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父母情绪表达与青少年问题行为:亲子依恋、孤独感的多重中介效应
Association between Parental Emotion Expressiveness and Adolescents' Behavior Problem: the Mediating Role of the Parent-Child Attachment and Loneliness
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彭源,朱蕾,王振宏
- , 2018, DOI: 10.16187/j.cnki.issn1001-4918.2018.04.15
Abstract: 本研究以西安市两所中学的211名初一学生和477名高一学生共计688名学生为被试,探讨了父母情绪表达对青少年问题行为的影响,以及亲子依恋和孤独感在父母情绪表达与青少年问题行为间的中介作用,采用《父母情绪表达问卷》、《亲密关系体验量表》、《孤独感量表》、《青少年自评量表》进行测量研究。结果表明:父母情绪表达、亲子依恋、孤独感和青少年内、外化问题两两间存在显著相关;亲子依恋与孤独感在父母情绪表达与青少年问题行为间起多重中介作用,父母情绪表达既可直接影响青少年问题行为,也可以通过不安全依恋、孤独感各自独立的中介作用和不安全依恋、孤独感的链式中介作用影响青少年问题行为。本研究揭示了父母情绪表达与青少年问题行为的关系及其作用机制,拓展了父母情绪社会化对个体心理社会适应的研究。
The present study examined the relation between parental emotion expressiveness and adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problem, as well as the mediating role of attachment and loneliness. Totally 688 adolescents (348 boys and 340 girls) from grade 7 and grade 10 in Xi'an of Shaanxi province participated in this study. Self-Expressiveness in the Family Questionnaire, Experiences in Close Relationships Inventory, Loneliness Scale and Youth Self-Report were used to assess the main variables in this study. The results showed that Parent-child attachment and loneliness had multiple mediation effect between parental emotion expressiveness and adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problem. Specifically, parental emotion expressiveness affected problem behavior through both mediated roles of attachment or loneliness and chain-mediated role of attachment and loneliness. In summary, this study uncovered the mechanism underlying the relationship between parental emotion expressiveness and adolescents' problem behavior, which contributes to the understanding of the complex mechanism between parental emotional socialization and adolescents development.
Kindergarten children's attachment security, inhibitory control, and the internalization of rules of conduct  [PDF]
Tobias Heikamp,Gisela Trommsdorff,Michel D. Druey,Ronald Hübner,Antje von Suchodoletz
Frontiers in Psychology , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00133
Abstract: Starting from research on relations between attachment and the development of self-regulation, the present study aimed to investigate research questions on relations among inhibitory control, internalization of rules of conduct (i.e., behavior regulation, concern occasioned by others transgressions, confession, reparation after wrongdoing), and attachment security. Attachment security and internalization of rules of conduct of German kindergarten children (N = 82) were assessed by maternal reports. Children's inhibitory control was measured with the Stop-task. Regression analyses revealed that inhibitory control was positively related to attachment security and to internalization of rules of conduct. Mediational analysis using a bootstrapping approach indicated an indirect effect of attachment security on internalization processes via inhibitory control. Implications for further research on the development of inhibitory control and internalization of rules of conduct are discussed.
The Relationship between Child Maltreatment and Emotion Recognition  [PDF]
Michiko Koizumi, Haruto Takagishi
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086093
Abstract: Child abuse and neglect affect the development of social cognition in children and inhibit social adjustment. The purpose of this study was to compare the ability to identify the emotional states of others between abused and non-abused children. The participants, 129 children (44 abused and 85 non-abused children), completed a children’s version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). Results showed that the mean accuracy rate on the RMET for abused children was significantly lower than the rate of the non-abused children. In addition, the accuracy rates for positive emotion items (e.g., hoping, interested, happy) were significantly lower for the abused children, but negative emotion and neutral items were not different across the groups. This study found a negative relationship between child abuse and the ability to understand others’ emotions, especially positive emotions.
Child's Attachment to Mother as the Basis of Mental Development Typology  [PDF]
Galina V. Burmenskaya
Psychology in Russia : State of Art , 2009,
Abstract: The article shows the role of the attachment system (child-mother interactions) in development of a wide spectrum of individual personality characteristics. Emotional attachment of the child to mother is considered as a complicated system of internal regulation and a basis of typology of mental development. Results of a series of empirical studies show the connection between the type of attachment, formed at the early stages of child development, and characteristics of his/her autonomy, consciousness (self-concept and self-esteem) and empathy in preschool and middle childhood.
