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DAILY PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND PHYSICAL FITNESS IN 11-TO 15-YEAR-OLD TRAINED AND UNTRAINED TURKISH BOYS  [cached]
Alpay Güven?,Caner A??kada,Alper Aslan,Kamil ?zer
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: The aims of this study were to assess levels and patterns of physical activity (PA) in relation to age and regular sport activity, and to examine its relationship to physical fitness in trained and untrained boys. One hundred forty-seven 11-to 15- year-old boys (73 trained and 74 untrained) participated in this study. Trained boys, comprised of 26 soccer, 25 handball and 22 volleyball players, had been training regularly for at least one year. The intensity, duration and frequency of PA were assessed from four complete days of heart rate monitoring with 15-seconds sampling intervals. Aerobic fitness was assessed by determining peakVO2 with a portable breath-by-breath gas analyzer (Cosmed K4b2) and the running speeds at fixed lactate concentrations during an incremental running test. Anaerobic fitness was evalu-ated with the Wingate Anaerobic Test. Skinfold thicknesses from eight sites and Tanner stages of pubic hair were also obtained. Based on 15-s heart rate data, instead of continuous activity, multiple short bouts of moderate and vigorous PA, lasting up to one minute, were characteristic of daily PA patterns of both trained and untrained boys. PA levels of trained boys were higher than untrained boys (p < 0.01) and the levels of PA decreased with age and maturation in both groups (p < 0.05). Daily PA variables were related to body fatness in both groups (p < 0.05), but the relationships were not consistent in the trained group. Daily PA variables were also related to aerobic fitness in the untrained group (p < 0.05) and these relationships were somewhat better with vigorous PA, whereas in the trained group, none of the PA variables were related to any of the aerobic fitness indices (p > 0.05). No relationship was observed between PA variables and anaerobic fitness in either group (p> 0.05). It seems that such relationships may somewhat depend on the fitness level of the subjects
Effects of acute and 14-day coenzyme Q10 supplementation on exercise performance in both trained and untrained individuals
Matthew Cooke, Mike Iosia, Thomas Buford, Brian Shelmadine, Geoffrey Hudson, Chad Kerksick, Christopher Rasmussen, Mike Greenwood, Brian Leutholtz, Darryn Willoughby, Richard Kreider
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1550-2783-5-8
Abstract: Twenty-two aerobically trained and nineteen untrained male and female subjects (26.1 ± 7.6 yrs, 172 ± 8.7 cm, 73.5 ± 17 kg, and 21.2 ± 7.0%) were randomized to ingest in a double-blind manner either 100 mg of a dextrose placebo (CON) or a fast-melt CoQ10 supplement (CoQ10) twice a day for 14-days. On the first day of supplementation, subjects donated fasting blood samples and a muscle biopsy. Subjects were then given 200 mg of the placebo or the CoQ10 supplement. Sixty minutes following supplement ingestion, subjects completed an isokinetic knee extension endurance test, a 30-second wingate anaerobic capacity test, and a maximal cardiopulmonary graded exercise test interspersed with 30-minutes of recovery. Additional blood samples were taken immediately following each exercise test and a second muscle biopsy sample was taken following the final exercise test. Subjects consumed twice daily (morning and night), 100 mg of either supplement for a period of 14-days, and then returned to the lab to complete the same battery of tests. Data was analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA with an alpha of 0.05.Plasma CoQ10 levels were significantly increased following 2 weeks of CoQ10 supplementation (p < 0.001); while a trend for higher muscle CoQ10 levels was observed after acute CoQ10 ingestion (p = 0.098). A trend for lower serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) was observed following acute supplementation with CoQ10 (p = 0.06), whereas serum malondialdehyde (MDA) tended to be significantly higher (p < 0.05). Following acute ingestion of CoQ10, plasma CoQ10 levels were significantly correlated to muscle CoQ10 levels; maximal oxygen consumption; and treadmill time to exhaustion. A trend for increased time to exhaustion was observed following 2 weeks of CoQ10 supplementation (p = 0.06).Acute supplementation with CoQ10 resulted in higher muscle CoQ10 concentration, lower serum SOD oxidative stress, and higher MDA levels during and following exercise. Chronic CoQ10 supplementation incr
