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Impact of Six Rounds of Mass Drug Administration on Brugian Filariasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in Eastern Indonesia  [PDF]
Taniawati Supali,Yenny Djuardi,Mark Bradley,Rahmah Noordin,Paul Rückert,Peter U. Fischer
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002586
Abstract: Background The lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia timori occurs only in eastern Indonesia where it causes high morbidity. The absence of an animal reservoir, the inefficient transmission by Anopheles mosquitoes and the high sensitivity to DEC/albendazole treatment make this species a prime candidate for elimination by mass drug administration (MDA). Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the effect of MDA using DEC and albendazole on B. timori and soil transmitted helminths (STH) in a cross-sectional study of a sentinel village on Alor Island annually over a period of 10 years. Pre-MDA the microfilaria (MF) prevalence was 26% and 80% of the residents had filaria-specific IgG4 antibodies. In 2010, 34 months after the 6th round of MDA, MF and antibody rates were only 0.17% and 6.4%, respectively. The MDA campaign had also a beneficial effect on STH. Baseline prevalence rates for Ascaris, hookworm and Trichuris were 34%, 28%, and 11%, respectively; these rates were reduced to 27%, 4%, and 2% one year after the 5th round of MDA. Unfortunately, STH rates rebounded 34 months after cessation of MDA and approached pre-MDA rates. However, the intensity of STH infection in 2009 was still reduced, and no heavy infections were detected. Conclusions/Significance MDA with DEC/albendazole has had a major impact on B. timori MF and IgG4 antibody rates, providing a proof of principle that elimination is feasible. We also documented the value of annual DEC/albendazole as a mass de-worming intervention and the importance of continuing some form of STH control after cessation of MDA for filariasis.
Intravitreal live adult Brugian filariasis  [cached]
Rao Nageswar,Mahapatra Sontosh,Pattnayak Sabyasachi,Pattnaik Kaumudee
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 2008,
Abstract: Human ocular infestation by live filarial worm is a rare occurrence and has been reported mostly form South-East Asia. It involves the eyelids, conjunctiva, cornea, anterior chamber and uvea. No case of intravitreal Brugian microfilaria / adult worm has been found by Medline search. Here we report a case of live intravitreal adult Brugian filaria, where the parasite was successfully removed by pars plana vitrectomy. Identification of the worm was done by light microscopy and confirmed by immuno chromatographic test.
Diagnosis of Brugian Filariasis by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification  [PDF]
Catherine B. Poole,Nathan A. Tanner,Yinhua Zhang,Thomas C. Evans Jr.,Clotilde K. S. Carlow
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001948
Abstract: In this study we developed and evaluated a Brugia Hha I repeat loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the rapid detection of Brugia genomic DNA. Amplification was detected using turbidity or fluorescence as readouts. Reactions generated a turbidity threshold value or a clear visual positive within 30 minutes using purified genomic DNA equivalent to one microfilaria. Similar results were obtained using DNA isolated from blood samples containing B. malayi microfilariae. Amplification was specific to B. malayi and B. timori, as no turbidity was observed using DNA from the related filarial parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Onchocerca volvulus or Dirofilaria immitis, or from human or mosquito. Furthermore, the assay was most robust using a new strand-displacing DNA polymerase termed Bst 2.0 compared to wild-type Bst DNA polymerase, large fragment. The results indicate that the Brugia Hha I repeat LAMP assay is rapid, sensitive and Brugia-specific with the potential to be developed further as a field tool for diagnosis and mapping of brugian filariasis.
