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Natural Resources Containing Arbutin. Determination of Arbutin in the Leaves of Bergenia crassifolia (L.) Fritsch. acclimated in Romania
Carmen POP,Laurian VLASE,Mircea TAMAS
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca , 2009,
Abstract: Bergenia crassifolia (L.) Fritsch. is cited in literature as being one of the richest in arbutin (15-20%), an important pharmaceutical substance with disinfecting properties (in genitourinary diseases) and also depigmentation properties (skin whitening agent). The aim of this study consisted in determination of arbutin content in leaves of Bergenia crassifolia acclimated in Romania. The optimum parameters for the extraction of arbutin and the dynamics of the accumulation of arbutin in Bergenia crassifolia leaves during the four seasons were also studied. The content of arbutin varied between 17.44% and 22.59% dry weight, values which are similar to those found in literature
Rapid in vitro selection of salt-tolerant genotypes of the potentially medicinal plant Centaurium maritimum (L.) fritsch  [PDF]
Mi?i? Danijela,?iler B.,Filipovi? Biljana,Popovi? Zorica
Archives of Biological Sciences , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/abs0901057m
Abstract: We investigated differences of salinity tolerance between 'salt-tolerant' (ST) and 'salt-sensitive' (SS) genotypes of yellow centaury [Centaurium maritimum (L.) Fritsch] selected during the germination phase. The ability of in vitro cultured C. maritimum to complete the whole ontogenetic cycle in less than 6 months enabled us to deterine salinity tolerance during different growth phases. Based on the physiological attributes measured in this study (growth, morphogenesis, photosynthesis, flowering, seed germination), it can be concluded that C. maritimum genotypes differing in salinity tolerance showed a variable response to elevated salt concentrations during both the vegetative and the generative growth phase.
Shaping Ottoman Rule in Yemen, 1872-1919  [cached]
Patrice Chevalier
Chroniques Yéménites , 2006,
Abstract: En s’intéressant de près au fonctionnement du gouvernement ottoman lors de la seconde occupation du Yémen, entre 1872 et 1919, la thèse de Thomas Kühn vise non seulement à combler des lacunes concernant notre connaissance de cette période historique charnière, mais également à apporter un éclairage essentiel à la compréhension de l’histoire contemporaine yéménite, à travers une analyse approfondie de la nature spécifique du colonialisme ottoman et de ses impacts. Par cette étude, l’auteur amb...
Counter-Insurgency in the Cape Colony, 1872 - 1882
JS Kotze
Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies , 2003,
Abstract: The acceptance of responsible government in 1872 entailed that the Cape Colony had to provide its own security arrangements. The two British regiments that were still deployed at the Cape were reserved solely for imperial purposes. Moreover, the Cape Government now had to assist the High Commissioner with the maintenance of law and order in the adjacent tribal territories of the Transkei and Basotholand. Unrest and internal conflict were almost endemic in the Cape Colony's area of interest during the period 1872 to 1882. Besides a number of conflict situations of a smaller nature, the colonial forces were involved in five major insurgencies, namely the Cape-Xhosa or Ninth Eastern Frontier War (1877-1878), The Northern Frontier War (1878-1879), the Baphuhti Rebellion (1879), the Transkeian Rebellion (1880-1881) and the Rebellion in Basotholand (1880-1882). This paper traces the development of policy and doctrine, administrative and military, by the Cape Government to pacifY the Eastern Cape frontier region. Special attention is given to security and defence policy, the policy of direct control of the adjacent tribal territories as well as the disarmament policy. Furthermore the reactions of the indigenous communities to these policies as well as the demands placed on the colonial military system are investigated. It is concluded that the policies of the successive Cape governments were either impracticable or resulted in the erosion of the traditional power structures among the black communities to the extent that from 1877 onwards, internal conflict became the order of the day. Perceived to be "mere instruments of political will", the colonial forces were synonymous with the reprehensible colonial control and found it impossible to deter public violence or prevent the escalation of the conflicts. The colonial government expected unrealistic strategic results from the colonial armed forces. Military reforms were mostly reactive and too little was done too late. The Molteno as well as the Sprigg ministry eventually paid the highest political price for the failure of their respective defence schemes not least of which was the failure of their counterinsurgency strategies.
