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Effect of Coffee Pulp Compost and Terrace on Erosion, Run off and Nutrients Loss from Coffee Plantation in Lahat Regency, South Sumatra
Siti Masreah Bernas
Jurnal Tanah Tropika , 2011,
Abstract: On some coffee plantations in Lahat Regency South Sumatra, in some places the farmers did not apply agricultural practices, such as tillage, conservation practices, and fertilizers. Many researches have been done to study about effects of organic fertilizer on soil nutrients content and plant growth as well as and the impacts of terrace on soil water content, run-off and erosion. However, there was less research in the highland area. Whereas the possibility of run off, erosion and nutrient leaching the high land area was high. Thus, it was important to apply terrace and organic coffee pulp in this farm. The aims of this research were to determine the effect of terrace and organic fertilizer on run off and soil erosion, nutrients loss and nutrient content in coffee leaves. Terrace system and organic fertilizer were applied on a one year old coffee plantation in Lahat Regency. Before the treatment applied, coffee pulp as organic fertilizer was decomposed in the chamber for about 2 months. The experiment was conducted in factorial in a Randomized Block Design with two factors. The first factor was coffee pulp compost (0, 3, and 6 Mg ha-1), and the second factor was type of terrace (without, individual, and bund terraces). The size of each plot was 2 m width and 10 m length. Data was analysed by using LSD (Least Significant Different) test. The result shows that bund terrace reduced runoff and erosion significantly up to 79% (for run off water) and 78% (for eroded soil) compared to without terrace. Organic fertilizer did not affect run off and soil erosion. This may be caused by properties of coffee pulp compost which were fine particulates and the dosages of application were too low to cover soil suface. Bund terrace decreased significantly N, P, K nutrients in soil loss (sediment). The amount of N loss was reduced from 3.37 kg ha-1 per four months (without terrace) to about 0.75 kg ha-1 per four months (bund terrace). Terrace and organic fertilizer did not affect significantly nutrients content in the leaves, but P-content was low without organic fertilizer addition. It is suggested to apply bund terrace and higher organic fertilizer dose on the coffee farm, and further experiments when harvesting the yield (berries) are needed for the second year old coffee farm.
Sahlan,A. Soemargono
Agrivita : Journal of Agricultural Science , 2011,
Abstract: The research was aimed to determine the type, the distribution and the incidence of banana leaf diseases in several production centers in West Sumatra, Bengkulu, North Sumatra and West Java. Direct observations on banana orchards were conducted in some districts in Simalungun, Deli Serdang and Medan (North Sumatra), Tanah Datar, Limapuluh Kota, Agam, Pariaman and Pasaman (West Sumatra), Rejang Lebong and Kepahyang (Bengkulu), Sukabumi, Purwakarta and Subang (West Java) from November to December 2006. Two banana orchards were randomly selected in each district. Plant population at the selected orchard was at least 100 plants. From each sampled orchard, if banana population consisted of similar or only one variety, 10 plants were randomly chosen according to wind direction. Meanwhile, when the banana varieties were varied, five plants were randomly selected. The result showed that Black Sigatoka and Eumusae leaf spot were found in West Sumatra, Bengkulu and North Sumatra at severity level of between 15 % to 62.31%, whilst speckle disease was mainly found in North Sumatra and in parts of West Sumatra at severity level of between 72,72% to 100% and 15 to 30%, respectively. Banana varieties that were primarily attacked by leaf diseases were Cavendish, Telor, Barangan and Emas.