HIGHER CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS IN OLDER TRAINED WOMEN IS DUE TO PRESERVED STROKE VOLUME  [cached]
Shilpa Dogra,Matthew D. Spencer,Donald H. Paterson
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: Previous literature has shown that sedentary older women rely on peripheral adaptations to improve cardiorespiratory fitness with endurance training i.e. they show minimal increases in central parameters (cardiac output, Q) in response to endurance training. The purpose of this study therefore was to determine whether endurance trained older women were able to preserve maximal exercise Q and were characterized by a high stroke volume (SV) when compared to physically inactive older women. Trained (n = 7) and untrained (n = 1 0) women attended two maximal and one submaximal laboratory session. Breath-by-breath analysis was conducted using mass spectrometry and Q was assessed using acetylene open circuit inert gas wash-in. Multivariate analysis of variance and paired samples t-tests were used to determine between and within group differences. Trained women had a significantly higher VO2max (37.5 vs. 24.1 ml-1·kg·min-1) compared to untrained women. There were no differences for peripheral oxygen extraction (VO2/Q) at either submaximal or maximal work rates; however trained women had a significantly higher SV at maximal (119.3 vs. 94.6 ml) exercise compared to untrained women. In both trained and untrained women, SV did not rise significantly between submaximal and maximal exercise. Conclusion: Highly fit, endurance trained older women are able to preserve central parameters of VO2max. Peripheral oxygen extraction is similar between older trained and untrained women
THE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF AEROBIC CAPACITY IN TRAINED AND UNTRAINED SUBJECTS  [cached]
Purru Ravi Kumar,Yogananda Reddy Indla,Ragam Ravi Sunder,Rajani Santha Kumari
International Journal of Biomedical Research , 2013, DOI: 10.7439/ijbr.v3i1.272
Abstract: Aim: To evaluate aerobic capacity in trained and untrained subjects by measuring Vo2 max. Methods and Materials: In the present study 40 healthy subjects were selected between the age group 20-30 years. One group is not having any regular specific physical exercise and the second group which includes subjects, who regularly do the cycling in gym since more than two years. Resting pulse rate was recorded with E.C.G. The subjects were asked to peddle the bicycle ergo metre first with a resistance of 2 kg for 5 minutes next with a resistance of 4 kg for 3 minutes there after resistance is increased by 0.5 kg for every 3 minutes until the subject is exhausted. Immediately after the exercise heart rate was recorded with E.C.G. Vo2max =55.23-(0.09xheart rate/min). Results: P-value of Vo2 max is 0.005 which is highly significant. Conclusion: The Vo2 max is higher in trained subjects than in untrained subjects. This is due to cardiac output and total skeletal muscle mass are more in trained subjects.
THE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF AEROBIC CAPACITY IN TRAINED AND UNTRAINED SUBJECTS  [cached]
Purru Ravi Kumar,Yogananda Reddy Indla,Ragam Ravi Sunder,Rajani Santha Kumari
International Journal of Biomedical Research , 2012, DOI: 10.7439/ijbr.v3i1.272
Abstract: Aim: To evaluate aerobic capacity in trained and untrained subjects by measuring Vo2 max. Methods and Materials: In the present study 40 healthy subjects were selected between the age group 20-30 years. One group is not having any regular specific physical exercise and the second group which includes subjects, who regularly do the cycling in gym since more than two years. Resting pulse rate was recorded with E.C.G. The subjects were asked to peddle the bicycle ergo metre first with a resistance of 2 kg for 5 minutes next with a resistance of 4 kg for 3 minutes there after resistance is increased by 0.5 kg for every 3 minutes until the subject is exhausted. Immediately after the exercise heart rate was recorded with E.C.G. Vo2max =55.23-(0.09xheart rate/min). Results: P-value of Vo2 max is 0.005 which is highly significant. Conclusion: The Vo2 max is higher in trained subjects than in untrained subjects. This is due to cardiac output and total skeletal muscle mass are more in trained subjects.
