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Extralymphatic disease due to bancroftian filariasis
Dreyer, G.;Dreyer, P.;Piessens, W.F.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X1999001200003
Abstract: infection with wuchereria bancrofti, brugia malayi, or b. timori not only affects the structure and function of lymphatic vessels but is also associated with extralymphatic pathology and disease. because it is now possible to detect living adult worms by ultrasonography, much emphasis is placed on lymphatic pathology. however, the finding of renal damage in asymptomatic microfilaremic carriers has led to increased recognition of the importance of extralymphatic clinical manifestation in bancroftian filariasis. the authors present a number of clinical syndromes that may be manifestations of extralymphatic filarial disease and discuss possible mechanisms that cause these conditions. the main purpose of this paper is to raise the awareness of students and physicians of the prevalence and the importance of extralymphatic disease in bancroftian filariasis so that it is diagnosed and treated properly and also to alert for the need of additional research in this area.
Extralymphatic disease due to bancroftian filariasis  [cached]
Dreyer G.,Dreyer P.,Piessens W.F.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 1999,
Abstract: Infection with Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, or B. timori not only affects the structure and function of lymphatic vessels but is also associated with extralymphatic pathology and disease. Because it is now possible to detect living adult worms by ultrasonography, much emphasis is placed on lymphatic pathology. However, the finding of renal damage in asymptomatic microfilaremic carriers has led to increased recognition of the importance of extralymphatic clinical manifestation in bancroftian filariasis. The authors present a number of clinical syndromes that may be manifestations of extralymphatic filarial disease and discuss possible mechanisms that cause these conditions. The main purpose of this paper is to raise the awareness of students and physicians of the prevalence and the importance of extralymphatic disease in bancroftian filariasis so that it is diagnosed and treated properly and also to alert for the need of additional research in this area.
Bancroftian Filariasis in the Niger Delta Area of Eastern Nigeria
C.M.U. Ajero,B.E.B. Nwoke,N.J.C. Okolie,H.U. Nwanjo,G. Oze,M.C. Okafor,D. Nwosu,B. Anyaehie,G.C. Uloneme
Research Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: In a study to determine the prevalence and intensity of Bancroftian Filariasis (BF) in the Niger Delta area of Eastern Nigeria, 3,400 people in 34 villages were examined. Four hundred and twenty one (12.38%) subjects had Wuchereria bancrofti microfilarIae in their blood. There was a significant difference in the prevalence based on the villages sampled (p< 0.05). More males (15.0%) were infected than females (9.10%) with the female prevalence significantly lower in most of the villages (p< 0.05). The prevalence was age dependent with a progressive rise and decline after 59 years. The intensity of the microfilariae among infected subjects showed a generally low microfilarial count with a mean microfilariae load of 5.5.
Bancroftian filariasis in Belém, Pará State: possibilities for eradication by introducing modern methods of control for Culex quinquefasciatus
Fraiha Neto, Habib;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 1993, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X1993000400006
Abstract: for the past four decades, belém has been considered to be the largest focus of bancroftian filariasis in the amazon region and one of the most important ones in brazil. in 1952, practically one-fifth of the population was infected and it was estimated that there were 2,500 cases of bancroftian elephantiasis. the major factor considered to be responsible for this situation was the high density of the main vector species: it was calculated that in april 1943 there was a mean of 67 infected mosquitoes per house. a control campaign was initiated in 1952, involving treatment of patients with diethylcarbamazine, as well as control of the vector. in 1956, vector control was discontinued because of a lack of efficient insecticides and financial limitations. even so, the campaign was very successful and the incidence was reduced from 19.9% to 0.03%. total eradication could be achieved if new methods of vector control were introduced, such as the use of reiter's expanded polystyrene balls in cesspits and pit latrines, biological control using pathogenic bacteria, and improvement of basic sanitation.
