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A study of blood and gastro-intestinal parasites in Edo state
RM Mordi, POA Ngwodo
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: A four-year study to determine the prevalence of both blood and gastro-intestinal parasites of man was done in all the eighteen local government areas of Edo State, Nigeria. The study, which commenced in January of 2000, ended in December of 2004. Of the 136,360 samples examined, 1000 that is 0.7% had parasites. A total of eleven parasites species were identified. A seasonal pattern of parasitic infection was noted with a high prevalence in the rainy (wet) season months of April to November and a low prevalence in the dry season months of December to March. The prevalence was significantly higher in September, October and November at 22, 10 and 10% respectively (P<0.05); than other months of the year. February had the least prevalence of 10%. The local government areas in the rain-forest zone, south of the state had significantly higher prevalence than the local government areas in the grassland, north of the state (P<0.05). Of the eleven parasite species observed in the study, Ascaris lumbricoides and Plasmodium falciparum had the highest prevalence of 30 and 35%, respectively. Hookworm parasites, Trichuris triciura and Strongyloides stercoralis had the prevalence of 10, 7 and 1%, respectively. The protozoans, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, and Giardia lamblia had prevalence of 6, 4 and 3% respectively. Schistosoma haematobium, Loa loa and Enterobius vermicularis had the least prevalence of 2, 1 and 1%, respectively. With the exception of S. haematobium, E. vermicularis, and L. loa, which occurred in few local government areas, the other eight parasite species were encountered in all the local government areas. There was a higher prevalence of parasitic infections in this study than in the hospital records in the state.
Blood and intestinal parasites of squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae) in Amazonian Brazil
Lainson, Ralph;Brígido, Maria do Carmo de Oliveira;Silveira, Fernando Tobias;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762004000600008
Abstract: we report the result of an examination for blood and intestinal protozoa in 12 specimens of the red squirrel sciurus spadiceus (rodentia: sciuridae) from birroque, municipality of plácido de castro, state of acre, brazil. no parasites were detected in thin, giemsa-stained blood films of the animals, but culture of the blood of three in difco b45 medium blood-agar slants gave rise to isolates of epimastigotes. inoculation of one isolate into laboratory mice resulted in the appearance of trypanosoma cruzi-like trypomastigotes in their peripheral blood, and the other two isolates gave rise to transient infections with a t. lewisi-like parasite in inoculated mice and hamsters. the failure of the latter parasite to develop in the triatomine bug rhodnius robustus suggests that it is probably not t. rangeli. this appears to be the first record of a t. lewisi-like trypanosome in neotropical squirrels. oocysts of an eimeria sp., were detected in the faeces of 10 animals (83.3%). the parasite develops in the epithelial cells of the intestine, where it may cause severe damage and sometimes results in death of the animal. no oocysts were detected in bile.
PREVALENCE OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA AND OTHER INTESTINAL PARASITES IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AND ITS RELATION TO RESIDENCE PLACE, SEX AND BLOOD GROUP IN ILAM COUNTY OF IRAN
Pourbabak,S. Pourbabak,S.
Acta Medica Iranica , 1996,
Abstract: 1711' object of this study was to determine the prevalence oj asymptomatic infestation with Giardia lamblia lind other intestinal parasites in children of urban anti rural communities oj /lam county and its relation with dwelling place, sex and blood grollp!.. 77w study designed as (l five-month pUTasitoulgica! .m,..£!)' oj fecal ami blood specimens from humans anti performed in 10 urban hcalih-trcatmcru clinics of llam city, two urban health treatment clinics of Eyvun city, two rural health-treatment clinics oj Chavar and Sartaf villages, llam province west of fran, 17,e examined population was preschool {, to 7 year-old children without any 'gastrointestinal compliarus. Prevalence oj infestation in subject grOllp W(l."' 32.54% (n=3100). Among intestinal parasites' G. lambliu with 85.43o/c (27.8% oj all, n=JO(JI)) prevalence rate was the most common. Infestation with 11. nnrm with 1'/.93% and E. coli with 3.07';, were in the second and third ranks, respectively, Infestation shows a distinct relationship with gender (P<0.05) and dwelling place, but it lacks a significant relation with blood groups. This study ."lIOWS that the prevalence of intestinal infestation in 6 to 7 year old child oj llam county hi equivalent to the top oj tile line oj the statistical percentage all over the world. 17,e relation between the severity oj infestation and residence place may arouse the suspicion oj sever contamination oj imbibing water.