Attachment patterns and anxiety in adolescents suffering from mixed disorders of conduct and emotions [Wzory przywi zania i l k u adolescentów z diagnoz zaburzeń zachowania i emocji]  [PDF]
Iniewicz, Grzegorz,Dziekan, Karolina,Wi?niewska, Dominika,Czuszkiewicz, Agnieszka
Psychiatria Polska , 2011,
Abstract: Aim. The paper presents results of research concerning attachment patterns and anxiety in adolescents suffering from mixed disorders of conduct and emotions.Method. Both clinical and control group completed the Parental Bonding Instrument and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The first questionnaire measures parental style as perceived by the child, it consists of two scales: care and control. The second one the temporary condition of “state anxiety” and the more general and long-standing quality of “trait anxiety”.Results. The study revealed that adolescents from the clinical group perceive their parents as less protective than the control. Adolescents from the clinical group revealed also a higher level of anxiety, both as a state and as a trait.Conclusions. The basic conclusion is that there are differences between groups in family functioning – adolescents from the clinical group received less protection from parents, which may influence their behaviours aimed at providing them more safety.
情绪调节与依恋—基于发展的视角
Emotion Regulation and Attachment —Based on the Perspective of Development
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李梦楠
Advances in Psychology (AP) , 2016, DOI: 10.12677/AP.2016.64068
Abstract:
不同的情绪表达代表的是复杂的社会性信息,而不同依恋风格的个体拥有各自不同的情绪调节方式,个体情绪的表达和情绪调节方式也直接影响到他们的社会性发展。本文从情绪、情绪调节与依恋相关的实证研究证据出发,结合近年来在依恋与情绪调节领域的最新研究,特别是关于青少年心理健康状态的相关研究,从发展的角度对情绪调节与依恋之间的联系进行整理和概括。未来研究应从研究方法、选题角度以及考察视角等方面逐步加深情绪调节能力与依恋模式在个体心理状态健康发展中起到的重要作用。
Different emotional expression is the representative of the complicated social information, and individuals with different attachment styles have different emotion regulation, emotion expression and emotion regulation also directly affect their social development. This article started from the integration of empirical evidence which included emotion, emotion regulation and attachment in recent years, combined with the new research of emotion regulation and attachment, especially the research on adolescent mental health related, summarized and collated the relationship between emotion regulation and attachment from the perspective of the development. Future research should deepen the important effects of attachment and emotion regulation for the development of people’s mental health both from the methods and the angle of view.
The Father-Child Activation Relationship, Sex Differences, and Attachment Disorganization in Toddlerhood  [PDF]
Daniel Paquette,Caroline Dumont
Child Development Research , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/102860
Abstract: The activation relationship theory serves as a complement to Bowlby’s attachment theory to better understand the impact of fathering on child development, focusing primarily on parental stimulation of risk taking and control during children’s exploration. The first aim of this study was to confirm that the activation relationship as assessed with the observational procedure, the Risky Situation, is primarily determined by paternal stimulation of risk taking as assessed by questionnaire. The second aim was to verify the link between the activation relationship and attachment disorganization. The third aim was to verify the existence of a sex difference in father-toddler dyad activation relationships. The Strange Situation procedure and the Risky Situation procedure were conducted with 58 father-toddler dyads. Fathers completed questionnaires on child temperament and parental behavior. Paternal stimulation of risk taking explains activation once child sex and temperament, the attachment relationship, and emotional support are taken into account. Moreover, there is no relation between the father-child activation relationship and attachment disorganization. Finally, data confirm the existence of a sex difference in the activation relationship in toddlers: fathers activate their sons more than their daughters. 1. Introduction Little data on father-child attachment has been collected, at least insofar as young children are concerned. What data we do possess has been obtained through the use of the Strange Situation, a method validated with mothers and used primarily with fathers who are secondary attachment figures for their children. The low stability, low transmissibility, and low predictability of father-child attachment have caused increasing numbers of researchers to question the pertinence of using the Strange Situation with fathers who have little involvement in daily caregiving [1–3]. Grossmann and Grossmann [4] and Grossmann et al. [5], for example, have suggested finding a more appropriate method to assess father-child attachment. Others agree that this relationship develops through mechanisms that may be different from those involved in mother-child attachment [6–10]. In fact, fathers’ activities with their children are often unlike from those of mothers: fathers tend to excite children and to engage in more physical play with them than mothers do, especially with boys [11, 12]. According to Labrell [13], children must learn to respond to unforeseen events and it is fathers who facilitate such learning by teasing them and destabilizing them with
