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BENEFITS AND DISADVANTAGES OF SOME CONSERVATION TREATMENTS FOR EGYPTIAN MUMMIES
David,A. Rosalie;
Chungará (Arica) , 2001, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-73562001000100020
Abstract: mummified remains and associated artifacts are fragile and vulnerable to several types of deterioration, including those factors which result from environmental conditions, physical damage and damage caused by previous inadequate conservation attempts. this paper considers the benefits and disadvantages of the conservation treatments in relation to the preservation of dna in mummified remains
BENEFITS AND DISADVANTAGES OF SOME CONSERVATION TREATMENTS FOR EGYPTIAN MUMMIES  [cached]
A. Rosalie David
Chungará (Arica) - Revista de Antropología Chilena , 2001,
Abstract: Mummified remains and associated artifacts are fragile and vulnerable to several types of deterioration, including those factors which result from environmental conditions, physical damage and damage caused by previous inadequate conservation attempts. This paper considers the benefits and disadvantages of the conservation treatments in relation to the preservation of DNA in mummified remains Los restos momificados y sus artefactos asociados son frágiles y vulnerables a varios tipos de deterioro, incluyendo los factores que resultan de las condiciones ambientales, el da o físico y el da o causado por intentos anteriores o inapropiados de conservación. Este informe considerará los beneficios y desventajas de los métodos de conservación mediante los cuales la mayor parte del deterioro puede ser evitada o rectificada después. También se considerará la reparación física, el apoyo y el cuidado de las momias y, en particular, los problemas asociados con su exposición en museos. Finalmente, se presentarán nuevas investigaciones que consideran las maneras en que varios tratamientos de conservación pueden afectar la preservación de ADN en restos momificados
Some considerations on conservation and restoration in contemporary art  [cached]
Andrea Natali
Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage : Historical Technical Journal , 2008,
Abstract: A number of aspects and problems are discussed which refer to conservation and restoration in contemporary art. The need to classify contemporary art objects not chronologically but materially is Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage 196 obvious, which as well as using traditional techniques utilize new materials made available by industrial research. Thus the importance of an interdisciplinary approach to the problem, not only involving the experts, who have the historical-artistic and technical expertise, but the authors of the works in question too (and the manufacturers of the constituent materials of the said works), in order to be able to have a complete informative view of the corresponding characteristics and properties.
Diagnosing ancient Diphyllobothriasis from Chinchorro mummies
Reinhard, Karl;Urban, Otto;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762003000900028
Abstract: diphyllobothrium pacificum has been reported as a human parasite from coprolites and skeletons in peru and chile. our analysis of chinchorro mummies from chile provides the oldest evidence of d. pacificum directly associated with human mummies. these mummies date between 4,000 and 5,000 years ago. the basis for our diagnosis is presented. we find that the size of the eggs in the mummies is smaller than other discoveries of d. pacificum. we suggest that this is due to the peculiar circumstances of preservation of parasite eggs within mummies and the release of immature eggs into the intestinal tract as the tapeworms decompose after the death of the host. this information is important to consider when making diagnoses from mummies.
Diagnosing ancient Diphyllobothriasis from Chinchorro mummies  [cached]
Reinhard Karl,Urban Otto
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2003,
Abstract: Diphyllobothrium pacificum has been reported as a human parasite from coprolites and skeletons in Peru and Chile. Our analysis of Chinchorro mummies from Chile provides the oldest evidence of D. pacificum directly associated with human mummies. These mummies date between 4,000 and 5,000 years ago. The basis for our diagnosis is presented. We find that the size of the eggs in the mummies is smaller than other discoveries of D. pacificum. We suggest that this is due to the peculiar circumstances of preservation of parasite eggs within mummies and the release of immature eggs into the intestinal tract as the tapeworms decompose after the death of the host. This information is important to consider when making diagnoses from mummies.
