Abstract:
The tin atom in the substituted ammonium stannate(IV), (C5H6N)2[SnBr3(C6H4Cl)2Cl], lies on a center of symmetry in a distorted octahedral coordination geometry. Each independent halogen site is occupied by bromine and chlorine anions in an approximate 3:1 ratio. The pyridinium cation forms a hydrogen bond to only one of the halogen atoms.

Abstract:
The carbonized ground nut shell (GNSC) was impregnated with zirconium oxy chloride, and tested to determine its capacity and kinetics for fluoride adsorption from aqueous solutions. The analysis of the isotherm equilibrium data using the Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson equations by linear methods showed that the data fitted better with Freundlich model than the other two. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the spontaneous nature of fluoride adsorption with increase of entropy and an endothermic process. The kinetic data obtained for fluoride adsorption on zirconium impregnated ground nut shell carbon (ZIGNSC) obeyed the pseudo-second order equation. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies confirmed the deposition of fluoride on material and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies also showed the involvement of adsorbate on the adsorbent surface in the adsorption interaction. The ZIGNSC provides a cost effective material to the defluoridation problem in the developing countries by its great potential application in the fluoride removal from water.

Abstract:
In the title compound, (C7H11N2)2[SnBr4(C7H7)2], the tetrabromidobis(4-methylphenyl)stannate(IV) anion possesses a centre of inversion located at the SnIV atom. In the crystal structure, two inversion-related cations are linked to the anion via weak N—H...Br hydrogen bonds.

Abstract:
Relativistic thermodynamics is treated from the point of view of kinetic theory. It is shown that the generalized Jüttner distribution suggested in [1] is compatible with kinetic equilibrium. The requirement of compatibility of kinetic and thermodynamic equilibrium reveals several generalizations of the Gibbs relation where the velocity field is an independent thermodynamic variable.

Abstract:
In the title compound, (C7H11N2)2[SnBr4(C6H4Cl)2]·C6H4BrCl, the SnIV atom in the tetrabromidobis(4-chlorophenyl)stannate(IV) anion lies on a centre of inversion. The distances between the 4-(dimethylamino)pyridinium N atom and the Br atoms of the anion are 3.450 (2) and 3.452 (2) , suggesting weak hydrogen bonding. The 4-bromochlorobenzene solvent molecule, which is a bromination by-product from the reaction, is disordered about a twofold rotation axis with approximately equal occupancy.

Abstract:
The SnIV atom in the title ammonium stannate, (Et3NH)[Sn(C5H3N2O2)Cl4], is chelated by an pyrazine-2-carboxylate ligand and exists in a cis-SnCl4NO octahedral geometry. The cation and the anion are linked by an N—H...N hydrogen bond.

Abstract:
We introduce in this paper a new approach to the problem of the convergence to equilibrium for kinetic equations. The idea of the approach is to prove a 'weak' coercive estimate, which implies exponential or polynomial convergence rate. Our method works very well not only for hypocoercive systems in which the coercive parts are degenerate but also for the linearized Boltzmann equation.

Abstract:
A kinetic method is described for the determination of Se(IV) based on its inhibiting effect on the Fe(III) catalysis of the oxidation of C6H5COONa with hydrogen peroxide. The detection limit is 0.06 μg cm-3. The relative error ranges between 2.1 and 9.5 % for the concentration interval 0.26 to 2.6 μg cm-3. Kinetic equations are proposed for the investigated process. The effects of certain foreign ions upon the reaction rate were determined in order to assess the selectivity of the method. the method was applied for the determination of Se(IV) in pharmaceutical samples.

Abstract:
Off-shellness and inhomogeneities are in the non-equilibrium dynamics of the lambda phi^4 model are studied using the closed timepath formalism reformulated as kinetic field theory. We take into account initial correlations up to the 4-point functions. The model is shown to exhibit a SO(1,1) symmetry broken by interactions and initial conditions. The divergence of the corresponding Noethercurrent is calculated and the Ward-Takahashi relations for the broken symmetry are given. They constitute a set of generalized integrated kinetic equations for the general n-point functions. We demonstrate that energy-momentum conservation follows from the transport equations. As an application we discuss inhomogeneities and general non-equilibrium conditions in the free field model. In our solution we identify the casimir-effect.

Abstract:
We present a theory for the construction of renormalized kinetic equations to describe the dynamics of classical systems of particles in or out of equilibrium. A closed, self-consistent set of evolution equations is derived for the single-particle phase-space distribution function $f$, the correlation function $C=<\delta f\delta f >$, the retarded and advanced density response functions $\chi^{R,A}=\delta f/\delta\phi$ to an external potential $\phi$, and the associated memory functions $\Sigma^{R,A,C}$. The basis of the theory is an effective action functional $\Omega$ of external potentials $\phi$ that contains all information about the dynamical properties of the system. In particular, its functional derivatives generate successively the single-particle phase-space density $f$ and all the correlation and density response functions, which are coupled through an infinite hierarchy of evolution equations. Traditional renormalization techniques are then used to perform the closure of the hierarchy through memory functions. The latter satisfy functional equations that can be used to devise systematic approximations. The present formulation can be equally regarded as (i) a generalization to dynamical problems of the density functional theory of fluids in equilibrium and (ii) as the classical mechanical counterpart of the theory of non-equilibrium Green's functions in quantum field theory. It unifies and encompasses previous results for classical Hamiltonian systems with any initial conditions. For equilibrium states, the theory reduces to the equilibrium memory function approach. For non-equilibrium fluids, popular closures (e.g. Landau, Boltzmann, Lenard-Balescu) are simply recovered and we discuss the correspondence with the seminal approaches of Martin-Siggia-Rose and of Rose.and we discuss the correspondence with the seminal approaches of Martin-Siggia-Rose and of Rose.