INTRA- AND INTERRATER RELIABILITY OF MORPHOLOGICALLY EVALUATED LYMPHOCYTE APOPTOSIS IN TRAINED AND UNTRAINED OBSERVERS  [PDF]
J.W. Navalta,B.K. McFarlin,T.S. Lyons,A.A. Ramos
Biology of Sport , 2011,
Abstract: Exercise-induced lymphocyte apoptosis has been reported using biochemical analysis and morphological assessment. Morphological evaluation is limited by the subjective nature of the technique. This investigation evaluated the intra- and interrater reliability of trained and untrained observers assessing apoptosis morphologically. Blood smears at baseline (PRE) and following cycle ergometer exercise (POST) were assessed microscopically for each condition. To obtain reliability measures, cell sets were evaluated for morphological characteristics of apoptosis on two separate occasions by trained and untrained observers using the intraclass correlation coefficient. Test-retest reliability for trained observers was higher for both conditions than untrained observers. Interrater reliability was below-average or below acceptable regardless of training status. Exercise may induce apoptotic changes in lymphocytes that are more easily discriminated by trained observers. Investigations assessing exercise-induced apoptosis should train observers in order to produce reliable results, and a single trained observer would be expected to yield the most reliable results.
THE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANAEROBIC CAPACITY IN TRAINED AND UNTRAINED SUBJECTS  [cached]
Ravi Kumar Purru,Yogananda Reddy Indla,Ragam Ravi Sunder,Rajani Santha Kumari
International Journal of Biomedical Research , 2012, DOI: 10.7439/ijbr.v3i2.310
Abstract: Aim: To evaluate anaerobic capacity in trained and untrained subjects Methods and Materials: In the present study 40 healthy male subjects were selected between the age group 20-22 years. Average Weight is 65 kg ±2. Average height is 167 cm ±2. One group is not having any regular specific physical exercise and the second group which includes subjects who regularly do the cycling for 30 minutes all days in a week since 6 months. Subjects attended the physiology department daily between 8-8.30 am without breakfast. The subjects were asked to warm up by peddling the bicycle ergo meter for 2-4 minutes. Next the subjects were asked to rest for 3-5 minutes. Then the subjects were peddled the bicycle ergo meter all-out as fast as they can without any resistance applied to the fly wheel once the subjects reaches full speed now we have applied predetermined resistance to the fly wheel, subjects are peddled the bicycle ergo meter with full speed for 30 seconds. An electrical counter records the number of fly wheel revolutions for 30 seconds. AC = Force x Distance 4 Results: P value of AC is 0.001 Conclusion: AC is higher in trained subjects than in untrained subjects. Keywords: Anaerobic capacity (AC), Bicycle ergo meter (Martin)
THE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANAEROBIC CAPACITY IN TRAINED AND UNTRAINED SUBJECTS  [cached]
Ravi Kumar Purru,Yogananda Reddy Indla,Ragam Ravi Sunder,Rajani Santha Kumari
International Journal of Biomedical Research , 2013, DOI: 10.7439/ijbr.v3i2.310
Abstract: Aim: To evaluate anaerobic capacity in trained and untrained subjects Methods and Materials: In the present study 40 healthy male subjects were selected between the age group 20-22 years. Average Weight is 65 kg ±2. Average height is 167 cm ±2. One group is not having any regular specific physical exercise and the second group which includes subjects who regularly do the cycling for 30 minutes all days in a week since 6 months. Subjects attended the physiology department daily between 8-8.30 am without breakfast. The subjects were asked to warm up by peddling the bicycle ergo meter for 2-4 minutes. Next the subjects were asked to rest for 3-5 minutes. Then the subjects were peddled the bicycle ergo meter all-out as fast as they can without any resistance applied to the fly wheel once the subjects reaches full speed now we have applied predetermined resistance to the fly wheel, subjects are peddled the bicycle ergo meter with full speed for 30 seconds. An electrical counter records the number of fly wheel revolutions for 30 seconds. AC = Force x Distance 4 Results: P value of AC is 0.001 Conclusion: AC is higher in trained subjects than in untrained subjects. Keywords: Anaerobic capacity (AC), Bicycle ergo meter (Martin)
Pulmonary Functions in Trained and Untrained Wind Instrument Blowers  [PDF]
Mohan Manohar Sagdeo,,*Prashant Devidas Khuje
People's Journal of Scientific Research , 2012,
Abstract: The present cross-sectional study was designed to ascertain whether regular and trained wind instrument blowers develop higher pulmonary functions than untrained or part time blowers. The study included 155 trained & regular blowers (Group A), 100 untrained part-time blowers (Group B) and 100 non-blowers (Group C). They were investigated by a computerized spirometer (RMS medspiror).Group A subjects showed a significantly higher (p<0.001) percentage predicted value for Forced Vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV 1 ), Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR), Maximum Voluntary Ventilation(MVV), Forced Expiratory Flow at 25% & 50% of FVC (FEF25% & FEF50%), Forced Expiratory Flow between 25% & 75%of FVC (FEF 25-75%), FEF50% of FVC, than the other two groups. However, FEV 1/FVC % in group A was not statistically higher than the other two groups (p=0.3699). Thus, regular training of wind instrument blowing increases the pulmonary functions which may be a physiological advantage of blowing.