BIOTECHNOLOGY OF THE FILARIA OF INDONESIA  [cached]
F. Partono,B. Rukmono
Bulletin of Health Research , 2012,
Abstract: More than 90 million people were currently infected with lymphatic filariasis and mo-third of them lived in China, India and Indonesia. Filariasis is endemic throughout the entire Indonesian Archipelago. More than 20 million people lived in endemic areas and 3-4 million people were estimated to have the infection. Control measures have reduced the prevalence of infections in some areas, but the disease remained a public health problem in many outer islands of Indonesia. Recent development in monoclonal antibodies and recombinant technology of DNA have made it possible to apply these new tools in the studies of filariasis, and three groups in Indonesia are currently using these new technology. The studies with the Imperial College of London will be presented by Dr. Rick Maizels. Collaboration with the New England Biolabs and Smith College involve the use of a stage and species-specific monoclonal antibody against the infective larvae of Brugia malayi, a double blind comparison of conventional methods and DNA probes for the diagnosis of brugian filariasis, and phylogentic studies of the brugian parasites. The ELISA using the monoclonal antibody has been adapted for field use in Jakarta. It is simple to use, does not cross-react with the infective stage of Brugia pahangi, but does so with the infective stage of the non-sympatric Brugia timori. The reagent is useful to acurately monitor the progress of control programs in endemic areas of brugian filariasis. The oligonucleotide DNA probes for B.malayi and B.pahangi were both qualitatively and quantitatively comparable to the conventional methods for the diagnosis of brugian parasites in cats and man. Sequencing data of the repeated DNA sequences of various brugian parasites indicated their homologies and divergences. The anthropophilic strain of B.malayi and B.timori showed similarity in their biological characteristics and repeated DNA sequences and they are phylogenically probably closely related. One isolate of B.malayi from Tanjung Pinang showed closer homology to the repeated DNA sequences of B.pahangi than to that of B.malayi. Studies on the repeated DNA sequences of different isolates of brugian parasites are essential before DNA probes can be widely used in field studies.
CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE CHALLENGES OF HEALTHCARE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN INDONESIA  [cached]
Sri Irianti
Media of Health Research and Development , 2013,
Abstract: Abstrak Latar belakang: Dalam memberikan pelayanan kesehatan, rumah sakit maupun sarana pelayanan kesehatan lainnya menghasilkan limbah medik yang mempunyai risiko menularkan penyakit-penyakit tular darah dan penyakit lainnya apabila tidak dikelola secara aman. Tujuan:Diperolehnya gambaran tentang kondisi dan praktik Pengelolaan Limbah Layanan Kesehatan (PLLK) di beberapa rumah sakit umum (RSU) di Indonesia, agar dapat digunakan oleh RSU dan sarana pelayanan kesehatan lainnya untuk melaksanakan PLLK secara aman. Bahan dan Cara: Kajian berupa survei dilakukan oleh Direktorat Penyehatan Lingkungan dengan cara mengirimkan kuesioner terstruktur di100 RSU pada tahun 2004. Hanya 76 RSU yang mengisi kuesioner. Lingkup survei meliputi aspek sanitasi RSU, di antaranya PLLK yang meliputi variabel ketersedian unit organisasi yang bertanggungjawab dalam PLLK, rencana pengelolaan limbah medik , ketersediaan pedoman PLLK, praktik pemilahan dan teknologi pengolahan limbah medik. Hasil: Sebagian besar RSU telah mempunyai unit yang bertanggungjawab dalam PLLK, namun hanya sekitar 33% yang mempunyai rencana PLLK. Demikian pula hanya sekitar 30% RSU yang memilah limbahnya menjadi tiga kategori sesuai pedomanPLLK, walaupun lebih dari 60% RSU telah mempunyai buku pedoman PLLK sesuai dengan Keputusan Menteri Kesehatan No. 1204/2004. Insinerasi merupakan cara pemusnahan limbah yang dipilih oleh mayoritas RSU. Kesimpulan: Masih banyak RSU yang disurvei belum mengelola limbahnya sesuai dengan Keputusan Menteri Kesehatan No. 1204/2004 seperti diamanatkan oleh Peraturan Pemerintah tentang Pengelolaan Limbah Berbahaya dan Beracun termasuk limbah layanan kesehatan. Kata kunci: fasilitas