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Exercise in cancer  [cached]
Rajarajeswaran P,Vishnupriya R
Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology , 2009,
Abstract: Physical exercise has attracted increased interest in rehabilitation of oncological patients. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature and summarize the evidence of physical exercise in preventing cancer, its ability in attenuating the effect of cancer and its treatments and to provide guidelines for exercise prescription Review of recent literature by electronic search of MEDline (Pub Med), Cancer lit, Cochrane libraries, CINAHL were done using Keywords and the variables were identified and systematically evaluated. There is strong evidence for reduced risk of colorectal and breast cancer with possible association for prostate, endometrial and lung cancer with increasing physical activity. Exercise helps cancer survivors cope with and recover from treatment; exercise may improve the health of long term cancer survivors and extend survival. Physical exercise will benefit throughout the spectrum of cancer. However, an understanding of the amount, type and intensity of exercise needed has not been fully elucidated. There is sufficient evidence to promote exercise in cancer survivors following careful assessment and tailoring on exercise prescription.
Physical Exercise and Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Survivors  [cached]
Marco VALENTI, Giampiero PORZIO, Federica AIELLI, Lucilla VERNA, Katia CANNITA, Renato MANNO, Francesco MASEDU, Paolo MARCHETTI, Corrado FICORELLA
International Journal of Medical Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: An important goal for cancer patients is to improve the quality of life (QOL) by maximising functions affected by the disease and its therapy. Preliminary research suggests that exercise may be an effective intervention for enhancing QOL in cancer survivors. Research has provided preliminary evidence for the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of exercise training in breast cancer survivors. The aim of this study was to assess the association between physical exercise and quality of life in a population of female breast cancer survivors, followed up from diagnosis to the off-treatment time period, and investigated about their exercise habits in pre-diagnosis. A total of 212 female breast cancer survivors consecutively registered from January 2003 to December 2006 at a Supportive Care Unit in an Italian Oncology Department were enrolled. Exercise behaviour was assessed by the Leisure Score Index (LSI) of the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire. Patients were asked to report their average weekly exercise for three cancer-related time periods, i.e. pre-diagnosis, during active treatment and off-treatment. Quality of life was assessed by the Italian version of the WHOQOL-BREF standardised instrument. Statistical analysis indicated significant differences across the cancer-relevant time-periods for all exercise behaviour outcomes: the exercise behaviour was significantly lower during both on- and off- treatment than during prediagnosis; exercise during active treatment was significantly lower than during off-treatment. QOL strongly decreases during active treatment. Significant correlations were found between total exercise on- and off-treatment and all QOL indicators. Strenuous exercise is strongly correlated with QOL. Absent/mild exercise seems to be inversely correlated with a positive perception of disease severity and with quality of life on all axes. Need clearly results for inclusion of physical activity programs in comprehensive, complementary treatment regimes for breast cancer patients in Italian oncology departments.
The Efficacy of Exercise in Reducing Depressive Symptoms among Cancer Survivors: A Meta-Analysis  [PDF]
Justin C. Brown, Tania B. Huedo-Medina, Linda S. Pescatello, Stacey M. Ryan, Shannon M. Pescatello, Emily Moker, Jessica M. LaCroix, Rebecca A. Ferrer, Blair T. Johnson
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030955
Abstract: Introduction The purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine the efficacy of exercise to reduce depressive symptoms among cancer survivors. In addition, we examined the extent to which exercise dose and clinical characteristics of cancer survivors influence the relationship between exercise and reductions in depressive symptoms. Methods We conducted a systematic search identifying randomized controlled trials of exercise interventions among adult cancer survivors, examining depressive symptoms as an outcome. We calculated effect sizes for each study and performed weighted multiple regression moderator analysis. Results We identified 40 exercise interventions including 2,929 cancer survivors. Diverse groups of cancer survivors were examined in seven exercise interventions; breast cancer survivors were examined in 26; prostate cancer, leukemia, and lymphoma were examined in two; and colorectal cancer in one. Cancer survivors who completed an exercise intervention reduced depression more than controls, d+ = ?0.13 (95% CI: ?0.26, ?0.01). Increases in weekly volume of aerobic exercise reduced depressive symptoms in dose-response fashion (β = ?0.24, p = 0.03), a pattern evident only in higher quality trials. Exercise reduced depressive symptoms most when exercise sessions were supervised (β = ?0.26, p = 0.01) and when cancer survivors were between 47–62 yr (β = 0.27, p = 0.01). Conclusion Exercise training provides a small overall reduction in depressive symptoms among cancer survivors but one that increased in dose-response fashion with weekly volume of aerobic exercise in high quality trials. Depressive symptoms were reduced to the greatest degree among breast cancer survivors, among cancer survivors aged between 47–62 yr, or when exercise sessions were supervised.