W. Patrick Carney,Soeroto Atmosoedjono,Hadi Sajidiman,Arbain Joesoef
Bulletin of Health Research , 2012,
Abstract: Pada bulan Mei 1973 diadakan survey tinja dan darah di lima desa di Sumatra Selatan untuk mengetahui aspek-aspek penyakit parasit pada penduduk asli dan para transmigran yang datang antara tahun 1935 dan 1955. Desa-desa Tanjung Kerang, Simpang Langkap dan Biuku di Kabupaten Musi Banyu Asin yang terletak di sebelah barat laut kota Palembang merupakan daerah hutan-ladang-huma dan perkebunan karet rakyat dikelilingi oleh rawa-rawa, yang di diami oleh penduduk asli. Desa-desa Sidomulyo dan Tanjung Raya di Kabupaten Ogan Komering Ulu, terletak di sebelah tenggara' kota Palembang, adalah tempat transmigrasi yang merupakan daerah persawahan." Dari 358 orang yang diperiksa tinjanya yang terdiri dari 193 laki-laki dan 165 wanita, di keiemukan 97 per cent terinfeksi oleh sedikitnya satu macam parasit, 87 per cent oleh 2 macam parasit atau lebih dan 55 per cent oleh 3 macam parasit atau lebih. Telur-telur cacing yang di temukan antara lain ialah: Trichuris trichiura. (83 per cent), Ascaris lumbricoides (78 per cent) dan cacing tambang (59 per cent). Enterobius vermicularis (1 per cent) dan Strongyloides stercoralis (0,3 per cent) jarang di jumpai. Entamoeba coli (29 per cent) merupakan parasit protozoa yang biasa di temukan. Jumlah rata-rata protozoa yang ada dalam usus ialah: Entamoeba histofytica (4 per cent), Entamoeba hartmanni (1 per cent), Endolimax nona (5 per cent), Iodamoeba butschlii (5 per cent), Giardia lamblia (3 per cent) dan Chilomastbc mesnili (4 per cent). Distribusi dari parasit usus hampir sama di antara golongan laki-laki dan wanita; meskipun tanah memegang peranan yang sama dalam pemindahan cacing-cacing, tetapi A. lumbricoides dan T. trichiura lebih banyak di jumpai pada wanita, sedangkan cacing tambang lebih banyak pada laki-laki. Prevalensi parasit usus menurut golongan umur adalah sebagai berikut: A. lumbricoides lebih banyak pada golongan muda, T. trichiura merata pada semua golongan umur, tetapi yang terbanyak pada golongan umur antara 30-39 tahun. Infeksi cacing tambang terdapat tinggi, antara 50 sampai 60 per cent, sampai umur 50 tahun. Pada orang-orang yang berumur lebih dari 50 tahun, infeksi cacing tambang ini sangat menyolok meningkatnya sampai 92 per cent. Adanya perbedaan infeksi dari protozoa usus menurut golongan umur tidak dapat di buktikan. Pemeriksaan 472 sediaan darah yang berasal dari 5 desa tersebut diatas menemukan Plasmodium vivax dan Plasmodium falciparum pada 8 orang. Lima di antaranya adalah anak-anak yang berumur di bawah 10 tahun. Infeksi pada golongan laki-laki dan wanita tampak sama rata
Some Sumatra earthquakes  [cached]
J. Veldkamp
Annals of Geophysics , 1959, DOI: 10.4401/ag-5722
Abstract: Sono stati investigati i meccanismi di frattura per un certo numerodi terremoti a profondità normale, avvenuti presso Visola di Sumatra,facendo uso delle fasi P ed S. Le direzioni dei piani di frattura sono ingenerale o perpendicolari alla fascia sismica o paralleli ad essa-, le inclinazionisono molto grandi. Gli spostamenti sono in generale perpendicolarialla zona, i movimenti sono prevalentemente associati a scorrimento.
2004 Sumatra Tsunami
Vongvisessomjai, S.,Suppataratarn, P.
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2005,
Abstract: A catastrophic tsunami on December 26, 2004 caused devastation in the coastal region of six southern provinces of Thailand on the Andaman Sea coast. This paper summaries the characteristics of tsunami with the aim of informing and warning the public and reducing future casualties and damage.The first part is a review of the records of past catastrophic tsunamis, namely those in Chile in 1960, Alaska in 1964, and Flores, Java, Indonesia, in 1992, and the lessons drawn from these tsunamis. An analysis and the impact of the 2004 Sumatra tsunami is then presented and remedial measures recommended.Results of this study are as follows:Firstly, the 2004 Sumatra tsunami ranked fourth in terms of earthquake magnitude (9.0 M) after those in 1960 in Chile (9.5 M), 1899 in Alaska (9.2 M) and 1964 in Alaska (9.1 M) and ranked first in terms of damage and casualties. It was most destructive when breaking in shallow water nearshore.Secondly, the best alleviation measures are 1) to set up a reliable system for providing warning at the time of an earthquake in order to save lives and reduce damage and 2) to establish a hazard map and implement land-use zoning in the devastated areas, according to the following principles:- Large hotels located at an elevation of not less than 10 m above mean sea level (MSL)- Medium hotels located at an elevation of not less than 6 m above MSL- Small hotel located at elevation below 6 m MSL, but with the first floor elevated on poles to allow passage of a tsunami wave- Set-back distances from shoreline established for various developments- Provision of shelters and evacuation directionsFinally, public education is an essential part of preparedness.
