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Computational Method for Estimating DNA Copy Numbers in Normal Samples, Cancer Cell Lines, and Solid Tumors Using Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization
Victor Abkevich,Diana Iliev,Kirsten M. Timms,Thanh Tran,Mark Skolnick,Jerry S. Lanchbury,Alexander Gutin
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/386870
Abstract: Genomic copy number variations are a typical feature of cancer. These variations may influence cancer outcomes as well as effectiveness of treatment. There are many computational methods developed to detect regions with deletions and amplifications without estimating actual copy numbers (CN) in these regions. We have developed a computational method capable of detecting regions with deletions and amplifications as well as estimating actual copy numbers in these regions. The method is based on determining how signal intensity from different probes is related to CN, taking into account changes in the total genome size, and incorporating into analysis contamination of the solid tumors with benign tissue. Hidden Markov Model is used to obtain the most likely CN solution. The method has been implemented for Affymetrix 500K GeneChip arrays and Agilent 244K oligonucleotide arrays. The results of CN analysis for normal cell lines, cancer cell lines, and tumor samples are presented. The method is capable of detecting copy number alterations in tumor samples with up to 80% contamination with benign tissue. Analysis of 178 cancer cell lines reveals multiple regions of common homozygous deletions and strong amplifications encompassing known tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes as well as novel cancer related genes.
Molecular Karyotyping of Human Single Sperm by Array- Comparative Genomic Hybridization  [PDF]
Cristina Patassini, Andrea Garolla, Alberto Bottacin, Massimo Menegazzo, Elena Speltra, Carlo Foresta, Alberto Ferlin
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060922
Abstract: No valid method is currently available to analyze the entire genome of sperm, including aneuploidies and structural chromosomal alterations. Here we describe the optimization and application of array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) on single human sperm. The aCGH procedure involves screening of the entire chromosome complement by DNA microarray allowing having a molecular karyotype, and it is currently used in research and in diagnostic clinical practice (prenatal diagnosis, pre-implantation genetic diagnosis), but it has never been applied on sperm. DNA from single human sperm isolated by micromanipulator was extracted, decondensed and amplified by whole-genome amplification (WGA) and then labeled, hybridized to BAC array, and scanned by microarray scanner. Application of this protocol to 129 single sperm from normozoospermic donors identified 7.8% of sperm with different genetic anomalies, including aneuploidies and gains and losses in different chromosomes (unbalanced sperm). On the contrary, of 130 single sperm from men affected by Hodgkin lymphoma at the end of three months of chemotherapy cycles 23.8% were unbalanced. Validation of the method also included analysis of 43 sperm from a man with a balanced translocation [46,XY,t(2;12)(p11.2;q24.31)], which showed gains and losses corresponding to the regions involved in the translocation in 18.6% of sperm and alterations in other chromosomes in 16.3% of sperm. Future application of this method might give important information on the biology and pathophysiology of spermatogenesis and sperm chromosome aberrations in normal subjects and in patients at higher risk of producing unbalanced sperm, such as infertile men, carriers of karyotype anomalies, men with advanced age, subjects treated with chemotherapy, and partners of couples with repeated miscarriage and repeated failure during assisted reproduction techniques.