Bancroftian filariasis in an endemic area of Brazil: differences between genders during puberty
Braga, Cynthia;Dourado, Inês;Ximenes, Ricardo;Miranda, Janaína;Alexander, Neal;
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0037-86822005000300003
Abstract: gender differences in susceptibility to infectious diseases have been observed in various studies. a survey was performed in a bancroftian filariasis endemic area in the city of olinda, brazil. all residents aged 5 years or older were examined by thick blood film. people aged 9 to 16 years were interviewed and also tested for filarial antigenaemia. data were analyzed by contingency table methods and regression models. the risk of microfilaraemia for males was significantly higher. among those aged 9 to 16 years, the analysis of gender and filariasis by age showed that boys from 15 to 16 years had a higher risk of infection than girls. no association was found between menarche and filariasis in girls. the data suggest that variations between gender in filariasis could result, at least in part, from an increase in susceptibility of men. this epidemiologic feature needs to be considered while formulating elimination plans.
Bancroftian filariasis in an endemic area of Brazil: differences between genders during puberty
Braga Cynthia,Dourado Inês,Ximenes Ricardo,Miranda Janaína
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical , 2005,
Abstract: Gender differences in susceptibility to infectious diseases have been observed in various studies. A survey was performed in a bancroftian filariasis endemic area in the city of Olinda, Brazil. All residents aged 5 years or older were examined by thick blood film. People aged 9 to 16 years were interviewed and also tested for filarial antigenaemia. Data were analyzed by contingency table methods and regression models. The risk of microfilaraemia for males was significantly higher. Among those aged 9 to 16 years, the analysis of gender and filariasis by age showed that boys from 15 to 16 years had a higher risk of infection than girls. No association was found between menarche and filariasis in girls. The data suggest that variations between gender in filariasis could result, at least in part, from an increase in susceptibility of men. This epidemiologic feature needs to be considered while formulating elimination plans.
Current Evidence on the Use of Antifilarial Agents in the Management of bancroftian Filariasis  [PDF]
Sumadhya Deepika Fernando,Chaturaka Rodrigo,Senaka Rajapakse
Journal of Tropical Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/175941
Abstract: Many trials have explored the efficacy of individual drugs and drug combinations to treat bancroftian filariasis. This narrative review summarizes the current evidence for drug management of bancroftian filariasis. Diethylcarbamazine (DEC) remains the prime antifilarial agent with a well-established microfilaricidal and some macrofilaricidal effects. Ivermectin (IVM) is highly microfilaricidal but minimally macrofilaricidal. The role of albendazole (ALB) in treatment regimens is not well established though the drug has a microfilaricidal effect. The combination of DEC+ALB has a better long-term impact than IVM+ALB. Recent trials have shown that doxycycline therapy against Wolbachia, an endosymbiotic bacterium of the parasite, is capable of reducing microfilaria rates and adult worm activity. Followup studies on mass drug administration (MDA) are yet to show a complete interruption of transmission, though the infection rates are reduced to a very low level. 1. Introduction There are nine filarial nematodes causing disease in humans. According to the location of the parasite and the pathogenesis, the disease can be classified as lymphatic, subcutaneous, and serous cavity filariasis. Two filarial worms, namely, Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi cause lymphatic filariasis. The World Health Organization (WHO) considers lymphatic filariasis to be a global health problem affecting approximately 120 million people in over 80 countries [1]. One-third of affected individuals are from South Asia and another one third is from Africa [1]. One sixth of the world population is at risk of infection [1]. The adult W. bancrofti worms live within the human lymphatic system. They have a long life span of 4–6 years. Females are viviparous and release thousands of microfilaria into the blood stream of the host after mating. These are taken up by vector mosquitoes during feeding, and the parasite undergoes several moults within the intermediate host to become the L3 larva which is the infective stage. During a feed, this larva enters the human blood stream and migrates to the lymphatics where it moults to become an adult worm [2]. There is a range of clinical manifestations in bancroftian filariasis with asymptomatic microfilaremics being at one end of the spectrum. Symptomatic patients may have acute (lymphangitis, lymphadenitis), chronic (elephantiasis, lymphoedema, hydrocoele, chyluria), or atypical (funiculitis, mastitis) manifestations [3]. Some may suffer from tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (TPE) due to the immunological hyperresponsiveness to the parasite [4].