Counter-Insurgency in the Cape Colony, 1872 - 1882  [cached]
J.S. Kotze
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/31-2-152
Abstract: The acceptance of responsible government in 1872 entailed that the Cape Colony had to provide its own security arrangements. The two British regiments that were still deployed at the Cape were reserved solely for imperial purposes. Moreover, the Cape Government now had to assist the High Commissioner with the maintenance of law and order in the adjacent tribal territories of the Transkei and Basotholand. Unrest and internal conflict were almost endemic in the Cape Colony's area of interest during the period 1872 to 1882. Besides a number of conflict situations of a smaller nature, the colonial forces were involved in five major insurgencies, namely the Cape-Xhosa or Ninth Eastern Frontier War (1877-1878), The Northern Frontier War (1878-1879), the Baphuhti Rebellion (1879), the Transkeian Rebellion (1880-1881) and the Rebellion in Basotholand (1880-1882). This paper traces the development of policy and doctrine, administrative and military, by the Cape Government to pacify the Eastern Cape frontier region. Special attention is given to security and defence policy, the policy of direct control of the adjacent tribal territories as well as the disarmament policy. Furthermore the reactions of the indigenous communities to these policies as well as the demands placed on the colonial military system are investigated. It is concluded that the policies of the successive Cape governments were either impracticable or resulted in the erosion of the traditional power structures among the black communities to the extent that from 1877 onwards, internal conflict became the order of the day. Perceived to be "mere instruments of political will", the colonial forces were synonymous with the reprehensible colonial control and found it impossible to deter public violence or prevent the escalation of the conflicts. The colonial government expected unrealistic strategic results from the colonial armed forces. Military reforms were mostly reactive and too little was done too late. The Molteno as well as the Sprigg ministry eventually paid the highest political price for the failure of their respective defence schemes not least of which was the failure of their counter-insurgency strategies.
Tradición y Progreso (1872-2012) Tradition and Progress (1872-2012)
Humberto Reyes B,Joaquín Palma H,Max Andrensen H
Revista médica de Chile , 2012,
Abstract: Background:The first issue of Revista Médica de Chile appeared in July, 1872. Since then it has been published monthly and thus it became one of the oldest medical journals being printed since the 19th Century. The opening Editorial in the first issue, labeled as "Prospecto"and written by the first editor, Germán Schneider, M.D., is reproduced. The current Editors comment the main statements found in that document establishing the purpose and scope of this journal. There are good reasons to sustain that through its 140 years of life, Revista Médica de Chile has fully accomplished the expectations of its founders and the owning institution: Sociedad Médica de Santiago-Chilean Society of Internal Medicine. The journal is serving well the medical community as a forum to present and discuss clinical experience, topics in scientific and technological advances related to medicine, medical education, medical ethics, and public health.
Revision of the Neotropical genus Triportheus Cope, 1872 (Characiformes: Characidae)
Malabarba, Maria Claudia S. L.;
Neotropical Ichthyology , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1679-62252004000400001
Abstract: the genus triportheus cope, 1872 is revised and a total of 16 species (including 3 new species) are recognized from most of the major river drainages of south america. triportheus magdalenae (steindachner, 1878) is the sole species occurring west of the andean cordilleras. triportheus paranensis (günther, 1874) is considered a junior synonym of triportheus nematurus (kner, 1858) and a new triportheus species is described for the río paraguay basin. chalcinus rotundatus iquitensis nakashima, 1941 and chalcinus elongatus iquitensis nakashima, 1941 are placed into the synonymy of triportheus albus cope, 1872 and t. culter (cope, 1872) respectively. the name salmo clupeoides employed by natterer (in kner, 1860) is considered a nomen nudum. neotypes are designated for chalceus angulatus spix & agassiz, 1829, chalceus rotundatus jardine in schomburgk, 1841 and chalcinus auritus valenciennes in cuvier & valenciennes, 1850. lectotypes are designated for chalcinus brachipomus valenciennes in cuvier & valenciennes, 1850 and chalcinus nematurus. identification keys are provided for the triportheus species in the major drainage basins of south america.