Insights on Blood Cytokines Production under Different In Vitro Mycobacterial Antigens in Tuberculosis Intestinal Parasites Co Infected Patients  [PDF]
Renan Jeremias da Silva, Fernanda C. Q. Mello, Janaína A. Leung, Antonio Henrique Almeida de Moraes Neto, Leila de Souza Fonseca, Helio Ribeiro de Siqueira, Health Care Victor Vala and CSEGSF Team, Maria Helena Féres Saad
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2018.83011
Abstract: Background: The concomitant presence of intestinal parasite infections (IP) and tuberculosis (TB) has relevance. M. tuberculosis immune response is associated with type 1 T helper cell (Th1) while IP is associated with type Th2 cell. However, there are several contradictory reports on cytokine production under coinfection and this could be in association to the mycobacterial antigens used in the studies. Aim: To get insight into the effects of different M. tuberculosis-specific antigens (ESAT-6/CFP-10 and 38 kDa/CFP-10) in generating of appropriate cytokines on peripheral blood mononuclear cells of IPTB co infected patients. Method: ELISA assessed IFN-γ and other 16 cytokines production and plasm IgE. In 18 months, we documented demographic, economic, clinical characteristics and IP frequency in individuals from Brazil. Results: An overall 10/35 (28.5%) were IPTB co infected and 40/76 (52.6%; p = 0.024) asymptomatic intestinal parasite infected community controls (IPCC). Endo-limax nana (40%) and Entamoeba coli (22%), were the most nonpathogenic protozoan identified and Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Ascaris lumbricoides and Strongyloides stercoralis were the pathogenic species (40%). IgE was higher in IPCC (p = 0.036). Cytokine profiles were significantly biased toward a Th2 type IL-5 (p = 0.001) and IL-13 (p = 0.033), pro-inflammatory GM-CSF (p = 0.019) and borderline lower IL-1β in IPTB, all associated with ESAT-6/CFP-10, while IL-7 was borderline lower, but 38 kDa/CFP-10 associated; as well as IL-8 higher (p < 0.049) vs CC/IPCC. The TB/IPTB IFN-γ levels were similar to both antigens stimuli (p ≥ 0.208). Conclusion: Therefore, coin-cident IPTB coinfection did not exert a significant inhibitory effect in IFN-γ production in response to either of the two antigens, but the partial discrepancy in Th1/Th2 response, is associated with the antigen priming cells.
Frequency of Intestinal Parasites in Tehran
L Akhlaghi,J Shamseddin,AR Meamar,E Razmjou
Iranian Journal of Parasitology , 2009,
Abstract: "nBackground: For a long time, intestinal parasite infections are among the major problems of public health in Iran. Our aim was epidemiological studies on the frequency of intestinal parasites in patients re-ferred to three hospitals in Tehran during 2007-2008."nMethods: During 2007-2008, by simple random selection, 1000 stool samples were collected from Mi-lad, Hazrat-e-Rasoul and Shahid Fahmideh hospitals in Tehran, Iran. We examined the samples using di-rect smear, formol-ethyl acetate concentration, Agar-plate culture and Ziehl-Neelsen staining tech-nique."nResults: The frequency of intestinal parasites were: Blastocystis hominis 12.8%, Giardia lamblia 2.5%, En-tamoeba coli 4.8%, Iodamoeba butschlli 0.9%, unknown 4 nuclei cysts 0.4%, Endolimax nana 3.2%, Chilomastix mesnili 0.4%, Strongyloides stercoralis 0.1%, Hymenolepis nana 0.2% and Taenia sagi-nata 0.2%. Coccidian parasites were not found. Results show that infection with intestinal parasites does not statistically significant according to sex and age."nConclusion: The intestinal parasites, especially helminthic infections have been decreased during re-cent years.