Effect of Exercise on Metabolic Syndrome Variables in Breast Cancer Survivors  [PDF]
Gwendolyn A. Thomas,Marty Alvarez-Reeves,Lingeng Lu,Herbert Yu,Melinda L. Irwin
International Journal of Endocrinology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/168797
Abstract: Objective. Breast cancer survivors are highly sedentary, overweight, or obese, which puts them at increased risk for comorbid chronic disease. We examined the prevalence of, and changes in, metabolic syndrome following 6 months of an aerobic exercise versus usual care intervention in a sample of sedentary postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. Design and Methods. 65 participants were randomized to an aerobic exercise intervention (EX) ( ) mean BMI 30.8 (±5.9)?kg/m2 or usual care (UC) ( ) mean BMI 29.4 (±7.4)?kg/m2. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was determined, as well as change in criteria and overall metabolic syndrome. Results. At baseline, 55.4% of total women met the criteria for metabolic syndrome. There was no statistically significant change in metabolic syndrome when comparing EX and UC. However, adhering to the exercise intervention (at least 120?mins/week of exercise) resulted in a significant ( ) decrease in metabolic syndrome z-score from baseline to 6 months ( ) when compared to those who did not adhere ( ). Conclusions. Due to a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in breast cancer survivors, lifestyle interventions are needed to prevent chronic diseases associated with obesity. Increasing exercise adherence is a necessary target for further research in obese breast cancer survivors. 1. Introduction Obesity and sedentary lifestyle are associated with a higher risk of breast cancer recurrence and onset of comorbid conditions in women diagnosed with breast cancer [1–4]. Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of symptoms that includes abdominal adiposity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and glucose dysregulation which can markedly increase the risk of insulin resistance, diabetes, stroke, and cardiovascular disease. Prior research has demonstrated that between 50% and 64% of the 2.5 million breast cancer survivors are either overweight (BMI 25–30?kg/m2) or obese (BMI > 30?kg/m2) [5–7]. Additionally, breast cancer survivors are more likely to spend greater than 8 hours a day in a sedentary state when compared to noncancer participants [8]. Breast cancer has been associated in several studies with metabolic syndrome [2, 5] and insulin resistance [2, 4, 6–9]. Given that metabolic dysregulation may affect risk for recurrence of breast cancer and onset of additional chronic disease [10], investigation into effective interventions for reducing metabolic syndrome in breast cancer survivors is a much needed area of research. Physical activity may be an effective intervention for preventing and/or improving metabolic syndrome variables, thereby reducing
Correlates of exercise motivation and behavior in a population-based sample of endometrial cancer survivors: an application of the Theory of Planned Behavior
Kristina H Karvinen, Kerry S Courneya, Kristin L Campbell, Robert G Pearcey, George Dundas, Valerie Capstick, Katia S Tonkin
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-4-21
Abstract: A mailed survey was completed by 354 endometrial cancer survivors (1 to 10 years postdiagnosis) residing in Alberta, Canada. The study was cross-sectional. Exercise behavior was assessed using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire and the TPB constructs were assessed with standard self-report scales. Multiple regression analyses were used to determine the independent associations of the TPB constructs with intention and behavior.Chi-square analyses indicated that marital status (p = .003), income level (p = .013), and body mass index (BMI) (p = .020) were associated with exercise. The TPB explained 34.1% of the variance in exercise behavior with intention (β = .38, p < .001) and self-efficacy (β = .18, p = .029) being independent correlates. For intention, 38.3% of the variance was explained by the TPB with self-efficacy (β = .34, p < .001) and affective attitude (β = .30, p < .001) being the independent correlates. The TPB mediated the associations of marital status and BMI with exercise but not income level. Age and BMI moderated the associations of the TPB with intention and behavior.The TPB may be a useful framework for understanding exercise in endometrial cancer survivors. Exercise behavior change interventions based on the TPB should be tested in this growing population.Exercise has received attention as a means of ameliorating physical, functional, and emotional quality of life issues in cancer survivors [1]. Despite the many documented benefits of exercise in cancer survivors, exercise participation rates are relatively low [2,3] suggesting the importance of identifying the determinants of exercise in this group. Several studies have explored exercise motivation in cancer survivors [4]. Most studies have focused on the most common cancers such as breast [5], prostate [5], and colorectal [6], however, recent studies have also examined less common cancers such as non Hodgkins lymphoma [3], multiple myeloma [7] and brain cancer [8]. The results have in
Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing as Predictors for Lung Resection in Patients with Lung Cancer  [cached]
Chunting TAN,Haoyan WANG,Yong CUI,Zhi GAO
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer , 2011, DOI: 10.3779/j.issn.1009-3419.2011.07.09
Abstract: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) has become an important clinical tool to evaluate exercise capacity and predict outcome for patients with lung cancer being considered for lung resection. CPET can help in stratifying the surgical risk and identify those high-risk patients with lung resection. Preoperative screening using CPET allow the selection of appropriate therapeutic approach to decrease surgical complications and mortality.
