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Effect of bar sealing parameters on OPP/MCPP heat seal strength
eXPRESS Polymer Letters , 2007, DOI: 10.3144/expresspolymlett.2007.106
Abstract: The effect of bar sealing parameters on the heat seal strength of oriented polypropylene (OPP)/metallic cast polypropylene (MCPP) laminate film was investigated. Based on the results obtained from the parametric study, a bar sealing process window was developed. All points drop within the process window are combinations of platen temperature and dwell time that produce acceptable heat seal. Optimum combinations are indicated by the lower border of the window. The plateau initiation temperature, Tpi of OPP/MCPP laminate film used in the present study occurred before the final melting temperature, Tmf of the sealant material. The highest achievable heat seal strength was at the plateau region, and the corresponding failure modes were delaminating, tearing or combine failure modes (delaminating and tearing). Minimum pressure level of 1.25 bars is necessary to bring the laminate interface into intimate contact in order to effect sealing.
Hepatoprotective Effect of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus Sajor Caju) in Broilers Fed Aflatoxin  [PDF]
R. Yogeswari1*, S. Murugesan2 and A. Jagadeeswaran1
International Journal of Veterinary Science , 2012,
Abstract: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sajor caju) against aflatoxicosis in straight run broiler chicken (Vencob strain). Liver damage was assessed by quantifying the levels of serum proteins, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and antioxidant profile which included lipid peroxidation, Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and Superoxide dismutase levels (SOD) supported by gross and histopathological examination. Aflatoxin administration at 1 ppm level resulted in increase in serum ALT and AST, decrease in serum proteins, increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in GPx and SOD levels with varying degrees of liver damage ranging from macrovesicular degeneration of hepatocytes to bile duct hyperplasia. Oyster mushroom (1%, 2.5% and 5% levels) produced dose dependant improvement in all the parameters studied indicating hepatoprotective effect.
Effect of Calcinated Oyster Shell Powder on Growth, Yield, Spawn Run, and Primordial Formation of King Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus Eryngii)  [PDF]
Ung-Kyu Choi,Ok-Hwan Lee,Young-Chan Kim
Molecules , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/molecules16032313
Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the calcium (Ca) absorption efficacy of king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) grown on sawdust medium supplemented with Ca-sources, including oyster shell powder, and to determine the efficacy of oyster shell powder as a calcium supplement on growth, yield, spawn run and primordial formation of P. eryngii. Optimum calcination of oyster shell powder was achieved at the temperature of 620.56 °C. A 1% supplementation of oyster shell powder in sawdust medium did not suppress the mycelial growth of P. eryngii. Also the supplementation of 2% calcinated oyster shell powder to sawdust medium potentially increased the calcium content up to a level of 315.7 ± 15.7 mg/100 g in the fruiting body of P. eryngii, without extension of duration of spawn run and the retardation of the days to primordial formation. These results suggest that the shellfish by-products, including oyster shell powder, can be utilized to develop calcium enriched king oyster mushrooms.
Effect of supplemented nutrition on yield of oyster mushroom, Hypsizygus ulmarius  [cached]
RUCHITA DIXIT and P. K. SHUKLA*
Indian Phytopathology , 2012,
Abstract: Effect of three chemical compounds on growth and yield of Blue Oyster mushroom, Hypsizygus ulmarius was studied in three separate experiments on soaking of substrate, spray on growing beds and soaking followed by spray. Soaking with Ferrous sulphate (FeSO4) resulted maximum yield of sporocarps (726.2g per kg dry substrate) followed by Magnesium sulphate (MgSO4), Potassium nitrate (KNO3) and untreated (620g) respectively. In spray treatment, maximum yield of 792.8 g per kg dry substrate was recorded in FeSO4 followed by MgSO4, KNO3 and untreated (595.0 g) respectively. Maximum yield of sporocarps (931.4 g per kg dry substrate) was recorded with T-3 (soaking in MgSO4 solution followed by spray with FeSO4) followed by T-6 (KNO3 followed by FeSO4), T-2 (MgSO4 followed by KNO3), T-4 (KNO3 followed by MgSO4), T-1 (soaking and spray with MgSO4), T-5 (soaking and spray with KNO3 solution), T-9 (soaking and spray with FeSO4), T-10 (untreated), T-8 (FeSO4 followed by KNO3) and T-7 (FeSO4 followed by MgSO4) (591.2 g) respectively.