Analysis of Molecular Cytogenetic Alteration in Rhabdomyosarcoma by Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization  [PDF]
Chunxia Liu, Dongliang Li, Jinfang Jiang, Jianming Hu, Wei Zhang, Yunzhao Chen, Xiaobin Cui, Yan Qi, Hong Zou, WenJie Zhang, Feng Li
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094924
Abstract: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common pediatric soft tissue sarcoma with poor prognosis. The genetic etiology of RMS remains largely unclear underlying its development and progression. To reveal novel genes more precisely and new therapeutic targets associated with RMS, we used high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to explore tumor-associated copy number variations (CNVs) and genes in RMS. We confirmed several important genes by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR). We then performed bioinformatics-based functional enrichment analysis for genes located in the genomic regions with CNVs. In addition, we identified miRNAs located in the corresponding amplification and deletion regions and performed miRNA functional enrichment analysis. aCGH analyses revealed that all RMS showed specific gains and losses. The amplification regions were 12q13.12, 12q13.3, and 12q13.3–q14.1. The deletion regions were 1p21.1, 2q14.1, 5q13.2, 9p12, and 9q12. The recurrent regions with gains were 12q13.3, 12q13.3–q14.1, 12q14.1, and 17q25.1. The recurrent regions with losses were 9p12–p11.2, 10q11.21–q11.22, 14q32.33, 16p11.2, and 22q11.1. The mean mRNA level of GLI1 in RMS was 6.61-fold higher than that in controls (p = 0.0477) by QRT-PCR. Meanwhile, the mean mRNA level of GEFT in RMS samples was 3.92-fold higher than that in controls (p = 0.0354). Bioinformatic analysis showed that genes were enriched in functions such as immunoglobulin domain, induction of apoptosis, and defensin. Proto-oncogene functions were involved in alveolar RMS. miRNAs that located in the amplified regions in RMS tend to be enriched in oncogenic activity (miR-24 and miR-27a). In conclusion, this study identified a number of CNVs in RMS and functional analyses showed enrichment for genes and miRNAs located in these CNVs regions. These findings may potentially help the identification of novel biomarkers and/or drug targets implicated in diagnosis of and targeted therapy for RMS.
A Genome-Wide Analysis of Array-Based Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) Data to Detect Intra-Species Variations and Evolutionary Relationships  [PDF]
Apratim Mitra,George Liu,Jiuzhou Song
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007978
Abstract: Array-based comparative genomics hybridization (aCGH) has gained prevalence as an effective technique for measuring structural variations in the genome. Copy-number variations (CNVs) form a large source of genomic structural variation, but it is not known whether phenotypic differences between intra-species groups, such as divergent human populations, or breeds of a domestic animal, can be attributed to CNVs. Several computational methods have been proposed to improve the detection of CNVs from array CGH data, but few population studies have used CGH data for identification of intra-species differences. In this paper we propose a novel method of genome-wide comparison and classification using CGH data that condenses whole genome information, aimed at quantification of intra-species variations and discovery of shared ancestry. Our strategy included smoothing CGH data using an appropriate denoising algorithm, extracting features via wavelets, quantifying the information via wavelet power spectrum and hierarchical clustering of the resultant profile. To evaluate the classification efficiency of our method, we used simulated data sets. We applied it to aCGH data from human and bovine individuals and showed that it successfully detects existing intra-specific variations with additional evolutionary implications.
Genomic Profiling of Submucosal-Invasive Gastric Cancer by Array-Based Comparative Genomic Hybridization  [PDF]
Akiko Kuroda,Yoshiyuki Tsukamoto,Lam Tung Nguyen,Tsuyoshi Noguchi,Ichiro Takeuchi,Masahiro Uchida,Tomohisa Uchida,Naoki Hijiya,Chisato Nakada,Tadayoshi Okimoto,Masaaki Kodama,Kazunari Murakami,Keiko Matsuura,Masao Seto,Hisao Ito,Toshio Fujioka,Masatsugu Moriyama
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022313
Abstract: Genomic copy number aberrations (CNAs) in gastric cancer have already been extensively characterized by array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) analysis. However, involvement of genomic CNAs in the process of submucosal invasion and lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer is still poorly understood. In this study, to address this issue, we collected a total of 59 tumor samples from 27 patients with submucosal-invasive gastric cancers (SMGC), analyzed their genomic profiles by array CGH, and compared them between paired samples of mucosal (MU) and submucosal (SM) invasion (23 pairs), and SM invasion and lymph node (LN) metastasis (9 pairs). Initially, we hypothesized that acquisition of specific CNA(s) is important for these processes. However, we observed no significant difference in the number of genomic CNAs between paired MU and SM, and between paired SM and LN. Furthermore, we were unable to find any CNAs specifically associated with SM invasion or LN metastasis. Among the 23 cases analyzed, 15 had some similar pattern of genomic profiling between SM and MU. Interestingly, 13 of the 15 cases also showed some differences in genomic profiles. These results suggest that the majority of SMGCs are composed of heterogeneous subpopulations derived from the same clonal origin. Comparison of genomic CNAs between SMGCs with and without LN metastasis revealed that gain of 11q13, 11q14, 11q22, 14q32 and amplification of 17q21 were more frequent in metastatic SMGCs, suggesting that these CNAs are related to LN metastasis of early gastric cancer. In conclusion, our data suggest that generation of genetically distinct subclones, rather than acquisition of specific CNA at MU, is integral to the process of submucosal invasion, and that subclones that acquire gain of 11q13, 11q14, 11q22, 14q32 or amplification of 17q21 are likely to become metastatic.
