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Diversity and Distribution of Freshwater Fishes in Aceh Water, Northern-Sumatra,Indonesia
Z.A. Muchlisin,M.N. Siti Azizah
International Journal of Zoological Research , 2009,
Abstract: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the diversity of freshwater fish and its distribution and to establish an inventory of the freshwater fish fauna in Aceh water. Sampling was done in five regions of NAD at 17 sites. Explorative research was conducted from January to June 2008 by investigating rivers based on information by local residents. Sampling was carried out in both lotic and lentic ecosystems. A total of 711 fishes belonging to 114 species, 69 genera, 41 families and 12 orders. Five families were distributed widely and observed in all the five regions i.e., Anguillidae, Clariidae, Cyprinidae, Anabantidae and Channidae. Sixteen families were found in only a single site. The diversity index of fishes in Aceh water ranged from 1.31 to 3.41 with an average of 2.17 indicating moderate values. The highest diversity was found in Lembang River of Aceh Selatan, while regionally, the North and south regions were higher but not significantly different from the West region. Highest similarity was found between Simpang dam and Sibreh irrigation canal of Sibreh. The similarity index between West and North region were relatively higher compared to other regional comparisons.
Harijani A. Marwoto,Ellen M. Andersen,Purnomo Purnomo,Narain H. Punjabi
Bulletin of Health Research , 2012,
Abstract: Since 1968 investigators from U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 2 Detachment (NAMRU-2) and the National Institute of Health Research and Development (NIHRD) have conducted parasitological/biomedical surveys in every major island in the Indonesian archipelago. Even smaller islands such as Nasi and Beras off of Sumatra and Beeuw off of Irian Jaya are represented in these studies. These activities were aimed to update and provide new information on the prevalence and distribution of intestinal parasites as well as other infectious agents. These surveys were done in collaboration with the Directorate General of Communicable Disease Control and Environmental Health (CDC&EH), universities and other health institutions such as the Indonesian Armed Forces Health Services, Provincial Health Services, and others. Stool specimens, blood smears, and venous blood examined in these studies showed that most of the population surveyed were infected with one to 7 different species of parasites. Between 50% to 95% of the population had multiple infections.
Cross-sectional survey of malaria prevalence in tsunami-affected districts of Aceh Province, Indonesia
David Muriuki, Sigrid Hahn, Braden Hexom, Richard Allan
International Journal of Emergency Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1865-1380-5-11
Abstract: The Mentor Initiative conducted community-based malaria prevalence surveys in 2005 and 2006 in five districts along the tsunami-affected western coastline. A total of 11,763 individuals in 3,771 households were tested. The overall slide positivity rate in 2005 and 2006 for all Plasmodium species was 2.1% (n = 252, 95% CI 1.9%-2.4%). Slide positivity rates ranged from 0 to 55% among villages. Overall, 57% of the 252 cases were infected with P. falciparum (n = 144, 95% CI 51.0%-63.3%), and 40.1% were infected with P. vivax (n = 101, 95% CI 34.0%-46.1%), with 0.03% (n = 7, 95% CI 0.8%-4.8%) being mixed infections. Males were significantly more likely to be affected than females (2.8% vs 1.5%, p < 0.01). Infection was more common in those over the age of 5 (2.3% vs. 0.6%, p < 0.01).Local prevalence data are needed to design effective community-based malaria control programs, as endemicity varies greatly within districts. Certain villages were found to be hyperendemic, with slide positivity rates far higher than average in Indonesia. There is a need for ongoing malaria surveillance in Aceh Province to monitor prevention and treatment efforts.Malaria is endemic throughout much of Indonesia. The Indonesian government reported a countrywide malaria prevalence of 850 per 100,000 in 2001 [1]. The World Health Organization's (WHO) 2008 World Malaria Report stated that 37% of Indonesia's population lived in a high transmission area (≥ 1 case/1,000), 14% lived in a low transmission area (0-1 cases/1,000), and 50% lived in a malaria-free area [2]. Endemicity tends to be higher on the more heavily forested outer islands. Approximately 46% of malaria infections in Indonesia are due to Plasmodium falciparum [3].Sumatra, one of Indonesia's outer islands, was severely affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, with much of the destruction located in the northern Aceh Province. Aceh Province had been quite isolated prior to the tsunami because of a long-standing separatist conflict, an
The Historical Basis of Aceh Socio-Economics Development (1511-1904)  [cached]
Mehmet ?zay
Tarih Kültür ve Sanat Ara?t?rmalar? Dergisi , 2012,
Abstract: It is vital to see the connection between experiences in history and contemporary developments in almost all corners of the world. Regions which appear as leading powers in economic developments have historically had their own particular dynamics. In the event that the dynamics of the past uncover the true means to go forward, it will trigger the path of progress at an unexpected time, when similar conditions are met. Taking this condition into account with regard to Aceh, we see that Aceh has been a potential candidate for the newly emerging economic development centers in Southeast Asia after the disastrous event on 26th December, 2004, pursuant to which the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) in Helsinki was signed by the related sides on 15th August, 2005. To assess and evaluate the possibilities and opportunities that open up before Aceh Province by virtue of the MoU, the tradition of economic developments in history should be revisited and evaluated. It might be assumed that the reflections from the past will certainly enlighten the future. This article suggests that the economic development of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam in the past might be a starting point for all parties in Aceh Province to deduce exactly how to deal with prevailing difficulties so as to commence economic progress in the region. It is considered that historical experiences are repetitive. The significance of Aceh was based on several diverse factors, primarily its state structure, economic activities, and geo-strategic position on the extreme northwest of Sumatra, that allowed it to be a part of the international sea trade between the east and the west between the 16th and 19th centuries. These characteristics propelled Aceh to become not only a prominent region, but also gain supremacy in global partnerships in the business of international trade. After the peace agreement celebrations, it is the need of the hour for all social and economic sectors in Aceh Province to trigger the potentiality of their region by looking at their flourishing past.RésuméIl existe une relation remarquable entre le développement économique actuel des pays et des régions et leurs expériences vécues dans le passé. Dans ce contexte, on peut suggérer que cette relation pourrait être basée sur les dynamiques propres à ces pays. En effet, avec la découverte de ces dynamiques qui existait dans le passé, on peut prévoir que certaines régions d’aujourd’hui peuvent de nouveau occuper une place sur la scène mondiale si des conditions similaires existent encore. Dans cet article, nous étudions que l’Aceh –