Effect of Substrates of Spawn Production on Mycelial Growth of Oyster Mushroom Species
O.H. Stanley,G.D. Awi-Waadu
Research Journal of Applied Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjasci.2010.161.164
Abstract: Spawn quality is the most important factor in the production of edible mushroom (which is fast gaining prominence in Nigeria and Africa at large). In order to determine the effects of substrates spawn preparation on mycelial growth of oyster mushroom species, the experiment was conducted in a factorial experiment design at randomized completely with three replications. In this experiment, first and second factors, respectively were substrates (Wheat, yellow maize, guinea corn, millet, red sorghum and white maize, Bende local and oyster mushroom species (Pleurotus tuber-regium and pelurotus pulmonarius). The results clearly demonstrated that between various substrates used, maximum and minimum growth rate were recorded for white maize (Bende Local) and least mycelial extension and fresh weight on wheat. The second best grain for both species used was Red Sorghum.
Antiangiogenic effect of betamethasone on the chick cam stimulated by TA3 tumor supernatant
LEMUS,DAVID; DABANCENS,ALFREDO; ILLANES,JULIO; FUENZALIDA,MARCELA; GUERRERO,ANIBAL; LóPEZ,CLAUDIA;
Biological Research , 2001, DOI: 10.4067/S0716-97602001000300010
Abstract: tumor growth is the result of combined cell proliferation overwhelming cell death and neoangiogenesis. this report shows cam angiogenesis promoted by ta3 tumor supernatant with or without low dosis of betamethasone (minimal antiangiogenic concentration: ?-maac). methylcellulose discs instilled with 10 μl of ?-maac (0.08 μg/ml),10 μl of tumor supernatant(ta3ts),5 μl ?-maac + 5 μl ta3ts, and 10 μl of pbs as control were implanted in host chick eggs. on day 12, the grafts were removed, photographed and fixed. sections were stained in parallel, one and three with hematoxylin-eosin, and section two by the tunel method. the number of vessels was evaluated in a microscopic field of the cam (2250 μm2 ). the results show that ?-maac produced a significant inhibition of neovascularization in comparison to that observed in controls (p < 0.0025; student t-test). discs instilled with ta3ts produced an intense stimulation of angiogenesis in contrast, when discs were instilled with 5 μl of ?-maac + 5 μl of ta3ts the angiogenesis was significantly inhibited (p< 0.001). the results show that effective antiangiogenic doses of betamethasone are in the range of 10-7 m, (probably a genomic mediated action) and that this effect of low concentration may have clinical applications.
Antiangiogenic effect of betamethasone on the chick cam stimulated by TA3 tumor supernatant  [cached]
DAVID LEMUS,ALFREDO DABANCENS,JULIO ILLANES,MARCELA FUENZALIDA
Biological Research , 2001,
Abstract: Tumor growth is the result of combined cell proliferation overwhelming cell death and neoangiogenesis. This report shows CAM angiogenesis promoted by TA3 tumor supernatant with or without low dosis of betamethasone (Minimal antiangiogenic concentration: -MAAC). Methylcellulose discs instilled with 10 μl of -MAAC (0.08 μg/ml),10 μl of tumor supernatant(TA3ts),5 μl -MAAC + 5 μl TA3ts, and 10 μl of PBS as control were implanted in host chick eggs. On day 12, the grafts were removed, photographed and fixed. Sections were stained in parallel, one and three with hematoxylin-eosin, and section two by the Tunel method. The number of vessels was evaluated in a microscopic field of the CAM (2250 μm2 ). The results show that -MAAC produced a significant inhibition of neovascularization in comparison to that observed in controls (P < 0.0025; Student t-Test). Discs instilled with TA3ts produced an intense stimulation of angiogenesis in contrast, when discs were instilled with 5 μl of -MAAC + 5 μl of TA3ts the angiogenesis was significantly inhibited (P< 0.001). The results show that effective antiangiogenic doses of betamethasone are in the range of 10-7 M, (probably a genomic mediated action) and that this effect of low concentration may have clinical applications.
