s main activities in connection with intangible heritage – putting on demonstrations of traditional cultural practices and demonstrating craft techniques. We also discuss what other cultures around the globe can learn from the way Bakoni cultural heritage is presented at Bakoni Malapa.
Monitoring techniques: “StegoGIS: a geographical information system for knowing and preventing infestation risks in cultural heritage”  [cached]
Katia Baslé,Odile Guillon,Fabien Fohrer,Floréal Daniel
Journal of Entomological and Acarological Research , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/jear.2011.e15
Abstract: Since 2004, the Cicrp: “Centre Interrégional de Conservation et Restauration du Patrimoine”, located in Marseilles has been involved in an interdisciplinary research program dealing with infestation and re-infestation, on lining pastes used in painting conservation, by the Stegobium paniceum through a GIS system : a geographical information system called “StegoGIS”. The GIS helps understand the insects ethology in its environmental context, mainly in flour and semolina millings in order to determine analysis criteria to prevent, mitigate and fight infestation in the cultural property environment. Our approach is based on three main lines: 1- A transverse approach of infestation in any type of cultural heritage institution: archives, libraries, museums, historic buildings where organic material collections and environment are attractive on an “insect point of view”. 2 –An IPM strategy (Integrated Pest Management) including conservation and management of collections and buildings also based on an infestation survey with actual or potential risks. 3- A “decision- making tool” in diagnosis, preventing methods and treatments for professional conservation staff.
Inheritance and Identity of Cultural Heritage  [PDF]
Olimpia Niglio
Advances in Literary Study (ALS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/als.2014.21001
Abstract:

Generally the community describesthe “cultural heritage” such as historic, artistic, scientific and traditional. These definitions often coincide with the attribution of “value” and “identity”. Many answers about what could “cultural heritage” be are explained as a set together with their specific value, such as landscape and architecture of high artistic value and historic materials of scientific value. In contrast it is not possible to rely on this generality of definitions. The reality shows that the definition of value of “cultural heritage” changes in relation to the person, culture, geography, social and economic conditions. In other words, in relation to the person, the standpoint of value of “cultural heritage” is different according to each category, such as ruins, works of art, historic cities and gardens, and it is rare that one category simultaneously holds many of such values. It is believed that there are no words or phrases that comprehensively explain the various values that prescribe “cultural heritage”. Therefore in defining “cultural heritage” its values not must be specifically expressed as historic, artistic, scientific and others, but should be left in a way that can correspond also to the concept of a “cultural heritage” the significance of identity and of inheritance. Define the value of cultural heritage means to analyze the identity of the site and its contents of inheritance. The concepts of value and inheritance analyzed here are not related to economic considerations. Differently these concepts are analyzed with reference to scientific theories of A.K. Sen, M. W. Feldman and L. Cavalli-Sforza. In fact this paper proposes a reflection on these concepts with the support of interdisciplinary studies.

Towards a Phenomenology of Cultural Heritage  [cached]
Paolo De Nardis,Luca Alteri
Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage : Historical Technical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: This work fits into the broader academic debate on the legitimacy of the Sociology of Cultural Heritage. The origin of the term itself is investigated by analyzing the words that compose it and their interpretation in the context of post-modern society. The paper then explores some specific aspects of the discipline, such as the fight against the deterioration of Cultural Heritage and the attempt to make it economically attractive and profitable. Finally, it examines in detail several dimensions related to Art and Culture: the desacralization of museums and cultural artefacts, the articulation of historical and artistic heritage, the rediscovery of popular culture and, finally, the definition of the sense of Cultural Heritage.
Cultural Research and Intangible Heritage  [cached]
Sheenagh Pietrobruno
Culture Unbound : Journal of Current Cultural Research , 2009,
Abstract: Intangible heritage deemed worthy of preservation is often regarded as traditional culture that reflects the identity of a particular nation or group. Traditional cultures are distinct from commercial forms, which are transmitted and promoted via businesses, commercial establishments, and media. Research on culture reveals the way that a large part of the world's intangible heritage includes practices that interweave tradition and commodification as well as blur the boundaries between nations. As these practices do not fit into the clear categories of "traditional" or "national", they may not be considered for preservation in official project documents such as the Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage (2003), by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Many of these practices are being, nonetheless, stored today through the unofficial archiving of moving images on the Internet, facilitated by Web 2.0. Through the case studies of various Caribbean performing arts, this paper illustrates how cultural research can provide a comprehensive understanding of intangible culture in both its lived and digital contexts, knowledge that in turn challenges the process of categorization and the measures of preservation of intangible heritage proposed by UNESCO.
The World Heritage and cultural landscapes
Esposito, Mark,Cavelzani, Alessandro
PASOS : Revista de Turismo y Patrimonio Cultural , 2006,
Abstract: Landscapes have a range of values that communities recognize as important and want to conserve. Cultural and natural values are the qualities which make a place or landscape important. In particular, we can consider Cultural Landscapes an important and constitutional part of the World Heritage. It is fundamental that stakeholders must know what values are to be found in their cultural landscapes and consequently reinforce the protection and enhancement of the values. The attempt to help the awareness is presented in the paper and discussed as an UNESCO instrument of observation, retention and pro-active conservation of the heritage of our past, as institutional to the formation of continuity in the future years to come and for the future generations. Finally, one case study is also illustrated as a very good example of effective values-based management
Contextualising Intangible Cultural Heritage in Heritage Studies and Museology
Marilena Alivizatou
International Journal of Intangible Heritage , 2008,
Abstract: With this paper I make a proposal for the contextualisation of intangible cultural heritage (ICH) in the interdisciplinary field of heritage studies and museology, drawing on early research conducted during my internship at UNESCO and the first years of my doctorate. I examine emerging conceptualisations of the term starting with the national legislation of Japan and Korea in the 50s and 60s, andmore recently with the interventions of UNESCO. In addition, I assess the development of ICH in terms of the academic/intellectual discussions around the ‘alternative heritage discourse’ and the ‘new museological discourse’.Finally, drawing on interviews with Professor Patrick Boylan, Dr Richard Kurin and Mr Ralph Regenvanu, conducted in 2006-2007, I draw some preliminary conclusions as to the wider impact of ICH on heritage and museum theory and practice. What emerges is a criticalexamination of the diverse conceptualisations and appropriations of ICH, and of its potential to constitute a new heritage discourse at the interface of ‘universalism’ and ‘particularism’
Cultural Heritage and the Public Domain  [cached]
Bas Savenije,Annemarie Beunen
Liber Quarterly : The Journal of European Research Libraries , 2012,
Abstract: The recent report of the “Comité des Sages” recommends that “cultural institutions should make public domain material digitised with public funding as widely available as possible for access and re-use”. One of the objectives of the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities is “encouraging the holders of cultural heritage to support open access by providing their resources on the Internet.” Libraries often are the only source for public domain material such as unique manuscripts. This position puts them in power when determining the conditions under which reproductions can be delivered. This position is prone to change as soon as public domain material is available via internet and thus can be copied by anyone. We can observe a variety in re-use policies among cultural heritage institutions, in which not only libraries but also archives and museums are involved. And there certainly is no unanimity when it comes to commercial re-use. The situation becomes even more complicated when public-private partnerships are involved in which the commercial party poses restrictions on access and/or re-use.The paper analyses the legal issues that are at stake in deciding about the library’s re-use policy of digitised heritage material within the public domain. It also gives an overview of arguments pro and con open access without any restrictions. Its conclusion is in favour of no limitations for re-use, commercial or not.Finally, it analyses public-private partnerships in the light of these conclusions.
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