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The Financial Performance of the Greek Football Clubs
Panagiotis Dimitropoulos
Choregia , 2010,
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyze the financial performance of the football clubs participating within the first division of the Greek football league for a period of 14 years (1993-2006) and to propose specific actions that need to be taken by both managers and regulators in order to improve the financial stability of the clubs. We perform financial analysis of key accounting ratios extracted from the football club’s annual financial statements in order to explain the particular causes of the recent financial crisis which characterizes the Greek professional football league. The analysis of the clubs’ annual financial statements revealed that the Greek football clubs are highly leveraged, have intense liquidity and profitability problems and face an increased danger of financial distress, despite the increased amounts that football clubs invested during 2005. The above mentioned crisis can be attributed to aggregate financial mismanagement and political inefficiencies during the last fifteen years. The paper proposes specific actions that need to be taken by both managers and regulators in order to improve the financial stability of the clubs and the overall competitiveness of the Greek football league.
Profitability of the Greek Footfall Clubs: Implications for Financial Decisions Making  [PDF]
Dimitropoulos E. Panagoitis
Business Intelligence Journal , 2009,
Abstract: In the present study we examine the profitability of the football clubs participating in the first division of the Greek Football League, as well as the factors that contribute to this performance, over the period from 1994 to 2004. The results indicated that the profitability of the football clubs is positively associated to their short run success, but not on the long run success and seasonal uncertainty of the league. Additionally, the size of the club, measured as a fraction of the club’s assets, is a distinct factor which affects the financial performance positively. Finally, the level of asset turnover and ROA reported by the clubs proved to have a significant positive impact on profitability suggesting that those football clubs that are able to use their assets efficiently, are more resourceful by means of profitability.
The Relationship between Human Resource Empowerment and Organizational Performance in Football Clubs  [cached]
Alkistis Papaioannou,Thanos Kriemadis,Panagiotis Alexopoulos,Ourania Vrondou
International Journal of Sport Management, Recreation & Tourism , 2009,
Abstract: This study examined the extent to which empowerment is applied to Greek professional football clubs, and the relationship between empowerment and organizational performance. Empowerment, on the one hand, has been described as a means to enable employees to make decisions and accomplish their work in meaningful ways, and on the other hand, as a personal phenomenon where individuals take responsibility for their own actions. For analytical purposes the participatory football clubs were divided into two groups based on their budget: (a) wealthy football clubs, and (b) less wealthy football clubs. The results of the study indicated that empowerment is being used similarly in wealthy football clubs as well as in less wealthy football clubs. The basic difference between them was in the managerial styles they used. In particular, in less wealthy football clubs there was a strong and positive relationship between average of revenues in five years and two key factors of empowerment such as: the “management information /communication system skills” and the “total of all managerial functions”. Limitations of the present study and suggestions for further research are presented.
Managing brazilian football clubs: Alternative sources of income.
Cláudio Vicente Di Gioia Ferreira Silva,Luiz Alberto Nascimento Campos Filho
Sistemas & Gest?o , 2006,
Abstract: Football as a business is a chance of socio economic leverage. Football organizations need to become modern since the Brazilian society is unhappy with the quality of service provide and clubs, mostly emerged on debts, end up devaluating their brands associated with an inefficient administration. In 1998, a new factor came to influence this scenario: it was sanctioned the Law no. 9.615, know as “Lei Pelé”, which extinguished the pass of football players. Before that, football clubs have as their major income source the transfer of players. After this regulatory change, clubs were obligated to develop alternative sources of income. The current article intends to analyze this new scenario and to propose options to the clubs not only related to the players transfer market. To do that, it will be shown a comparative study between the Brazilian football and the European Football, identifying the strategies and the results. In this context, public support and the relation between clubs and their clients appeared as the major items.
The Analysis of Operation and Management Situation in Chinese Professional Football Clubs  [cached]
Yi Jia
Asian Social Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v8n6p229
Abstract: China football league has started the professional reforms since 1994, but so far the operation of many domestic professional football clubs has been more and more difficult. Only a few clubs can survive and the vast majority of club investors are changed frequently, including normal transferring, normal capital operation, even being dissolved because of hardships. As for the reasons, the club's management system, the low return rate on investment, and the poor operating performance can be drawn. The thesis, from the perspective of clubs’ management system, will illustrate several reasons which influence the development of Chinese professional football clubs and put forward the feasible suggestions.
IMPACT OF THE FINANCIAL PERFORMANCES OF INCORPORATIONS OF FOOTBALL CLUBS IN THE DOMESTIC LEAGUE ON THEIR SPORTIVE PERFORMANCES: A STUDY COVERING FOUR MAJOR FOOTBALL CLUBS IN TURKEY
Emre G?LLü
Pamukkale Journal of Sport Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: All over Europe, professional football clubs have been transformed into profit oriented incorporations and their performances have been judged on and off the field of play. Football has begun to be considered as a business in Turkey mostly as of late 90’s. In this study, we investigate the possible impact of the financial performances of incorporations on the sportive performances in the domestic league for the four major football clubs in Turkey, namelyBeoiktao, Fenerbah e, Galatasaray and Trabzonspor over the period 2002-2009. In order to carry out this study, we use variables from the financial statements of these clubs’ incorporations as a measure of their financial performances and sportive results obtained in the domestic league as an indicator of the sportive performance using a Spearman correlation model. The results of this study indicate that it appears to be no correlation between the sportive performances of the clubs and financial performances of their incorporations in the above mentioned period.
Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Contributions Made by Football Clubs in England  [PDF]
Adekunle Dosumu, Ian Colbeck, Rachel Bragg
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2014.44057
Abstract: Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission from waste is a major environmental problem. Globally, the waste management sector contributes an estimated 5% of the total anthropogenic GHG emissions. This paper estimates GHG emissions from football clubs in the England, where football is the highest profile and most popular sport, with large numbers of spectators and significant quantities of waste being produced. Football clubs should be more committed to reducing their GHG emissions by improving their waste management. The amount of GHG emitted from eight football tiers in England is assessed through methods including interviews, observations and questionnaires. The results reveal that in the 2012/13-football season, over 9 million spectators watched football in the lower leagues, with mean waste per spectator of 3.27 kg. 30,146,000 kg of waste was generated at the 8 football tiers, and the amount of waste sent to the landfill was about 74,000,000 kg, which resulted in GHG emissions of approximately 2,100,000 kg CO2e. The implications for better waste management at football leagues are outlined.
MEASURING INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL FOR FOOTBALL CLUBS: EVIDENCE FROM TURKISH FIRST DIVISION FOOTBALL LEAGUE  [cached]
P?nar Gürel,Y. Aytül Da?l? Ekmek?i,?lhan Kü?ükkaplan
Pamukkale Journal of Sport Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: In sports industry intangible sources such as fan loyalty, the talent players, the experience of the management team become more and more important in creating team value. There is a growing awareness that intellectual capital is a key asset for clubs’ financial success. Therefore this study is a pioneering effort todetermine and compare the intellectual capital of Turkish First Division football clubs whose shares are publicly traded at the Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE). In the analysis part of this study, determining and comparing the intellectual capital ratios of this publicly traded clubs has been aimed. To this aim the concept of intellectual capital was analyzed with the Value Added Intellectual Capital (VAIC)Method. The findings indicate that Galatasaray Sport Club uses its intellectual capital more efficiently. Higher intellectual capital value means higher market share for football clubs. Therefore from sports management perspective the major football clubs should develop their intellectual capitals.
ANALYSIS OF DISCLOSURE OF THE FEDERATIVE RIGHTS IN THE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS OF BRAZILIAN FOOTBALL CLUBS  [cached]
Amaury Jose Rezende,Ricardo dos Santos Custodio
Revista de Educa??o e Pesquisa em Contabilidade , 2012,
Abstract: The purpose of this survey is to check whether the publishing of financial statements by the Brazilian football clubs adopt uniform accounting criteria for similar events that involve federative rights after publication of NBC 10.13. This survey has as contribution the development of a discussion on the comparability and the level of transparency in the dissemination of accounting information carried out by clubs, as well as how these actions can assist the decision making of possible investors and other stakeholders, such as fans, government, and other agents of society. Data analysis was undertaken by means of analysis of the accounting reporting documentation, published in the periods of 2006 and 2007, encompassing eleven clubs in the Brazilian Premier League 2007. The main results showed that there is adoption of very different accounting criteria among clubs. For example: expenditures with contracting, renewal of contracts of athletes who are recorded as fixed assets or accounted as expenditures during the period. It is highlighted that there are clubs that have not been complying to what is set forth in provisions of the NBC 10.13, therefore, they do no provide to their users with information recommended by the standard. It stands out, among implications, that there is a significant decrease in the comparability and transparency level between accounting reporting published by the Brazilian clubs.
ANALYSIS OF THE SOURCES OF STRESS OF COACHES AND MANAGERS WORKING IN FOOTBALL CLUBS BY THEIR PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS  [cached]
Ay?e Türksoy,Süleyman ?ahin,Evren Ebru Alt?nc?,?zgür ?zgül
Pamukkale Journal of Sport Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: This study aims to identify the personality characteristics and sources of stress of coaches and managers working in football clubs in Istanbul and to reveal such personality characteristics which have impact on the sources of stress. In total, 75 people including 52 men and 23 women who work as coaches(55) and managers (20) in football clubs participated in the research. Eysenck Personality Inventory was used to identify the personality characteristics of managers and the Stress Scale (Garipo lu) to determine the sources of stress. Descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analyses were used in the data analysis. As a result of the fi ndings obtained, it was determined that the managers are extrovert in terms of their personality characteristics and the most visible source of stress was found to be “the stress they have with their colleagues.” A significant correlation was observed bet weenthe sources of stress and the personality characteristics (p<0.05). It was found that the stress levels of the sport managers are affected by their personality characteristics and sub-dimensions of pseudo personality and neuroticism have an apparent effect on the stress levels of the participating managers. It is considered that the results obtained will contribute to the methods to overcome the stress and shed light on the efforts to build the team spirit thatunderlies the sportive achievements.
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