Effect of Substrates of Spawn Production on Mycelium Growth of Oyster Mushroom Species  [PDF]
Behnam Elhami,Naser Alemzadeh Ansari
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: Spawn quality is the most important factor at production edible mushroom. In order to determine the effects of substrates spawn preparation on mycelium growth of oyster mushroom species, the experiment was conducted in a factorial experiment design at randomized completely with three replications. In the experiment, first and second factors respectively were substrates (wheat, corn and millet) and oyster mushroom species (Florida, Citrinopileatus and Ostreatus). The results clearly demonstrated that between various substrates used, maximum and minimum mycelium growth rate were recorded for corn and millet, respectively and between various used species, maximum and minimum mycelium growth rate was at Florida and Ostreatus species, respectively. Also the results showed that spawn dry matter has different considerably after completed maturation and between substrate maximum and minimum dry matter brought by corn and millet substrate, respectively, but it had not significant between various species. Similarly substrates by species interaction showed that the maximum and minimum mycelium growth rate were Florida with corn substrate and Ostreatus with millet substrate, respectively.
Antitumor Effect of a Polypeptide Fraction from Arca subcrenata in Vitro and in Vivo  [PDF]
Xianjing Hu,Liyan Song,Lijiao Huang,Qin Zheng,Rongmin Yu
Marine Drugs , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/md10122782
Abstract: Arca subcrenata Lischke is a marine traditional Chinese medicine. The study investigated the antitumor effects of P2, a polypeptide fraction from A. subcrenata, and its toxicity in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that P2 could inhibit the proliferation of seven tumor cell lines, especially in HeLa and HT-29 cell lines. The IC 50 values were 11.43 μg/mL for HeLa and 13.00 μg/mL for HT-29 treated by P2 for 48 h. P2 had little cytotoxicity on normal liver cells (L-02). The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of P2 on KM mice was 1000 mg/kg by i.p. or i.v. The tumor growth inhibitory ratios of P2 were 26.4%, 41.4% and 46.4% for H-22, and 34.0%, 45.8% and 60.1% for S-180 tumor-bearing mice. The results demonstrated that P2 might be a potential antitumor agent with high efficiency in dose-dependent and time-dependent manners and low toxicity.
Antiangiogenic Effect of Rutin and its Regulatory Effect on the Production of VEGF, IL-1β and TNF-α in Tumor Associated Macrophages  [PDF]
C. Guruvayoorappan,Girija Kuttan
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: The antiangiogenic activity of rutin was studied using in vivo as well as in vitro models. In vivo angiogenic activity was studied using B16F-10 melanoma cell-induced capillary formation in C57BL/6 mice. Administration of rutin significantly inhibited (43.35%) the number of tumor directed capillaries induced by injecting B16F-10 melanoma cells on the ventral side of C57BL/6 mice. Rutin at non-toxic concentrations (5-25 μg mL-1) inhibited the vessel sprouting in rat aortic ring assay. Moreover, rutin was able to inhibit the proliferation, migration and capillary-like tube formation of human endothelial cells, the key steps of angiogenesis. Present studies using Tumor Associated Macrophages (TAMs) revealed that rutin could suppress the expression and production of VEGF and IL-1β and stimulate the production of TNF-α. Hence, the observed antiangiogenic activity of rutin is related to the regulation of these cytokines and growth factors by TAMs.
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