Forest Fruit Production Is Higher on Sumatra Than on Borneo  [PDF]
Serge A. Wich, Erin R. Vogel, Michael D. Larsen, Gabriella Fredriksson, Mark Leighton, Carey P. Yeager, Francis Q. Brearley, Carel P. van Schaik, Andrew J. Marshall
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021278
Abstract: Background Various studies have shown that the population densities of a number of forest vertebrates, such as orangutans, are higher on Sumatra than Borneo, and that several species exhibit smaller body sizes on Borneo than Sumatra and mainland Southeast Asia. It has been suggested that differences in forest fruit productivity between the islands can explain these patterns. Here we present a large-scale comparison of forest fruit production between the islands to test this hypothesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Data on fruit production were collated from Sumatran and Bornean sites. At six sites we assessed fruit production in three forest types: riverine, peat swamp and dryland forests. We compared fruit production using time-series models during different periods of overall fruit production and in different tree size classes. We examined overall island differences and differences specifically for fruiting period and tree size class. The results of these analyses indicate that overall the Sumatran forests are more productive than those on Borneo. This difference remains when each of the three forest types (dryland, riverine, and peat) are examined separately. The difference also holds over most tree sizes and fruiting periods. Conclusions/Significance Our results provide strong support for the hypothesis that forest fruit productivity is higher on Sumatra than Borneo. This difference is most likely the result of the overall younger and more volcanic soils on Sumatra than Borneo. These results contribute to our understanding of the determinants of faunal density and the evolution of body size on both islands.
Agents of Change - Frauenaktivistinnen in Aceh [Agents of Change - Women Activists in Aceh]  [PDF]
Kristina Gro?mann
ASEAS : ?sterreichische Zeitschrift für Südostasienwissenschaften , 2008,
Abstract: Aceh befindet sich seit der Dezentralisierungspolitik Indonesiens Ende der 1990er Jahre, der Tsunamikatastrophe 2004 und der Unterzeichnung des Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) 2005in einer politischen, kulturellen und gesellschaftlichen Transformation. Die Situation der Frauen in Aceh ist gepr gt durch Repressionen aufgrund der Einführung der Scharia, durch Einflussnahmevon internationalen Hilfsorganisationen nach dem Tsunami und durch die Neuordnung der Region Acehs seit den Autonomieverhandlungen. Der Transformationsprozess bringt gro e Herausforderungen für die Frauen in Aceh mit sich und beinhaltet zugleich die Chance zur Mitgestaltung. So entwerfen Frauenaktivistinnen innerhalb des Spannungsfeldes islamische Religiosit t, traditionell-kulturelleStrukturen und westliche Wertevorstellungen, Positionen und Strategien, um ihren Wunsch nach Geschlechtergerechtigkeit durchzusetzen. Mein Artikel beleuchtet die Frage, welche Rolle Frauenaktivistinnen innerhalb des Transformationsprozesses einnehmen und welche Chancen, M glichkeiten und Hindernisse es gibt, um Einfluss auf politische und gesellschaftliche Prozesse zunehmen. ----- Aceh, Indonesia’s westernmost province is in a process of political, social and cultural transformation, which is caused by three main factors. First, the process of decentralisation, launched by the government of Indonesia starting from the end of the 1990s and as a consequence of the implementation of sharia bylaws since 2001, second, the tsunami calamity 2004 and third, the peace process starting with the signing of the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) 2005 between representatives of the Government of Indonesia and the Acehnese freedom movement GAM (Gerakan Aceh Merdeka). Today’s situation of women in Aceh is infl uenced by repressions due to a conservative interpretation of Islam, by the impact of international aid organisations, which entered Aceh after the tsunami andby the political, social and cultural reconstruction of Aceh since the beginning of the peace process. The transformation process causes huge challenges for women and at the same time provides a wide range of opportunities for participation and modelling the new province Aceh. In this vibrant atmosphere, where tensions between Islamic religiosity, traditional-cultural structures and Western values are immense, women activists design positions and strategies to aim their desire of gender justice, equity and women’s rights. The present impact of the multiple efforts of women activists to take influence in the political and socio-cultural area can be described as
Conflict Transformation and Social Reconciliation: The Case of Aceh, Indonesia  [cached]
Iwan Gardono Sujatmiko
Asian Social Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v8n2p104
Abstract: This paper will discuss conflict transformation in Aceh and analyzes it in the international, structural, actor, issues, and personal contexts. The data show that the five contexts are supportive of the transformation of conflict from an armed rebellion and peaceful referendum to social reconciliation. The Aceh case shows also the complexity of the reconciliation that includes three parties: the GAM (Free Aceh Movement), which emphasizes politico-economic redistribution; the Islamic community, which demands the impelementation of Syariah (Islamic laws); and the central government, which determines to preserve the territorial integrity. The agreement and new law were impelemented and resulted in compromise and consensus in socio-political spheres in the new Aceh.