kesehatan, pengelolaan limbah layanan kesehatan, kebijakan, risiko kesehatan Abstract Background: In providing healthcare services, hospitals and other healthcare facilities generate medical wastes which can spread blood-borne diseases and other waste diseases if they do not manage their medical wastes safely. Material and Method: Information presented in this paper is part of a survey of Environmental Health Directorate regarding hospital sanitation using a structured questionnaire mailed to 100 general hospitals in 2004. There were 76 hospitals participated in the survey by filling in the questionnaires and sending them back to the Environmental Health Directorate. Study variables include availability of sanitation unit responsible for Health Care Waste Management (HCWM), HCWM plans, HCWM guidelines, waste segregation practices, and HCWM technologies used. Result: Majority of hospitals had sani
VECTORS OF MALARIA AND FILARIASIS IN INDONESIA  [cached]
Hoedojo Hoedojo
Bulletin of Health Research , 2012,
Abstract: Malaria at present is still one of the important mosquito-borne diseases in Indonesia. The disease is widespread all over the country and involves nearly all islands. Sixteen Anopheles species have been reconfirmed as malaria vectors. They were distributed geographi-cally as follows: Coastal areas and lagoons ------------------------------------- An sundaicus and An.subpictus Cultivated ricefields and swampy areas -------------------- An.aconitus, An.barbirostris, An.nigerrimus and An.sinensis Forest inland areas in shaded temporary pools, muddy animal wallows and hoof-prints -------------------------------------------------------- An.balabacensis, An.bancrofti, An.farauti, An.koliensis and An.punctulatus Swamp forest edge in ditches with vegeta- ---------------- An.letifer and An.ludlowae don Hilly areas in seepages, streams and clear moving water ---------------------------------------------- Anflavirostris, An.maculatus and Anminimus. The species (of most general importance is An.sundaicus, which is restricted) by its preference for brackish water and is prevalent in coastal areas of Java. Their types in behaviour of An.sundaicus appear as follows : 1. An.sundaicus in South Coast of Java in general. This species is essentially anthropophilic, exophagic and rests outdoor. It shows susceptible to DDT. 2. An.sundaicus in Cilacap, Central Java. This mosquito is a pure anthropophilic form. It bites man in houses and outdoors, rests indoors and is known resistant to DDT. 3. An.sundaicus in Yogyakarta and Purworejo, Central Java. This mosquito is a strong zoophilic species. It rests and prefers to bite outdoors and shows tolerance to DDT. Human filariasis in Indonesia is the result of infection by three endemic species, namely, Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori.W.bancrofti infection is found in both urban and rural areas. Twenty species of mosquitoes are confirmed as filariasis vectors. The urban type bancroftian filariasis is transmitted by Culex quinquefasciatus, whereas the rural type is transmitted mosdy by Anopheles spp., such as An.aconitus and An.punctulatus complex. The periodic species of Mansonia transmit the subperiodic noctural B.malayi. B.timori which is distributed in the Eastern part of Indonesia (East Nusa Tenggara), is transmitted by An.barbirostris. Some filariasis vectors such as An.aconitus and the An.puctulatus complex may function both as filariasis vector and malaria vector as well. An.barbirostris with is confirmed as a vector of malaria in South Sulawesi, a vector of periodic nocturnal malayan filariasis in Ce
DISTRIBUTION AND PREVALENCE OF MALAYAN FILARIASIS IN SOUTH SULAWESI, INDONESIA  [cached]
Gandahusada S.,Borahima Lami,Palemi Tandi,Sumengen Sumengen
Bulletin of Health Research , 2012,
Abstract: Untuk mendapatkan gambaran distribusi dan prevalensi penyakit filariasis di daerah transmigrasi Sulawesi Selatan, telah dikumpulkan data survey yang diadakan oleh Dinas Kesehatan Propinsi dan Ka-bupaten pada tahun 1972, 1973, 1976 dan 1979. Data diperoleh dari 82 desa dari 3 kecamatan, Mangkutana, Nuha, dan Wotu. Infeksi filariasis pada penduduk asli di Mangkutana (9.7%) lebih tinggi dari pada para transmigran (7.6%). Sedangkan pada penduduk asli di Nuha 3.6%, dan di Wotu 3.5%.
