Search Results: 1 - 10 of 100 matches for " "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item
Introgression potential between safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) and wild relatives of the genus Carthamus
Marion Mayerhofer, Reinhold Mayerhofer, Deborah Topinka, Jed Christianson, Allen G Good
BMC Plant Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-11-47
Abstract: Safflower hybridized and produced viable offspring with members of the section Carthamus and species with chromosome numbers of n = 10 and n = 22, but not with n = 32. The T-DNA construct of a transgenic C. tinctorius line was passed on to the F1 progeny in a Mendelian fashion, except in one specific cross, where it was deleted at a frequency of approximately 21%. Analyzing fitness and key morphological traits like colored seeds, shattering seed heads and the presence of a pappus, we found no evidence of hybrid vigour or increased weediness in the F1 hybrids of commercial safflower and its wild relatives.Our results suggest that hybridization between commercial safflower and its wild relatives, while feasible in most cases we studied, does not generate progeny with higher propensity for weediness.The genus Carthamus is a diverse group of plants within the Asteraceae and is of interest due to the commercial growth of one member, C. tinctorius (safflower) as well as for its potential as a model system to examine the introgression of agronomic and weedy traits across species boundaries and to study the invasiveness of wild relatives of a crop. Safflower is grown in several countries as an oilseed crop and for birdseed and is being evaluated as a crop platform for molecular farming [1]. The different species of Carthamus have been classified into several different grouping systems by different taxonomists. Estilai and Knowles [2] originally placed 13 species in the genus Carthamus into five sections, based on chromosome numbers. Lopez-Gonzalez [3] rearranged the 15 species that he identified into three sections (Carthamus, Odonthagnathis and Atractylis), to match the understanding of the relationships between the species and their chromosome numbers. In the scheme proposed by Vilatersana et al. [4], the section Carthamus contains the species with 12 sets of chromosomes including C. tinctorius, C. palaestinus and C. oxyacanthus. The section Atractylis (n = 10, 11, 22, 32
DNA sequence diversity and the origin of cultivated safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.; Asteraceae)
Mark A Chapman, John M Burke
BMC Plant Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-7-60
Abstract: Single gene phylogenetic analyses indicated some reticulation or incomplete lineage sorting. However, the analysis of the combined dataset revealed a close relationship between safflower and C. palaestinus. In contrast, C. oxyacanthus and C. persicus appear to be more distantly related to safflower.Based on our results, we conclude that safflower is most likely derived from the wild species Carthamus palaestinus. As expected, safflower exhibits somewhat reduced nucleotide diversity as compared to its progenitor, consistent with the occurrence of a population genetic bottleneck during domestication. The results of this research set the stage for an investigation of the genetics of safflower domestication.Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is a thistle-like, self-compatible, annual, diploid (2n = 24) herbaceous crop that thrives in hot, dry climates, and is capable of surviving on minimal surface moisture. It is believed to have been domesticated somewhere in the Fertile Crescent region over 4,000 years ago [1]. Following its initial domestication, safflower cultivation is thought to have expanded to both the east and west [2], with Knowles [3] ultimately recognizing seven "centers of similarity" (the Far East, India-Pakistan, the Middle East, Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia and Europe). Safflower lines native to each 'center' are remarkably similar in height, branching, spines, flower color and head size; however, consistent morphological differences are maintained between the centers.For centuries, safflower was grown on a local scale for its flowers, which served as a source of dye (carthamine) for textiles and food coloring, as well as for use in religious ceremonies [4]. Floral extracts were also used to flavor foods, and have historically been valued for their numerous medicinal properties. Cultivation of safflower in the New World commenced in 1899, and commercial production of safflower as an oilseed crop began in the 1950s [5]. More recently, there has been growing i
Some Technological and Morphological Characteristics of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) from Iran  [PDF]
M.H. Pahlavani
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: In this study, ten breeding lines of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) from Iran were evaluated in respect to technological and morphological traits for their utilization aspects in both food industry and agricultural applications. A considerable variation was found among the genotypes for hull, protein and oil content, iodine value, plant height, seed yield per plant, number of heads per plant and 100-seed weight. Oil content of seeds had a positive and considerable correlation with Iodine value and plant height and also, a negative correlation with seed yield per plant. Also, protein content recorded the highest positive association with oil content followed by plant height. Seed yield per plant showed positive and considerable correlation with hull content and number of days to flowering and a considerable negative correlation with protein content of seeds. Our results suggest that evaluated breeding lines of safflower could be valuable materials for breeding programs in which the main goals are improving oil yield and oil quality. The low correlation between oil content and seed yield in this study implied that it is possible to improve the seed yield and oil content simultaneously in safflower. Also, the results of this study indicated that improvement of seed yield could be achieved by selection for number of days to flowering.