Analysis of the Relationship Between Diet and Exercise Beliefs and Actual Behaviors Among Breast Cancer Survivors in Northwest Ohio
Jeffrey G. Weiner, Timothy R. Jordan, Amy J. Thompson and Brian N. Fink
Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research , 2012, DOI: 10.4137/BCBCR.S4146
Abstract: Introduction: Studies have shown that a diet high in fruit and vegetable intake, as well as a routine including daily exercise or physical activity, can independently affect relapse rates and survivorship in breast cancer patients. Fruits and vegetables contain powerful anti-oxidant molecules, capable of preventing tumor formation and proliferation. Exercise can lower circulating levels of estrogen, the female hormone responsible for tumor proliferation in the estrogen-sensitive form of the disease. The most beneficial results have been shown in women who exercise and consume a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. We studied the attitudes towards and behaviors related to fruit and vegetable intake and exercise in a cohort of breast cancer survivors in northwest Ohio. Materials and Methods: Data were gathered from a survey sent out by the Northwest Ohio Branch of the Susan G. Komen For the Cure Foundation. We assessed and evaluated survivors’ self-reported beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors regarding exercise and fruit and vegetable intake. Results: Nearly half of the survivors (46.5%) reported being unsure or in disagreement with the statement “Eating at least 5 servings of fruits and/or vegetables per day will reduce the risk of breast cancer recurrence.” Only 46.8% of those in agreement with the previous statement actually report eating at least 5 fruits and/or vegetables per day. With respect to exercise, 32.9% reported being unsure or in disagreement with the statement “Engaging in regular physical activity will reduce the risk of breast cancer recurrence.” Only 68.5% of those in agreement with the previous statement report any physical activity in the past 30 days. Conclusions: Many breast cancer survivors do not appear to be aware of the benefits of diet and exercise. Further, a large proportion of those who are aware of the benefits do not adapt a healthy diet and exercise as part of their lifestyle. A majority of these survivors see a primary care physician, which we believe is the best venue to bridge this education gap. It is apparent by the pattern our data shows that more needs to be done to educate breast cancer survivors about the benefits of exercise and fruit and vegetable intake. Steps need to be taken to ensure that those who are educated also remain motivated to engage in a healthy lifestyle with the hopes of avoiding breast cancer recurrence.
