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The Political Role of the Ethnic Factor around Elections in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
H K Ngoy-Kangoy
African Journal on Conflict Resolution , 2007,
Abstract: This paper analyses the role of the ethnic factor in political choices in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and its impact on democratisation and the implementation of the practice of good governance. This is done by focusing especially on the presidential and legislative elections of 1960 and 2006. The Congolese electorate is known for its ambiguous and paradoxical behaviour. At all times, ethnicity seems to play a determining role in the choice of leaders and so the politicians, entrusted with leadership, keep on exploiting the same ethnicity for money. Although the East-West rift is a reality which was particularly eminent during the elections of 2006, it is something that should be relativised. This divide is however not always linked to the ethnic factor. The analysis is more complex. At the legislative level, the voting pattern has always shown a contrast, particularly with the individual vote, the modification of ethnic allegiance, and the conflict of ethnic fidelity, as well as ethnic clientelism in its various forms. Individual interest often confronts and/or merges with the interest of the group, leading to a rather casual relationship. Finally, political identification can be expressed in political, linguistic, economic or regional ways. The very subjective character of the vote has a negative impact on the political choices, and consequently on good governance, which then shows up, as often is the case, as incompetence and corruption. The study ends with some recommendations that may eventually contribute to voting for the sake of the advantages of democracy and the exigencies of good governance. African Journal on Conflict Resolution Vol. 7 (2) 2007: pp. 219-238
“Assembling” a Civic Nation in Kazakhstan: The Nation-Building Role of the Assembly of the Peoples of Kazakhstan  [cached]
Nathan Paul Jones
Caucasian Review of International Affairs , 2010,
Abstract: The countries of the former Soviet Union inherited a unique system for managing the needs of ethnic minorities. The question is how these countries utilize Soviet constructs to develop policies suitable for their distinct political contexts. Kazakhstan’s leaders have chosen to fashion a multiethnic civic nation and established the Assembly of the Peoples of Kazakhstan to oversee the work of creating a uniform national identity. This paper discusses major theories pertaining to civic nation-building, highlights the Soviet approach to building a civic nation, and describes how the ideology, form, and activities of the Assembly contribute to civic nation-building in Kazakhstan. Finally, it describes the author’s own ethnographic research demonstrating how people react to Kazakhstan’s civic nation-building efforts. The paper argues that Kazakhstan’s attempts to create a civic national identity are failing because it has not yet provided a consolidating national discourse as strong as socialism was during the Soviet period
Modes of Minorities’ Integration: Explaining Historical, Economic and Political Factors  [PDF]
Andrada COSTOIU
Journal of Identity and Migration Studies , 2008,
Abstract: There are a great number of states in which different ethnic minorities coexist, each of them having their own culture, language and history. In some of these states, the ethnic minorities have been subjected to marginalization and acculturation, in other states the minority groups were recognized as being distinct parts of the nation and were granted equal rights of participation in the public arena. This paper attempts to explain why states opt for such different ways of integrating their minorities. It first develops a typology of minorities’ integration and than, by using the example of two nation-states that fit into each type of integration model it discusses the historical, political and economical factors that could explain each pattern of minorities’ integration.
The Language Policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the Field of Education
Botakoz A. Zhekibaeva
European Researcher , 2013,
Abstract: The results of the study of normative and conceptual documents that define the strategic objectives and the language policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the field of education are presented in the article. The main trends in the development of foreign language and multilingual education, the necessity of which is determined by the fact that Kazakhstan's education system must provide a complete, high quality, competitive education, focused on results, through the formation and development of core competencies: trilingualism, Eurasian multiculturalism, communication are reflected in the contents of the research. Analysis of the key areas of language policy, its core ideas show that language policy in education is based on the recognition of the importance of all languages development and creation of the necessary conditions for the development of multilingualism, following its general line ensures equal and free development of the languages and cultures of all ethnic groups living within our state
Seeing Like a Minority: Political Tourism and the Struggle for Recognition in China
Uradyn E. Bulag
Journal of Current Chinese Affairs , 2012,
Abstract: This paper outlines the operation of what may be called “political tourism” in China, and analyses the role of the sensorial technology of “seeing” in the kind of narrative this tourism engenders. Beginning in 1950, the newly established People’s Republic of China launched an annual tradition of inviting non-communist elites to attend the May Day and the National Day (1 October) parades on Tiananmen Square in Beijing and in some metropolitan cities. Unlike contemporary ethnic tourism, wherein minorities and their cultures become the objects of the tourist gaze, Chinese political tourism aims at bringing minority leaders out of their putative “isolation”, treating them with hospitality, and ultimately making them “see with their own eyes” China’s “true face”.
Livelihood Vulnerability and Food Security among Upland Ethnic Minorities in Northern Vietnam
Christine Bonnin,Sarah Turner
Kasarinlan : Philippine Journal of Third World Studies , 2011,
Abstract: For the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, national food self-sufficiency is a core concern. The state focuses on rice production and output levels for local and overseas markets, endorsing the adoption of hybrid rice seeds through numerous development initiatives. Yet, this approach overlooks an important group of rice producers and consumers in Vietnam: highland ethnic minorities. Fluctuations in global grain demand mean little for their daily coping mechanisms and near-subsistence livelihoods, but food security is an ongoing preoccupation for their households. In this research note, we take an actor-oriented livelihood approach to examine food security among ethnic minorities—namely, Hmong and Yao—in Lào Cai province, northern Vietnam. Arguing that the everyday, subjective experiences of upland minority groups have been ignored, we examine how these groups have reacted to the introduction of hybrid seeds, their negotiations with the state over its use, and their trials and tribulations along the way.