Human anaerobic intestinal "rope" parasites  [PDF]
Alex A. Volinsky,Nikolai V. Gubarev,Galina M. Orlovskaya,Elena V. Marchenko
Quantitative Biology , 2013,
Abstract: Human intestinal helminths are described in this paper. They can be over a meter long, with an irregular cylindrical shape, resembling a rope. These anaerobic intestinal "rope" parasites differ significantly from other well-known intestinal parasites. Rope parasites can leave human body with enemas, and are often mistaken for intestinal lining, feces, or decayed remains of other parasites. Rope parasites can attach to intestinal walls with suction bubbles, which later develop into suction heads. Walls of the rope parasites consist of scale-like cells forming multiple branched channels along the parasite's length. Rope parasites can move by jet propulsion, passing gas bubbles through these channels. Currently known antihelminthic methods include special enemas. Most humans are likely hosting these helminths.
THE CURRENT SITUATION OF PARASITIC INFECTIONS IN INDONESIA  [cached]
Sri Oemijati
Bulletin of Health Research , 2012,
Abstract: Parasitic infections are highly prevalent in Indonesia, especially in rural areas, suburbs and slums of big cities. Twenty two species of protozoa and 32 species of helminths have been reported infecting man in Indonesia. Among the 16 species of intestinal protozoa, nine are constantly found in stool surveys, but only Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia are real pathogens. Among the blood and tissue protozoa, the most important are the malaria parasites. The most frequently encountered and widely distributed species are Plasmodium falciparum, and P. vivax. P. malariae is at present more difficult to find, while P. ovale has been reported only from Flores, Timor and Irian Jaya. The non human parasites so far has not been diagnosed in human. Among the 80 species of Anopheline mosquitoes in Indonesia, 16 have been reconfirmed as vectors. Among the other tissue protozoa, Trichomonas vaginalis is frequenUy found in the Gynaecological clinic, while Toxolasma gondii is found only in special studies. Among the 13 species of intestinal nematodes, five are highly prevalent namely : Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Trichuris trichiura and Oxyuris vermicularis, while Strongyloides stercoralis is getting more difficult to find. Filariasis is widely distributed and is still highly endemic in certain areas. Both urban and rural Wuchereria bancrofti are prevalent, but B. malayi is causing more public health problems in rural areas. Both the human and the zoonotic type are prevalent. B. timori so far has been described only from the south eastern part of Indonesia. The filarial worms have different vectors and are therefore different in epidemiology and distribution. Non human filarial worms have not been reported infecting man in Indonesia. Among the 12 species of Trematodes, only Schistosoma japonicum is endemic in Central Sulawesi, and recently an endemic area oiFasciolopsis buski was discovered in a restricted area in South Kalimantan. Echinostoma lindoense which was highly endemic in lake Lindu area has disappeared completely. Among the 8 species of Cestodes, Taenia saginata and T. solium with its cysticercus are found more often. While endemic in a few areas only, cases been reported from many places. Infections with other Cestodes have been reported occasionally. On the whole, parasitic infections in Indonesia have been decreasing. Some parasites which were prevalent in the older days, have dissappeared, and human infections with animal parasites have been reported occasionally because of the difficult diagnosis.