Leaf Area Prediction Model for Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)  [PDF]
Necdet Camas,Ali Kemal Ayan,Enver Esendal
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: In the present study, it was aimed to develop a leaf area prediction model for safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). The experimental design was a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications in the 2004 growing season in the Middle Black Sea Region conditions of Turkey. Three safflower cultivars (5-154, Din er and Yenice) were grown at five locations (Bafra, Ladik, Suluova, Gumuohacikoy and Osmancik). Totally, 9604 leaves for five different times were measured in the experiment. Leaf width, length and leaf area were measured. The actual leaf area of the plant was measured by PLACOM Digital Planimeter and Multiple regression analysis with Excel 7.0 was performed. The leaf area model developed was LA= (3.88) - (3.14 x W) + (0.76 x W2) + (0.73 x W x L) + [0.009 (W x L2)] - [0.004 (W2 x L2)]. LA is leaf area, L is leaf length, W is leaf width. R2 value (0.95) and standard errors were found to be significant at the p<0.001 level.
The Effect of Water Deficit on Yield and Yield Components of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)
M. Nabipour,M. Meskarbashee,H. Yousefpour
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: The aim of this study carried out in Shahid Chamran Ahwaz, University, in 2001-2002 to determine the effect of different forms of irrigation on the safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) yield and yield components. Information was needed on application time of irrigation water on cultivars of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Increasing competition for water supplies and rising costs of applying water make efficient irrigation important. Yield and water use of safflower were evaluated on silt loam soil. Deficit irrigation treatments; I1: normal irrigation, I2: cutoff irrigation in budding period, I3: cutoff irrigation in flowering period (blooming), I4: cutoff irrigation in maturity period, were examined in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCB) with three replications. In this field experiment irrigation regimes were the main plots and cvs (ARAK 28, ESFAHAN LOCALITY and FO2 cvs) were as sub plots. The plant height, the plant head number, the 1000 seed weight and the seed yield were measured in this experiment. The different irrigation regimes had a significant effects (p<0.05) on the seed, the crude oil yields (kg ha-1), seed number per boll, harvest index, total dry weight. The highest seed yield (2679 kg seed ha-1 in cv. ESFAHAN Lo.) and the crude oil yield (855 kg oil ha-1 in cv. ARAK) were obtained from the I1 irrigation regime. I3 gave the lowest seed yield (1499 kg seed ha-1 in cv. FO2) and the crude oil yield (449 kg oil ha-1 in cv. FO2). I1 gave the highest oil percentage (35% in ARAK cv.) and the lowest (27.4% in FO2 cv.) obtained in I4. The different between cvs were significant in number of boll per plant, number of seed per boll, the 1000 seed, high, number of branch per plant, seed yield (kg ha-1), crude oil yield and total dry weight.
Advances in Cell and Tissue Culture of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)

LI Ai-xin,WANG Xiao-dong,WANG Li,WANG Yu-chun,

过程工程学报 , 2006,
Abstract: Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is a traditional medicinal herb and also an important oilseed crop. In this paper, the callus induction, large scale cell culture, secondary metabolite, synthesis, somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis of safflower are briefly reviewed, and the prospect of this research field is also discussed.
Genetic Divergence Studies in Safflower, Carthamus tinctorius L.