Seasonal changes of infectivity rates of Bancroftian filariasis vectors in coast province, Kenya  [PDF]
Sichangi Kasili,Florence Oyieke,C. Wamae,Charles Mbogod
Journal of Vector Borne Diseases , 2009,
Abstract: Background & objectives: Bancroftian filariasis in Kenya is endemic in coastal districts with anestimated number of 2.5 million people at risk of infection. The main mosquito genera involved intransmission of Wuchereria bancrofti in these areas are Anopheles, Culex and Mansonia. Thestudy was envisaged to compare the infectivity rates of Bancroftian filariasis vectors between thehigh transmission (wet) and the low transmission (dry) seasons.Methods: Mosquitoes were sampled from houses and compounds from two study sites, Gazi andMadunguni, on the Kenyan coast. Day resting indoor collection (DRI), pyrethrum spray catch(PSC) and CDC light traps were used to collect mosquitoes. After identification, female mosquitoeswere dissected to search for W. bancrofti III stage larvae.Results: A total of 1832 female mosquitoes were dissected. Infectivity rates of vectors in Madunguniwere 1.49 and 0.21% in wet and dry seasons respectively, whereas in Gazi, these were 1.69 and0%, respectively. There was a significant difference in the infectivity rates between the two seasonsin both Madunguni and Gazi villages (p <0.05). Anopheles gambiae s.l. was the main vector inboth study sites followed by Culex quinquefasciatus and An. funestus.Conclusion: There was a difference in infectivity rates of Bancroftian filariasis vectors betweenthe wet and dry seasons. The abundance of An. gambiae s.s. during the transmission season couldbe responsible for the increased infectivity rates of vectors in this season.
Epidemiological study of bancroftian filariasis in Recife, Northeastern Brazil
Maciel, Amélia;Rocha, Abraham;Marzochi, Keyla Belizia F;Medeiros, Zulma;Carvalho, Alexandre B;Regis, Leda;Souza, Wayner;Lapa, Tiago;Furtado, André;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1996, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761996000400011
Abstract: wuchereria bancrofti in pernambuco was first documented in 1952 (azevedo & dobbin 1952), and since then it has been reported in surveys carried out in selected areas of recife. several surveys were carried out from 1981 to 1991 by sucam. in the 1985 sucam's report the disease is considered under control. the cpqam filariasis research program was established in 1985 and a filarial survey was carried out in the town of olinda, greater recife. in order to verify the real epidemiological situation, a study was conducted in the city of recife. 21/36 of the special zones of social interest (zeis), were randomly selected for the present study. from 10,664 persons screened, 683 were positive and the prevalence rate for microfilaraemia (mf) varied from 0.6% to 14.9%. a mean mf prevalence of 6.5%, showed that the infection occurs in a wide geographic distribution in greater recife and that the intensity of transmission is a real and potential threat to public health in affected communities. mf rate among males and females differed significantly. due to the rapid increase in population, unplanned urban settlements, poor sanitary facilities and the favorable geographical conditions to the development of the vector, filariasis may actually be increasing in recife.
MEMBRANE FILTRATION TECHNIQUE FOR FILARIASIS SURVEILLANCE, IN SEMARANG  [cached]
Arbain Joseph,David T. Dennis
Bulletin of Health Research , 2012,
Abstract: Berbagai cara dalam pengambilan dan pengolahan sediaan darah dalam pemeriksaan adanya microfilaria pada penderita atau tersangka penderita telah dilaporkan dimana salah satu diantaranya adalah dengan penyaringan darah vena dengan nuclepore membrane. Penelitian telah dilakukan di daerah endemis Wuchereria bancrofti Semarang untuk mengetahui manfaat cara ini dengan cara sediaan darah tebal yang diambil dari ujung jari yang digunakan dalam program pemberantasan penyakit filaria di Indonesia. Dari penelitian ini ditemukan bahwa penggunaan cara saringan darah tidak hanya berhasil menemukan microfilaria pada penderita dengan jumlah yang rendah didalam peredaran darahnya tetapi juga menemukan microfilaria ini pada penderita dimana pada pemeriksaan sediaan darah tebal microfilaria tidak ditemukan karena hilang selama pengolahan.
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