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Al-Qaeda in the Lands of the Islamic Maghreb  [PDF]
Gregory A. Smith
Journal of Strategic Security , 2009,
Abstract: This paper is organized into four chapters that focus on the terrorist group Al Qaeda in the Lands of the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM). The four chapters examine different facets of the collective environment that have allowed AQIM to succeed and even thrive at times. The first chapter begins with Algeria’s war of independence with the French. The second chapter focuses on the nomadic Tuareg people. It seeks to show how the Tuaregs were deprived by French occupiers and how European colonization cost the Tuaregs access to vital trade routes used for centuries. The third chapter will very briefly examine Algeria’s civil war and the emergence of modern terrorist groups. The fourth chapter will discuss the post-9/11 world in terms of “shaping operations” for the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT ) and how this caused an evolution in terrorism as a reaction to actual or perceived American hegemonic ambitions.This paper is not a compendium of every event or in any way a complete history of the region. It is intended to reinforce the author’s notion of outlying antecedents that normally coalesce around a central issue and how the addition of a political agenda can lead these antecedents toward a fusion point. When the fusion point is met, ethno-nationalist ambitions are catapulted down the road of terrorism and the fundamental message is lost in the debris of another attack. Such is the story of AQIM…
Cooperation in Terms of Defence between Spain and the Countries of the Maghreb Region  [PDF]
Carlos Echeverría Jesús
Revista CIDOB d'Afers Internacionals , 2007,
Abstract: Cooperation between Spain and the Maghreb states in the area of defence represents a sphere that includes long-term historical links (for example, with Morocco) with other relations that have been developing in recent years, and at varying rates of intensity. Theprogressive normalising of the situation in Algeria since the 1990s, the raising of the UN embargo against Libya and the rise of what are called “new dangers” (all kinds of illegal trading and a style of terrorism that is increasingly transnational and lethal) has led the states together with Mauritania and Tunisia to call for aid and cooperation from members such as Spain. Meanwhile, the revitalisation of the 5+5 group, even though it does not involve greater sub-regional cooperation in the Maghreb region, is encouraging North-South links which had until then been bilateralised, and since December 2004 the group has included the issue of defence on its agenda.
Spain and the Promotion of Governance in Algeria
Rafael Bustos García de Castro
Revista CIDOB d'Afers Internacionals , 2007,
Abstract: This article examines the reasons why Spain which possesses a consolidated democratic regime continues to promote democracy and even good governance in certain countries in such an uncertain, ambiguous manner. Recent events, such as the impact of international terrorism, have meant that there is an even more urgent need for providing democratic assistance to the neighbouring countries of the Maghreb region. In spite of its initial limitations and slants,the very concept of governance would represent a non-intrusive promotion of democracy. Nevertheless, Spain’s actors in the field of foreign policy and cooperation with development (as the case of Algeria illustrates perfectly) have been clearly reluctant to commit themselves to this course of action. Spain’s patent energy dependence on Algeria (a fact that is often put forward as the main explanatory reason) is called into question, with an argument based not only on the evidence of Spanish action in other countries in regions (such as Tunisia and Latin America), but also in an analysis of the discourses and instruments of Spanish foreign policy. As an alternative explanation, it is suggested that practices that have long been used in Spain’s “Arab” foreign policy, the pending reform of the external service, the Europeisation of external action and the “second-player syndrome” (i.e. second to France), provide a better explanation ofSpain’s ambiguousness and of its slow abandonment of policies that favour the status quo.
THE ISLAMIST MOVEMENT IN MOROCCO: BETWEEN INSTITUTIONALISATION AND ASSOCIATIONISM  [PDF]
Paloma González del Mi?o
Revista CIDOB d'Afers Internacionals , 2011,
Abstract: This article analyses the dissimilar evolution of the Islamist movement in Morocco, from the coronation of Mohamed VI in 1999 to the present day, a period that has seen changes in relations between the monarchy, Islamism and governance, and which has given rise to a complex triangle in its organisation as a whole. The attitude of those in power towards the Islamist movement in Morocco has undergone a long journey, fluctuating between different attitudes: an initial boost, confrontation, manipulation, “assimilation” of moderates and the exclusion of radicals. The relational scenario changed after the Casablanca bombings in 2003, the consequences of which were manifested in this region on two different levels: the monarchy’s attempt to reinstate its monopoly of the religious sphere, and the invalidity of the idea that Morocco was an exception to Islamist terrorism. The official line in Morocco is based on consecrating the king as the basic pillar of the country’s political stability, given that he holds a dual constitutional representation: head of state and prince of the believers.
The Tipping Point: Biological Terrorism  [PDF]
Scott Cary
Journal of Strategic Security , 2009,
Abstract: This article presents a strategic, operational, and tactical analysis of information currently available on the state of bio-weapons development by non-state actors, primarily Islamist jihadists. It discusses the evidence supporting a practical assessment that non-state actors have begun to acquire, and in the near-term intend to employ, bio-weapons. A pathogen and method of attack specifically designed to achieve the strategic goals of jihadists are presented as functional examples of the problem of the emerging global bio-weapons threat.Is a terrorist attack utilizing biological weapons a real threat? If so, is there a way to predict the circumstances under which it might happen or how it might be conducted? This article explores what is known and cannot be known about these questions, and will examine the threat of biological terrorism in the context of the strategic goals, operational methods, and tactical intentions of Islamist terrorists.