REVIEW: Research Ethnobotany in Indonesia and the Future Perspectives  [PDF]
EKO BAROTO WALUJO
Biodiversitas , 2008,
Abstract: Indonesia is not only rich in its biodiversity but it is also well known as a country with high diversity of ethnicities. Each ethnic group has extensive experienced in the utilization and conservation of biological and ecological diversity. This biocultural richness has provided ethnobotanical researchers with endless research opportunities. Ethnobotanical study has a long history in Indonesia and dates back to the early Dutch colonization period when Dutch explorers and naturalists recorded the uses of plants used by the natives for food, medicine, buildings materials, etc. Based on research on Java, Hasskarl (1845) recorded 900 species of plants used by Indonesian communities. Previously, Rumphius (1750) in his monumental book "Herbarium Amboinense", reported the uses of several hundreds plants from Ambon and its vicinity. Recently, Indonesian scientists from both government and non-government organizations have given more attention to the importance of ethnobotany as a means of elaborating traditional knowledge, especially for economically useful and scientifically undiscovered plants. The talk will focus on ethnobotanical research performed by LIPI scientists at the Research Center for Biology in Bogor and the Indonesia Botanic Gardens. During the last 20 years, since the Indonesia' Ethnobotanical Museum was established. Indonesian scientists have documented the importance of ethnobotany, ethnomedicine, ethnomycology, ethnoentomology, and ethnoecology for conservation of traditional knowledge in relation to the economic botany and to other applied sciences. The meaning and scope of ethnobotany and its status including the future prospects, its contribution to the exploitation and conservation will be discuses in this paper.
Challenges in mass drug administration for treating lymphatic filariasis in Papua, Indonesia
Navneet Bhullar, Jacob Maikere
Parasites & Vectors , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-3-70
Abstract: During the MDA, we encountered difficult challenges in accessing as well as persuading the patient population to take the antifilarial drugs. Health promotion activities supporting treatment need to be adapted and repetitive, with adequate time and resources allocated for accessing and communicating with local, seminomadic populations. Distribution of bednets resulted in an increase in MDA coverage, but it was still below the 80-85% target.MDA for lymphatic filariasis is how the WHO has planned to eliminate the disease from endemic areas. Our programmatic experience will hopefully help inform future campaign planning in difficult-to-access, high-burden areas of the world to achieve target MDA coverage for elimination of lymphatic filariasis.Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a parasitic disease transmitted by mosquito bites which causes disability and adversely impacts the economy of the developing countries where it is endemic. LF is the fourth most common cause of disability worldwide [1]. It is caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, or Brugia timori. These parasites reside in lymphatic channels or lymph nodes where they remain viable for more than two decades. W. bancrofti is the most widely distributed, affecting an estimated 115 million people throughout the tropics and subtropics. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 120 million people are currently infected and more than 1 billion people are at risk in 83 countries [1]. Approximately 40 million people are seriously incapacitated and disfigured by the disease [1,2].LF disease transmission can be stopped through a feasible, effective, and relatively inexpensive prevention strategy through mass drug administration (MDA) of two oral drugs to at-risk populations once a year [3-5]. These drugs kill the microfilariae in an infected patient's blood so that mosquitoes cannot transmit the disease to others. This MDA-based strategy of transmission interruption is part of the WHO's Global Program to Elimi
THE STATUS AND FUNCTION OF ENGLISH IN INDONESIA: A REVIEW OF KEY FACTORS  [cached]
Allan Lauder
Makara Seri Sosial Humaniora , 2008,
Abstract: In order to understand the way English is used and seen in Indonesia today, it is useful to know something about how historical, political, socio-cultural and linguistic factors have shaped its status and functions over the last century. The use of English in Indonesia has developed in the context of post-colonial educational competency building, and more recently the need to support development – in particular its role in state education. However, attitudes of some policy makers and commentators towards the language have often been ambivalent, expressing fears of its power to exertnegative cultural influences. The special status of English as a global language with many potential varieties that might pose as models for Indonesia also poses the question of which one would be right for the country. The paper looks atthese educational and policy issues, and also gives some suggestions about the future.
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