Tsunami mortality in Aceh Province, Indonesia
Doocy,Shannon; Rofi,Abdur; Moodie,Claire; Spring,Eric; Bradley,Scott; Burnham,Gilbert; Robinson,Courtland;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862007000400012
Abstract: objective: nine tsunami-affected districts in aceh, indonesia, were surveyed between february and august 2005 to characterize tsunami mortality. methods: the surveys employed a two-stage cluster methodology with probability proportional to size sampling, and encompassed 1653 tsunami-displaced households with a pre-tsunami population of 10 063 individuals. findings: of the original pre-tsunami population, a total of 1642 people, or 17%, were reported as dead or missing in the tsunami. crude mortality rates in the four survey areas ranged from a high of 23.6% in aceh jaya district on the west coast to 5.3% on the east coast. age-specific mortality rates followed a similar pattern across the four survey areas, with the highest mortality concentrating in the youngest children (aged 0-9 years) and oldest adults (70+). the risk of mortality was significantly greater among females than males; this difference was most pronounced among individuals between ages 10 and 69 years, and diminished among younger and older age groups. conclusion: mortality risk in the 2004 asian tsunami varied by geographic location, age and sex. the districts of aceh jaya, banda aceh and aceh besar experienced the greatest mortality. risk of death was highest among females, and among the oldest and youngest population subgroups. while the full human impact of the asian tsunami in aceh province, in terms of lives lost or damaged, may never be fully measured, the resulting female deficit will likely be the tsunami?s most deeply felt and prolonged impact.
Comparison of Two Different Earthquake Sources for the 26 December 2004 Aceh Tsunami Simulation
Nanang T. Puspito,Indra Gunawan
ITB Journal of Engineering Science , 2006,
Abstract: The tsunami wave propagation of the 26 December 2004 Aceh tsunami has been studied by performing a numerical tsunami simulation based on a method that was originally developed by the Tohoku University. The initial model was calculated based on the fault parameters proposed by GFZ Potsdam and Tohoku University. Despite the limitations in the numerical simulation, generally the calculated tsunami heights and arrival times show a relatively good agreement with the observed ones. Based on the simulation it can be estimated that the tsunami wave may reach the west and north coast of northern Sumatra at about 15 to 25 and 20 to 30 minutes after the earthquake, respectively. The maximum calculated tsunami heights in the west and north coast of Aceh were about 11 to 24 and 8 to 15 m, respectively. The calculated arrival times show that the tsunami wave may reach west coast of Thailand and east coast of India and Sri Lanka at about 90 to 100 and 100 to 120 minutes after the earthquake, respectively. The maximum calculated tsunami heights at Phuket of Thailand and Tricomalee of Sri Lanka were about 4 to 5 and 1.5 to 3.5 m, respectively.
Komunitas fitoplankton di daerah estuaria Krueng Aceh, Kota Banda Aceh  [cached]
Raudhatul Jannah,Zainal A. Muchlisin
Depik Jurnal , 2012,
Abstract: The study on the phytoplankton community in estuary area of Aceh River was done from August to October 2006. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the structure of the phytoplankton community in Aceh River post tsunami. Explorative survey was done at three sampling sites along the river. Sampling sites were determinated based on salinity zoning; >30 ppt, 18-30 ppt and 5-18 ppt. The results show that higher diversity of the phytoplankton was found at sampling site 1, while the lower diversity was recorded at sampling site 3. There were no dominancy of species at all of sampling locatios. Diversity index was ranged between 0.95 to 0.98 and its mean that the diversity is higher at all of stations, while similarity between station 1 and 2 was higher compared to others stations.There was no difference in division composition of phytoplankton post tsunami, however, the total species was increased post tsunami.
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