Multiple Intestinal Erosions as a Result of Hemorrhage due to Parasites: Case Reports and Review of the Literature  [PDF]
Hannah Pitanga Lukashok,Carlos Robles-Jara,Carlos Robles-Medranda
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/340869
Abstract: Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding appears to be uncommon in patients with parasites. In spite of that some reports had described this relationship in patients evaluated during capsule endoscopy procedures; the characteristic of the bleeding lesions remains unclear. This paper describes two patients with a massive obscure gastrointestinal bleeding due to ascariasis, using the new capsule endoscopy technology “MiroCam”, describing the characteristic of the lesions found in our patients (observed in a better image quality), and reviewing the literature. 1. Case 1 A 54-year-old woman was admitted to our center because of a massive gastrointestinal bleeding (melena). On physical examination the patient was pale, with a pulse rate of 110?bpm and a blood pressure of 90/60?mm?Hg. Laboratory results showed a hemoglobin (Hb) of 9?g/dL ( = 12–16?g/dL). There was no comorbidities, history of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) use, allergies, or clinical-laboratorial parameters of inflammatory bowel disease. The upper endoscopy was normal. Ileocolonoscopy only showed an erythema ring with a central fibrin point in the terminal ileum that was biopsied. The histology described a moderate eosinophilic infiltrate with some neutrophils and increase of the mononuclear cells (Figure 1(c)). The capsule endoscopy (Figure 1) showed multiple erosions in a total number of 20 with an erythema ring and a central fibrin point from the jejunum to the terminal ileum. The stool test found the presence of ascaris eggs. Treatment consisted of nitazoxanide 500?mg PO bid for 3 days. There was no rebleeding in a followup of 6 months. Figure 1: Intestinal erosions with erythema ring and fibrin center point detected by CE: (a) Case 1 at 2?h 50?min; (b) Case 1 at 2?h 54?min; (c) histology of an ileal erosion in Case 1 showing an eosinophil infiltrate with some neutrophils and increase of the mononuclear cells. (d) Case 2 at 9?h 55?min; (e) Case 2 at 9?h 60?min; (f) an intestinal bleeding point at 10?h 02?min in Case 2. 2. Case 2 A 36-year-old man was hospitalized because of hematochezia, abdominal discomfort, and signs of an important blood loss on the physical exam (pallor, diaphoresis, pulse rate >100?bpm, and blood pressure 100/60?mm?Hg). The Hb was 8?g/dL ( = 12–16?g/dL). The other laboratory tests were normal. There was no history of diarrhea, abdominal pain, allergies, NSAIDS use, or comorbidities. The gastroscopy and colonoscopy were normal. Capsule endoscopy showed four erosions (Figure 1) in the jejunum (with an erythema ring and fibrin center point) with a bleeding red
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Edo State
RM Mordi, CE Okaka
International Journal of Health Research , 2009,
Abstract: Purpose: To determine the prevalence and factors responsible for the spread of intestinal parasites in Edo State and suggest strategies for their control. Methods: This prospective and cross sectional study involved 3601 (798 males, 1002 females and 1801 children) selected randomly from the 18 local government areas of Edo State. Stool samples collected from the selected participants were analysed using standard techniques. Using a structured questionnaire, factors which disposed to increase in the prevalence of intestinal parasites were investigated between April 2007 and March 2008. Results: High prevalence (11.3%) of intestinal parasites was recorded in the study. Those drinking well water had the highest prevalence, followed by those who used tap water and least among people who used borehole water. Infection rate was higher in children who lived in bushy surrounding and lower in children who lived in marshy surrounding. The highest infection rate of 10% was observed in chldren who lived in environments where refuse was indiscriminately disposed and lowest (2.5%) in adult males who inhabited environments where refuse was collected in dust bins. Children who ate outside their homes and with unwashed hands were more likely to be infected than adult males who ate at home. Conclusion: There was high prevalence of parasitic infections in the State. Factors including water source, environment, method of refuse disposal, feeding pattern, sewage disposal, socio-economic status and cultural habits were identified to be contributing to parasitic infection.
intestinal parasites and nutritional status on Nigerian children
L Adekunle
African Journal of Biomedical Research , 2003,
Abstract: The nutritional status of children with heavy intestinal parasites was studied as compared to children of similar socio-economic background and characteristics with non parasitic infections. The result revealed the fact that the children with heavy intestinal parasites were shorter in heights and lower in weights than non infected children. They also exhibited more skin infections, angular scars and dental caries than their non infected counter parts.
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