Hypotensive response after water-walking and land-walking exercise sessions in healthy trained and untrained women
Rodriguez D, Silva V, Prestes J, Rica RL, Serra AJ, Bocalini DS, Pontes FL Jr
International Journal of General Medicine , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S23094
Abstract: tensive response after water-walking and land-walking exercise sessions in healthy trained and untrained women Original Research (4605) Total Article Views Authors: Rodriguez D, Silva V, Prestes J, Rica RL, Serra AJ, Bocalini DS, Pontes FL Jr Published Date August 2011 Volume 2011:4 Pages 549 - 554 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S23094 Daniel Rodriguez1, Valter Silva2, Jonato Prestes3, Roberta Luksevicius Rica4, Andrey Jorge Serra5, Danilo Sales Bocalini6, Francisco Luciano Pontes Junior7 1S o Judas Tadeu University, S o Paulo, SP, Brazil; 2College of Physical Education of Sorocaba, Sorocaba, SP, Brazil; 3Graduation Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brasilia-DF, Brazil; 4Department of Physical Education, Arbos College, S o Bernardo do Campo, SP, Brazil; 5Department of Physical Education and Laboratory of Rehabilitation Science, Nove de Julho University, S o Paulo, SP, Brazil; 6Department of Medicine, Federal University of S o Paulo – Escola Paulista de Medicina, S o Paulo, SP, Brazil; 7School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of S o Paulo, S o Paulo, SP, Brazil Background: The aim of this study was to compare post-exercise hypotension after acute sessions of water-walking and land-walking in healthy trained and untrained women. Methods: Twenty-three untrained (n = 12) and trained (n = 11) normotensive women performed two walking sessions in water and on land at 40% of peak VO2 for 45 minutes. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were measured 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after the exercise sessions. Results: No differences were found between the groups for age and anthropometric parameters, but peak VO2 for the trained women (45 ± 8 mL/kg/minute) was higher than for the untrained women (31 ± 3 mL/kg/minute). No differences were found between the groups with regard to systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure after water immersion. The heart rate in the trained group (62 ± 3 beats per minute [bpm]) was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than in the untrained group (72 ± 4 bpm) on land, and after water immersion, this difference disappeared (58 ± 5 bpm in the trained women and 66 ± 5 bpm in the untrained women). Sixty minutes after water-walking, systolic blood pressure (108 ± 8 mmHg vs 97 ± 3 mmHg), diastolic blood pressure (69 ± 5 mmHg vs 62 ± 5 mmHg), and mean arterial pressure (82 ± 6 mmHg vs 74 ± 4 mmHg) decreased significantly with rest in the untrained group, and no differences were found after land-walking. In the trained group, significant (P < 0.05) differences were found only for systolic blood pressure (110 ± 9 mmHg vs 100 ± 9 mmHg) after 60 minutes of water-walking; decreases in systolic blood pressure were found after 45 minutes (99 ± 7 mmHg) and 60 minutes (99 ± 6 mmHg) compared with rest (107 ± 5 mmHg) after land-walking. Conclusion: Single water-walking and land-walking sessions induced important hypotension following exercise. Additionally,
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