The Impact of the Arab Spring on Islamist Strategies  [PDF]
Ioana E. Matesan
Journal of Strategic Security , 2012,
Abstract: The revolutions in Tunisia and Egypt created a contagion effect that inspired a series of uprisings by sending two signals: first, that even entrenched authoritarian regimes are vulnerable; and second, that nonviolent tactics can be effective in bringing about dramatic political changes. Subsequent developments, especially in Libya and Syria, convoluted these messages. Nonetheless, the political openings and the electoral victory of Islamists in Egypt and Tunisia continue to send the signal to many Islamist opposition groups that nonviolent means and participation in politics can be effective ways to produce political change. The chance of gaining power through electoral means can give Islamists strong incentives to join in the demands for democratic institutions and change their stance towards political participation. The appeal of nonviolent tactics, however, is undermined when external threats surpass domestic considerations. When the primary concern of the public is about outside threats and the main enemy is external rather than a domestic despot, the impact of the Arab Spring on views regarding the efficacy of nonviolent tactics is diminished. Similarly, when an Islamic group is primarily concerned with the "far enemy," the incentives for moderation offered by political participation are undermined.
The New Patterns of Warfare: Terrorism against Innocent Civilians
Jan-Erik Lane
Suvremene Teme : Contemporary Issues , 2010,
Abstract: Terrorism surfaces in a most brutal manner in the global conflicts inthe early 21st century. It is a question of a new form of terrorism that is different from classical terrorism by the French and Russian revolutionaries. This new form of struggle by religious fundamentalists and ethno-nationalists occurs in a band of countries from Algeria to the Philippines. It destabilizes the state andresults in massive losses of lives among innocent civilians as well as injured innocents.
Food irradiation of agricultural products in algeria. present situation and future developments (a short communication)
Benkeblia N.
International Agrophysics , 2000,
Abstract: In Algeria, commodities such as fruits (dates and oranges) and vegetables (potatoes, onions and garlic) have strategic role in the local and national markets. Long term storage is by combination of cold chain and traditional methods but losses are high. Ionising radiation proved to be effective at greatly reducing losses and the method is increasingly practised. The banning of methyl bromide (or ethyl dibromide) and other desinfectants for the use in dates, and maleic hydrazide (MH), carbamate isopropyl N-phenyl (CIP) and CIP-chlore-(CIPC) for sprout inhibition in potatoes, onions and garlic suggest a high potential of the ionising radiation as a replacement treatment that could also complement temperature controlled storage.
Seismic hazard assessment in the Ibero-Maghreb region  [cached]
M. J. Jiménez,M. García-Fernández
Annals of Geophysics , 1999, DOI: 10.4401/ag-3774
Abstract: The contribution of the Ibero-Maghreb region to the global GSHAP map has been the result of a fruitful cooperation among the participants in the established Working Group including representatives from Algeria, Morocco, Portugal, Spain and Tunisia and coordinated by ICTJA-CSIC, Spain. For the first time, a map of regional seismic source zones is presented, and agreement on a common procedure for hazard computation in the region has been achieved. The computed Ibero-Maghreb seismic hazard map constitutes the first step towards a uniform hazard assessment for the region. Further joint regional efforts are still needed for earthquake hazard studies based on a homogeneous regional earthquake catalogue. Ongoing initiatives in relation to seismic hazard assessment in the Mediterranean should profit both from these results and the established cooperation among different groups in the region as well as contribute to future regional studies.
Injustices sociales et contestations politiques au Maghreb (Social Injustice and Political Protests in the Maghreb)  [cached]
Luis Martinez
Ceriscope , 2012,
Abstract: Les révoltes qui secouent le monde arabe depuis la fin 2010 illustrent le sentiment d'injustice au sein des sociétés de cette partie du monde. Alors que leur population a triplé lors du dernier demi siècle, les pays du Maghreb, pétroliers ou non, ont été incapables de produire un système politique susceptible de prendre en charge les doléances sociales. Avec la fermeture des frontières, l'émigration ne peut plus remplir sa fonction d'exutoire, aussi les plus jeunes - dipl més ou non - sont contraints pour améliorer leur sort de prendre la parole et de dénoncer la concentration des richesses au profit d'une minorité, la corruption et la précarité dans laquelle ils se trouvent. La question sociale constitue au Maghreb un enjeu politique fondamental et la victoire des partis islamistes confirme le besoin, dans la région, d'une plus grande attention aux doléances sociales.(The revolts that have shaken the Arab world since the end of 2010 exemplify the sense of injustice felt in these societies. As the population has tripled over the past half century the countries of the Maghreb, whether oil rich or not, have been unable to establish a political system capable of responding to social grievances. As borders have closed, emigration can no longer serve as an outlet for the discontent. The only means left to the young—educated or not—for improving their situation is to denounce corruption, the concentration of wealth and their own economic insecurity. In the Maghreb social questions are a fundamental political challenge and the victory of Islamist parties confirms the necessity of giving greater attention to social grievances).
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