Bacteria, fungi and arthropod pests collected on modern human mummies  [cached]
F. Palla,L. Sineo,Barbara Manachini
Journal of Entomological and Acarological Research , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/jear.2011.e8
Abstract: A survey of opportunistic biocenosis (macro and micro organisms) associated with a rest of human mummy samples was carried out to characterise the biocenosis and to detect the potential of biodeteriogens. The rests of the human modern mummies come from a hypogeic site. Since mummies are relevant from a historic-artistic-scientific point of view, an aspect of this study was the identification and characterization of the biological systems related with biodeterioration of organic matter. In a first step, different sampling methods, according to the taxa, were applied. Technological procedures were combined in order to have an interdisciplinary approach to the conservation actions for testing future restoration protocols. Specimens were collected, identified and characterized by Microscopy (light, SEM, CLSM) and molecular analyses (DNA extraction, in vitro target sequence amplification, sequencing, sequence analysis). The results highlight a rather complex biocenonsis consisting of fungi, cyanobacteria, several insects and other arthropods.
Genetic diversity of Agave cupreata Trel. & Berger. Considerations for its conservation
Martínez-Palacios, Alejandro;Gómez-Sierra, Juan M.;Sáenz-Romero, Cuauhtémoc;Pérez-Nasser, Nidia;Sánchez-Vargas, Nahúm;
Revista fitotecnia mexicana , 2011,
Abstract: agave cupreata trel. & berger is an endemic plant naturally distributed in the balsas depression, a semiarid region in the states of guerrero and michoacán in southwestern méxico. their populations are heavily decimated because mature individuals just before their single life flowering period are harvested to produce mescal, an alcoholic beverage. the genetic variation among and within 12 natural populations was examined for nine isozyme loci. results indicate high average proportion of polymorphic loci (93 %) and expected heterozygosity (h = 0.467), with an excess of observed heterozygotes in relation to hardy-weinberg expectations (ho = 0.521, f = -0.1179). these results represent the largest heterozygosity reported for agave species endemic to méxico. there is also a statistically significant genetic differentiation among populations (fst = 0.042). an upgma dendrogram reveals the absence of a geographic pattern, as confirmed by a mantel test (r = -0.110, p = 0.769), which did not show significant isolation by distance. estimated minimum viable effective population size was very large (ne =16,165), larger than in any other known natural population. to protect the natural genetic variation, it is suggested to design and manage a. cupreata natural populations as forest genetic resource conservation units (fgrcus) using realistic and modest ne sizes, perhaps between 500 and 5000 plants, ideally with intermediate plantations that could serve as pollinator corridors. commercial plantations and ex situ fgrcus need to be established to gradually develop a sustainable management, perhaps at higher altitudes than current locations, as a management measure for adaptation to the climatic change.
ASPECTS OF INGESTION TRANSMISSION OF CHAGAS DISEASE IDENTIFIED IN MUMMIES AND THEIR COPROLITES
Aufderheide,Arthur C.; Salo,Wilmar; Madden,Michael; Streitz,John; Dittmar de la Cruz,Katharina; Buikstra,Jane; Arriaza,Bernardo; Wittmers, Jr.,Lorentz E.;
Chungará (Arica) , 2005, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-73562005000100007
Abstract: molecular study of trypanosoma cruzi (t. cruzi) anciant dna (adna) in the soft (nonskeletal) tissues of 283 naturally (spontaneously) mummified bodies from coastal sites located in southern peru and northern chile demonstrated a chagas disease prevalence rate of about 41% over the past 9,000 years. this rate is similar to that of several endemic areas within this region prior to initiation of public health control programs. this report focuses on the presence of t. cruzi adna in the coprolites of some of these mummies. review of the possible mechanisms that may explain the presence of this parasite in the coprolites indicates numerous antemortem and postmortem circumstances that conceivably could have been responsible. in given conditions, all of these may need to be considered. these considerations indicate that the presence of t. cruzi adna in mummy coprolites cannot categorically be considered as evidence of ingestion of the parasite