On the parasites associated with the Bathyergidae  [cached]
M.Sc. (Rand.), G De Graaff
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science , 1964, DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v7i1.806
Abstract: On the parasites associated with the Bathyergidae
Pig’s farmer’s profile in Banyumas Regency  [cached]
Journal of Animal Production , 2000,
Abstract: This research was purposed to study pig’s farmer’s profile in Banyumas Regency. The research was carried out since December 1999 to May 2000. It was located at Banyumas Regency. The method applied was survey with intensive observation, involved 51 respondents (54.26 percent of total pig farmers in Banyumas Regency), consist of 7.80 percent women and 92.20 percent men. The result showed that pig’s farmer were in productive age (44 years) with low formal education level (Sekolah Dasar). Most of all are moeslems (90,16 percent) and had small family size (4-5 members). They have other income source and they rear pigs to generate income or to use soybean cake’s waste (ampas tahu). Experience in the farming was quite long (more than 10 years) and skill come from imitating their neighbours, friends of other wise of autodidact. (Animal Production 2(1): 40-46 (2000) Key Words: profile, pig’s farmer, Banyumas, experience
Waterbirds diversity in Peniti mangrove forest, Pontianak Regency  [PDF]
Biodiversitas , 2006,
Abstract: The aim of this research was to know waterbirds diversity in the Peniti mangrove forest, Pontianak Regency. This research was found 19 species (9 families) of waterbirds that living in the Peniti mangrove forest, Pontianak Regency, West Kalimantan. This identification showed that four species were member of Sternitidae Family, three species were member of Ardeidae Family, other three species were member of Anatidae Family, two species were member of Laridae Family, two species from Accipritidae Family, and Alcedinidae Family. One species from Ciconidae Family, Scolopacidae Family, and Ploceidae Family. Thirteen species of them were protected in Indonesia; there were Egretta garzetta, E. sacra, Ardea cinerea, Ciconia episcopus, Larus ridibundus, L. brunnicephalus, Sterna sumatrana, S. dougallii, Anous minutus, Gygis alba, Halcyon pileata, Todirhamphus chloris, and Lonchura fuscans. Lochura fuscans was belonging to Indonesian endemic birds, because we only found this bird species in Kalimantan Islands. Two species, Haliaetus leucogaster and Haliastur indus were the International protected species according to Appendix II Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES).
Orchids inventory in Sintang Regency, West Kalimantan  [PDF]
Biodiversitas , 2008,
Abstract: Orchid is one of ornamental plants which have commercial value. Therefore most species are becoming threatened or even endangered because of over exploitation. In addition, its natural habitat is also decreasing. Conservation must be done urgently, both by in situ and ex situ conservation, which can be started by orchid inventory. The orchid inventory was done in TWA Bukit Kelam, TWA Baning and several places in Regency of Sintang, West Kalimantan. The result showed that there were 40 species belonged to 27 genera, which 32 species of them (20 genera) were epiphytic orchids and 8 species (7 genera) were terrestrial orchids.
Syahrial Syarif
Asian Academy of Management Journal , 2004,
Abstract: Small-scale enterprises in West Sumatra experienced slow growth and some constraints in their development process. In 1998, small businesses represented 99.61% of total business units operating in West Sumatra and absorbed 88.8% of total employment. The orientation of their businesses mostly on domestic market although recently they enter international market. Export contribution of small businesses still very low but growing steadily during the last three years. This research showed that enterprises dealing with embroideries, garments and handicrafts are ambitiously orienting their products towards foreign markets. At the same time these business categories are also proven to be the most profitable businesses.
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