D. Shivani, Ch.Sreelakshmi and C.V.Sameer Kumar
Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding , 2010,
Abstract: The present study was carried out to study the genetic divergence among 75 germplasm lines of safflower. Analysis ofvariance revealed significant variation among the genotypes for all the characters studied. Among the genotypes, GMU 3327,GMU 3279, GMU 3325 and GMU 3313 were found to be promising on the basis of per se performance for seed yield. Seedyield exhibited maximum contribution towards genetic divergence followed by number of capitula per plant, number of seedsper capitulum, oil content, days to 50% flowering and days to maturity. The genotypes were grouped into 8 clusters out ofwhich cluster II is having maximum of 23 genotypes followed by cluster I with 20 genotypes. Maximum inter cluster distancewas observed between clusters VII and VIII followed by clusters VI and VIII, clusters IV and VIII and clusters I and VIII .
Canonical variate analysis in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)
D.Shivani*, Ch. Sreelakshmi and C.V. Sameer Kumar
Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding , 2011,
Abstract: Seventy five genotypes of safflower representing the broad spectrum of variation were assessed for genetic divergence for eightcharacters using Mahalanobis D2 statistic and principal component analysis. The seed yield contributed maximum towards thetotal genetic divergence followed by test weight and number of seeds per capitulam. On the basis of clustering method, twelveclusters were obtained for D2 statistic. The best clusters with regard to seed yield and oil content were cluster XII and cluster II,respectively. Principal component analysis identified three principal components which explained 83.02% variability. GenotypesGMU 3470, GMU 3484, GMU 3499, A-1, JSF-1 and GMU 3475 (based on PCI axis) were divergent.
Comparing Stability of Carthamin and Safflower Yellow Pigments at PH, Temperature and Light, from Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Florets
N. Fatahi,. Carapetian,R. Heidari
Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) belongs to composite family. Its florets contain edible carthamin and safflower yellow dyes. The pigments are very useful for dying foods and cosmetics. The natural pigments also have medicinal properties. In this research, external factors suspecting to influence the chemical nature of carthamin and safflower yellow in aqueous media were studied. Dried florets were powdered and used for the extraction of carthamin which was obtainable through alkaline extraction, acidification and cellulose adsorption. Also, dried safflower powder was used for extraction of water soluble yellow pigment. Aqueous solutions of the pigments were exposed to some external factors such as temperature (10, 30, 50 and 70°C), pH (below 2 and above 7), light (400 Lux and UV). The results showed at higher temperature carthamin was more readily decomposed, but safflower yellow isn’t affected so much by the temperature. Occurring above and below the pH range in which carthamin is most stable (pH 3-5.5), increased degradation of the pigment. The pigments in aqueous solution were exposed to dark, visible and ultraviolet light. Loss of safflower yellow coloration increased. These results were studied spectrophotometerically to check patterns of stability of the pigments. Comparing the pigments indicates safflower yellow is more stable than carthamin in temperature and pH treatment, but carthamin is more stable than safflower yellow in light treatment. Most synthetic pigments have carcinogenic properties, whereas natural pigments have biological value and belong to natural components of food products.
Spectrophotometric Measurement of Valuable Pigments from Petals of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and their Identification by TLC Method
N. Fatahi,J. Carapetian,R. Heidari
Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is a composite plant. It’s flowers are an essential dye-stuff for preparing edible carthamin and safflower yellow dyes, which has been increasingly applied as a colour additive for processed foods as well as cosmetic rouges and medicinal tablets. A technique for the analysis of carthamin and Carthamus yellow is described. The teqnique involves the following 3 steps: Extraction, measurement of visible absorption spectrum of the color and thin-layer chromatography. Dried safflower powder was used for extraction of water soluble yellow and the water insoluble carthamin was obtainable through alkaline extraction, acidification and cellulose adsorption. The pigment extracts were identified by using thin-layer chromatography and spectrophotometery. Spectrophotometeric absorption spectra in invisible wavelength showed the absorption maxima for carthamin red at 520 nm in acetone extraction. Similarly water soluble safflower yellow showed 405 nm absorption maxima. The Rf values were measured by thin-Layer chromatography. Because these dyes are natural and have clinical effects, they are potentially useful for dying different food products.
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item

Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.