Analysis of the Relationship Between Diet and Exercise Beliefs and Actual Behaviors Among Breast Cancer Survivors in Northwest Ohio
Jeffrey G. Weiner,Timothy R. Jordan,Amy J. Thompson,Brian N. Fink
Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research , 2010,
Abstract: Introduction: Studies have shown that a diet high in fruit and vegetable intake, as well as a routine including daily exercise or physical activity, can independently affect relapse rates and survivorship in breast cancer patients. Fruits and vegetables contain powerful anti-oxidant molecules, capable of preventing tumor formation and proliferation. Exercise can lower circulating levels of estrogen, the female hormone responsible for tumor proliferation in the estrogen-sensitive form of the disease. The most beneficial results have been shown in women who exercise and consume a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. We studied the attitudes towards and behaviors related to fruit and vegetable intake and exercise in a cohort of breast cancer survivors in northwest Ohio. Materials and Methods: Data were gathered from a survey sent out by the Northwest Ohio Branch of the Susan G. Komen For the Cure Foundation. We assessed and evaluated survivors’ self-reported beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors regarding exercise and fruit and vegetable intake. Results: Nearly half of the survivors (46.5%) reported being unsure or in disagreement with the statement “Eating at least 5 servings of fruits and/or vegetables per day will reduce the risk of breast cancer recurrence.” Only 46.8% of those in agreement with the previous statement actually report eating at least 5 fruits and/or vegetables per day. With respect to exercise, 32.9% reported being unsure or in disagreement with the statement “Engaging in regular physical activity will reduce the risk of breast cancer recurrence.” Only 68.5% of those in agreement with the previous statement report any physical activity in the past 30 days. Conclusions: Many breast cancer survivors do not appear to be aware of the benefits of diet and exercise. Further, a large proportion of those who are aware of the benefits do not adapt a healthy diet and exercise as part of their lifestyle. A majority of these survivors see a primary care physician, which we believe is the best venue to bridge this education gap. It is apparent by the pattern our data shows that more needs to be done to educate breast cancer survivors about the benefits of exercise and fruit and vegetable intake. Steps need to be taken to ensure that those who are educated also remain motivated to engage in a healthy lifestyle with the hopes of avoiding breast cancer recurrence.
Effect of VATS Wedge Resection and Mediastinal Lymph Node Sampling in Eldly Patients with Early Peripheral Lung Cancer  [cached]
Weihua LOU,Xiaohong ZHAN,Xinqing XIANG,Wei GUAN
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer , 2012, DOI: 10.3779/j.issn.1009-3419.2012.01.10
Abstract: Background and objective The treatment for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer is primarily surgical. However, the optimal extent of mediastinal lymph node resection remains to be determined. The aim of the current study is to investigate the effect of a pulmonary wedge resection on aged patients with lung cancer. Methods A total of 15 lung cancer patients aged over 70 years were treated via video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) wedge resection and mediastinal lymph node sampling from June 2004 to February 2008. Mediastinal lymph node sampling included stations 2R, 4R, 8 and 9 for the right-sided cancers and stations 5, 6, 8 and 9 for the left-sided cancers. Results VATS wedge resection and mediastinal lymph node sampling for aged patients with peripheral lung cancer are minimally invasive treatments with a short operative time and low postoperative morbidity. The 1-year and 3-year survival rates were 100% and 86.6%, respectively. Conclusion VATS wedge resection and mediastinal lymph node sampling can be an alternative treatment for aged patients with early peripheral lung cancer.
Supportive care needs and health-related quality of life among Chinese lung cancer survivors  [PDF]
Dorothy Ngo-Sheung Chan, Kai-Chow Choi, Carmen Wing-Han Chan, Rayman Wai-Man Wan, Suzanne So-Shan Mak, Eliza Mi-Ling Wong, Sek-Ying Chair, Winnie Kwok-Wei So
Advances in Lung Cancer (ALC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/alc.2012.12002
Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the supportive care needs and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of lung cancer survivors, and to identify the association between patient characteristics, HRQoL and supportive care needs. Method: This was a sub-study of a larger scale survey of cancer survivors’ supportive care needs. A total of 48 lung cancer survivors were recruited from a regional teaching hospital, and a three-part structured questionnaire was used to collect 1) socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, 2) supportive care needs and 3) health-related quality of life data. Results: The three most commonly reported unmet needs were all in the health-system information domain: 1) being informed about your results as soon as possible (58%), 2) being informed about cancer which is under control or diminishing (50%), and 3) being informed about things you can do to help yourself get well (46%). The second most common unmet need domain was access to healthcare and ancillary support services. The survivors generally reported satisfactory HRQoL. However, household income and unmet physical and psychological needs were independently associated with HRQoL among these survivors. Conclusion: The high unmet needs in the health-system information area call for a review of the content and amount of information provided to lung cancer survivors. In addition, more attention should be given to lung cancer survivors with low incomes but high physical and psychological unmet needs, who require appropriate follow-up and long-term care of a physical, social and psychological kind.
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