THE MUMMIES OF THE HOLY VALLEY OF QANNOBINE IN LEBANON
Hourani,Guita G.;
Chungará (Arica) , 2000, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-73562000000100017
Abstract: the qannobine -the qadischa valley, the valley of saints, holy valley- in northern lebanon is a cornucopia of sacred religious places, where cenobites devoted themselves to god by renouncing the world. the valley was also a refuge for the persecuted lay christians who took abode in and around it. although the valley has been insufficiently studied in archaeological and ethnological theory, a recent finding confirms that it could be a gold mine for anthropologists, historians, archaeologists and environmentalists. it was between 1989 and 1991 when a group of speleologists from groupe d'etudes et de recherches souterraines du liban were studying asi al hadath grotto that they discovered a valuable treasure -human remains dating back to the thirteenth-century a.d. eight naturally mummified bodies were unearthed with their artifacts, embroidered clothes, syriac and arabic manuscripts, pottery, coins and household and defense instruments. based on preliminary studies, it is believed that the mummies are from the maronite community of the hadath al gibbet village located on the edge of the qannobine valley. the mummies, which are now housed at the national museum in beirut, lebanon, received radiographic, tomographic and dental examinations at hotel-dieu de france in beirut. in 1996, samples for dna analysis were sent to the laboratoire d' oncologie moleculaire, institue pasteur in france. to date no scientific studies of the examination or the analysis have been made public
THE MUMMIES OF THE HOLY VALLEY OF QANNOBINE IN LEBANON  [cached]
Guita G. Hourani
Chungará (Arica) - Revista de Antropología Chilena , 2000,
Abstract: The Qannobine -the Qadischa Valley, the Valley of Saints, Holy Valley- in Northern Lebanon is a cornucopia of sacred religious places, where cenobites devoted themselves to God by renouncing the world. The Valley was also a refuge for the persecuted lay Christians who took abode in and around it. Although the Valley has been insufficiently studied in archaeological and ethnological theory, a recent finding confirms that it could be a gold mine for anthropologists, historians, archaeologists and environmentalists. It was between 1989 and 1991 when a group of speleologists from Groupe d'Etudes et de Recherches Souterraines du Liban were studying Asi al Hadath Grotto that they discovered a valuable treasure -human remains dating back to the thirteenth-century A.D. Eight naturally mummified bodies were unearthed with their artifacts, embroidered clothes, Syriac and Arabic manuscripts, pottery, coins and household and defense instruments. Based on preliminary studies, it is believed that the mummies are from the Maronite community of the Hadath al Gibbet village located on the edge of the Qannobine Valley. The mummies, which are now housed at the National Museum in Beirut, Lebanon, received radiographic, tomographic and dental examinations at Hotel-Dieu de France in Beirut. In 1996, samples for DNA analysis were sent to the Laboratoire d' Oncologie Moleculaire, Institue Pasteur in France. To date no scientific studies of the examination or the analysis have been made public El valle de Qannabine, formado por el valle de Qadischa, el valle de los Santos y el valle Sagrado en el norte del Líbano, es una cornucopia de lugares sagrados donde los cenobitas se consagraban a Dios y renunciaban a lo mundano. Estos valles también sirvieron de refugio a los cristianos perseguidos. A pesar de que el valle no ha sido estudiado detalladamente desde un punto de vista arqueológico e histórico, recientes descubrimientos confirman que podría ser una mina de oro para los antropólogos, historiadores, arqueólogos y ecologistas. Entre 1988 y 1991 un grupo de espeleólogos del Grupo de Estudios y de Investigación de Líbano estaban estudiando la cueva de Asi al Hadath, cuando descubrieron restos humanos del siglo XIII DC. En total se encontraron 8 cuerpos con momificación natural más sus artefactos, tejidos, bordados, manuscritos sirios y arábicos, cerámica, monedas e instrumentos cotidianos y de defensa. Estudios preliminares indicarían que las momias pertenecerían a la comunidad maronita de la villa Hadath al Gibbet, situada en el valle de Qannobine. Estas momias que se encuentra
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