Innovative Component of Modern Higher Education in the Republic of Kazakhstan  [PDF]
Nazym Stamgaliyeva, Yelena Feoktistova
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.210006
Abstract: The paper considers modern conditions of education development in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Modern higher education in Kazakhstan is based mainly on the results of innovations as a science of innovations. The bases of the work of higher education institutions in Republic of Kazakhstan lie in the following strategic acts: Program of Enforced Industrial and Innovative Development of Kazakhstan, State Program of Education Development in Kazakhstan for 2011-2020. High schools have to form the whole system of universal knowledge, habits and skills, also self-activities and personal responsibilities of students that are key competencies, determining modern quality of education. It is necessary to introduce structural, institutional, organizational and economic changes in the system of higher education and as a result make new content of education, and design it in accordance with requirements of time and with the tasks of developing country. That is why today the realization of competence approach needs the support on international experience, by the necessary adaptation to traditions and demands of Kazakhstan.
The Politics of Imagining and Forgetting in Chinese Ethnic Minorities' Museums  [cached]
Marzia Varutti
Outlines : Critical Practice Studies , 2010,
Abstract: Through an exploration of the representation of ethnic minorities in the museums of Kunming, Yunnan Province of China, this article discusses the active role that museums play in the processes of memory and identity engineering, whereby museum images and narratives are used to support collective imagination about ethnic minorities' identities and past. Drawing from a comparative analysis of museum displays in Kunming, I discuss how the image of ethnic minorities is conveyed through a selective process of i) remembering and emphasizing specific cultural elements, ii) forgetting other elements, and lastly, iii) modifying the perception of ethnic minorities relation to the Han majority. By revealing the extent and modalities through which museum representations manipulate ethnic minorities' identities in China, the analysis aims to contribute to our understanding of the multiple ways in which museums act as sites for the enactment of collective memory and imagination.
HIV/AIDS awareness and risk behavior among students in Semey, Kazakhstan: a cross-sectional survey
Marit Hansson, Leo Stockfelt, Marat Urazalin, Clas Ahlm, Rune Andersson
BMC International Health and Human Rights , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1472-698x-8-14
Abstract: To gather information about young students and their attitudes and knowledge about HIV/AIDS, we collected 600 structured questionnaires and made 23 semi-structured interviews among three groups of students. Response rate was 99%.Almost 99% of the respondents had heard of HIV/AIDS, and 89% could identify ways to protect oneself against sexually transmitted HIV/AIDS. The main routes of transmission, sexual contact without condom and intravenous drug use, were both identified by 97% of the students. Twenty-five percent of the female students and 75% of the male students had had one or more sexual partners. More than 30% of the young men had purchased sex, and homosexuality was widely stigmatized.Risks for the spread of HIV/AIDS among young people in Kazakhstan include prostitution as well as stigmatization of the HIV positive and of homosexuals. Protective factors are good knowledge about risks and protection, and opportunities to talk and gather information about sexuality and HIV/AIDS.The Republic of Kazakhstan is a large country with a relatively small population of 15 million people. It was formerly part of the Soviet Union and is now a multiethnic society with some 100 different ethnic groups, dominated by Russians and Kazakhs. The main religions are Islam, 47%, and Russian Orthodox Christianity, 44%, although it is a relatively secular country. Kazakhstan had some difficult years after the fall of the Soviet Union but now the economy is growing fast, with the GNP increasing by over 10% per year. The relatively stable political situation, the absence of armed conflicts and the vast amounts of natural resources all give hope for future economic progress [1]. Semey, or Semipalatinsk as it is called in Russian, is a city in northeastern Kazakhstan with approximately 293,000 inhabitants, one of the larger industrial cities in the country and long the centre for the Soviet nuclear weapon testing.Central Asia and Eastern Europe still have low numbers of reported HIV cas
Influence of Ethnic Stereotypes on the Development of Political Relations in the Balkans  [PDF]
Vira Burdiak
Codrul Cosminului , 2010,
Abstract: In the article author points out that Balkan states are multiethnic that is why ethnic problems have always been in the limelight of governments, citizens and never lost their topicality. Political history of Balkan people, from their origin and consolidation of certain nations until present, has been filled with struggle for the national emancipation, creation and strengthening of their national states, observation of ethnic minorities’ rights, solution of inter-ethnic conflicts. Part of ethnic stereotypes, which were formed as a result of existing state policy, was investigated in the development of political relations in the Balkans. These stereotypes were connected with the borders and interrelations of Balkan states with each other and with other countries, the so called great powers. We believe that ethnic stereotypes still hinder many nations and ethnicities on this rather small peninsula from ensuring mutual acknowledgement, respect and tolerant attitude as standard of conduct for everyone.
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