不安全型依恋个体的情绪调节差异
The Different Emotion Regulation in Insecurity Attachment
 [PDF]

杨青青, 陈旭
Advances in Psychology (AP) , 2015, DOI: 10.12677/AP.2015.56051
Abstract:
依恋类型会影响对情绪信息的加工和情绪调节,回避型依恋早期注意选择时会对情绪信息进行区别,减少对情绪性信息的注意,惯常使用抑制调节策略,认知重评策略会增加杏仁核左侧的激活,表明认知重评是低效的。而焦虑型早期信息加工时并未对情绪性信息表现出选择性差异,表现为持续注意和高唤醒,并唤醒依恋相关的记忆加强对情绪信息的表征,且在社会负性情景下时杏仁核右侧高度激活,即在情绪信息上分配较多注意资源。情绪调节时会同时使用认知重评和反应抑制,但具体机制仍需深入。未来研究应从情绪调节的过程上具体探索不安全型依恋在不同阶段的情绪调节策略,并从纵向上探索情绪调节的差异以及深入研究依恋的一侧化,来扩展不同依恋风格的差异。
Adult attachment style refers to individual differences in the way people process and regulate their emotion. Avoidantly attached people tend to deal with emotion by decreasing attention to emotion information and then inhibition behavior or expressive suppression, while they use re- appraisal strategy for the same stimuli, the left amygdala activity is increasing. These results suggest that avoidant attachment style may imply less efficient reappraisal strategy. Conversely, anxiously attached people tend to intensify attention to emotion (both negative and positive) information and increase right amygdala activity in unpleasant social stimuli, which suggestive of increase emotional arousal and vigilance to social negative information. Further research is needed to explore the different stage of regulation strategy in different attachment style, and the hemispheric asymmetry in the context of attachment.
Teacher and Child Talk in Pre-school English Class
Education , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.edu.20120207.15
Abstract: With globalization, the importance of English for young learners has been widely acknowledged in Indonesia in recent years and this is further enhanced by people’s belief in early English education - the sooner their young children learn English the better. Therefore, many people send their young children to pre-schools that provide English from the first year of schooling. Today, a lot of pre-schools are running English programs that have attracted many parents to send their young children to the schools. This paper describes features of teacher and child talk in teaching English at one pre-school. The study was conducted in SatyaParahita pre-school, in Salatiga. The participant of the study was the English teacher at the school. The data for the study were collected from several classroom observations that were audio-recorded and then transcribed. The analysis of the data shows that the teacher used a variety of interactional moves in teaching young learners and that the teacher’s feedback shows different functions which support learning in different ways. The paper concludes with implications for early English instruction for young learners.
Attachment patterns and aggressive behaviours in adolescents suffering from mixed disorders of conduct and emotions [Wzory przywi zania i zachowania agresywne w ród m odzie y z diagnoz zaburzeń zachowania i emocji]  [PDF]
Iniewicz, Grzegorz,Wi?niewska, Dominika,Dziekan, Karolina,Czuszkiewicz, Agnieszka
Psychiatria Polska , 2011,
Abstract: Aim. The paper presents results of research concerning attachment patterns and aggressive behaviours in adolescents suffering from mixed disorders of conduct and emotions.Method. Both the clinical and the control group completed Parental Bonding Instrument and Polish version of Buss-Durkee Inventory. The first questionnaire measures parental style as perceived by the child, it consists of two scales: care and control. The second one measures some dimensions of aggression.Results. The study revealed that adolescents from the clinical group perceive their parents as less protective than the control. It showed very weak relations between relations with the parents and expression of aggression. These results are discussed.Conclusions. The basic conclusion is that there are differences between groups in family functioning – adolescents from the clinical group received less protection from their parents what may influence their behaviours aimed at providing them more safety. Results concerning the relation between family relations and aggression indicate that future research must take into consideration other social relations of adolescents.
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