The sensitivity of warm period precipitation forecasts to various modifications of the Kain-Fritsch Convective Parameterization scheme
N. Mazarakis, V. Kotroni, K. Lagouvardos, A. A. Argiriou,C. J. Anderson
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2011,
Abstract: The sensitivity of quantitative precipitation forecasts to various modifications of the Kain-Fritsch (KF) convective parameterization scheme (CPS) is examined for twenty selected cases characterized by intense convective activity and widespread precipitation over Greece, during the warm period of 2005–2007. The study is conducted using the MM5 model with a two nested domains strategy, with horizontal grid increments of 24 and 8 km, respectively. Five modifications to the KF CPS, each designed to test the sensitivity of the model to the convective scheme formulation, are discussed. The modifications include: (i) the maximization of the convective scheme precipitation efficiency, (ii) the change of the convective time step, (iii) the forcing of the convective scheme to produce more/less cloud material, (iv) changes to the trigger function and (v) the alteration of the vertical profile of updraft mass flux detrainment. The simulated precipitation from the 8-km grid is verified against raingauge measurements. Although skill scores vary widely among the cases and the precipitation thresholds, model results using the modifications of the convective scheme show improvements in 6-h precipitation totals compared to simulations generated using the unmodified convective scheme. In general, forcing the model to produce less cloud material improves the precipitation forecast for the moderate and high precipitation amounts, while the same modification and the change of the convective time step to 1 min has the same result for the high precipitation thresholds. The increase of convective time step to 15 min, the maximization of precipitation efficiency and the changes to the trigger function give similar results for medium and high precipitation. On the other hand, the forecast for the light precipitation is improved by forcing the model to produce more cloud material as well as by the alteration of the vertical profile of updraft mass flux detrainment.
Strategic Military Colonisation: The Cape Eastern Frontier 1806–1872
L Robson, M Oranje
Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012,
Abstract: The Cape Eastern Frontier of South Africa offers a fascinating insight into British military strategy as well as colonial development. The Eastern Frontier was for over 100 years a very turbulent frontier. It was the area where the four main population groups (the Dutch, the British, the Xhosa and the Khoikhoi) met, and in many respects, key decisions taken on this frontier were seminal in the shaping of South Africa. This article seeks to analyse this frontier in a spatial manner, to analyse how British settlement patterns on the ground were influenced by strategy and policy. The time frame of the study reflects the truly imperial colonial era, from the second British occupation of the Cape colony in 1806 until representative self-governance of the Cape colony in 1872.
Caracteriza??o morfológica de frutos, de sementes e do desenvolvimento pós-seminal de Licania tomentosa (Benth.) Fritsch
Monteiro, Kênia Leite;Oliveira, Camila de;Silva, Breno Marques da Silva e;M?ro, Fabiola Vitti;Carvalho, Douglas Ant?nio de;
Ciência Rural , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782012000100015
Abstract: the objective of the present work was to describe the morphology of fruit, seed and the post-seminal development of "oiti" (licania tomentosa (benth.) fritsch.). the size and shape of seeds and fruits were evaluated with a digital calipter ruler and in stereo-microscope and scanning electron microscope. the fruits are drupaceous, ellipticals, monospermics, succulents, indehiscents, with non articulated peduncle, with smooth and glabrous exocarp of yellow to orange coloration; yellow, succulent and fibrous mesocarp and cream, membranaceous endocarp. the fruits dimensions are approximately 6,19cm in length, 3,30cm in width, 39,5g of fresh mass and 17,3g of dry mass. the seeds are exalbuminous, ellipticals, with smooth tegument, with brown coloration, cartaceous to coriaceous, with longitudinally visible raphe, inconspicuous micropyle and inconspicuous hilum, with thick cotyledons, elliptical and plan-convex, with cream to rose color. the embryo is minute, straight, central, with embryonic axis differentiated in plumule and hypocotyl-radicle axis. the length, width and fresh and dry mass of seeds is approximately 4,07cm, 2,18cm, 12,7g and 7,2g, respectively. the germination is criptocotyledonary hypogeal, with alternate-distichous and woolly eophylum, with paracitic stomata and two glands in the base of limb or, rare in the apex, in the abaxial face of leaf.
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