Genomic Profiling of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma by Array-Based Comparative Genomic Hybridization  [PDF]
Shunichi Yoshioka, Yoshiyuki Tsukamoto, Naoki Hijiya, Chisato Nakada, Tomohisa Uchida, Keiko Matsuura, Ichiro Takeuchi, Masao Seto, Kenji Kawano, Masatsugu Moriyama
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056165
Abstract: We designed a study to investigate genetic relationships between primary tumors of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and their lymph node metastases, and to identify genomic copy number aberrations (CNAs) related to lymph node metastasis. For this purpose, we collected a total of 42 tumor samples from 25 patients and analyzed their genomic profiles by array-based comparative genomic hybridization. We then compared the genetic profiles of metastatic primary tumors (MPTs) with their paired lymph node metastases (LNMs), and also those of LNMs with non-metastatic primary tumors (NMPTs). Firstly, we found that although there were some distinctive differences in the patterns of genomic profiles between MPTs and their paired LNMs, the paired samples shared similar genomic aberration patterns in each case. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis grouped together 12 of the 15 MPT-LNM pairs. Furthermore, similarity scores between paired samples were significantly higher than those between non-paired samples. These results suggested that MPTs and their paired LNMs are composed predominantly of genetically clonal tumor cells, while minor populations with different CNAs may also exist in metastatic OSCCs. Secondly, to identify CNAs related to lymph node metastasis, we compared CNAs between grouped samples of MPTs and LNMs, but were unable to find any CNAs that were more common in LNMs. Finally, we hypothesized that subpopulations carrying metastasis-related CNAs might be present in both the MPT and LNM. Accordingly, we compared CNAs between NMPTs and LNMs, and found that gains of 7p, 8q and 17q were more common in the latter than in the former, suggesting that these CNAs may be involved in lymph node metastasis of OSCC. In conclusion, our data suggest that in OSCCs showing metastasis, the primary and metastatic tumors share similar genomic profiles, and that cells in the primary tumor may tend to metastasize after acquiring metastasis-associated CNAs.
High resolution genomic analysis of sporadic breast cancer using array-based comparative genomic hybridization
Tara L Naylor, Joel Greshock, Yan Wang, Theresa Colligon, QC Yu, Virginia Clemmer, Tal Z Zaks, Barbara L Weber
Breast Cancer Research , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/bcr1356
Abstract: We employed high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization with 4,134 bacterial artificial chromosomes that cover the genome at 0.9 megabase resolution to analyze 47 primary breast tumors and 18 breast cancer cell lines.Common amplicons included 8q24.3 (amplified in 79% of tumors, with 5/47 exhibiting high level amplification), 1q32.1 and 16p13.3 (amplified in 66% and 57% of tumors, respectively). Moreover, we found several positive correlations between specific amplicons from different chromosomes, suggesting the existence of cooperating genetic loci. Queried by gene, the most frequently amplified kinase was PTK2 (79% of tumors), whereas the most frequently lost kinase was PTK2B (hemizygous loss in 34% of tumors). Amplification of ERBB2 as measured by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) correlated closely with ERBB2 DNA and RNA levels measured by quantitative PCR as well as with ERBB2 protein levels. The overall frequency of recurrent losses was lower, with no region lost in more than 50% of tumors; the most frequently lost tumor suppressor gene was RB1 (hemizygous loss in 26% of tumors). Finally, we find that specific copy number changes in cell lines closely mimicked those in primary tumors, with an overall Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.843 for gains and 0.734 for losses.High resolution CGH analysis of breast cancer reveals several regions where DNA copy number is commonly gained or lost, that non-random correlations between specific amplicons exist, and that specific genetic alterations are maintained in breast cancer cell lines despite repeat passage in tissue culture. These observations suggest that genes within these regions are critical to the malignant phenotype and may thus serve as future therapeutic targets.Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer, and specific subchromosomal copy number changes are thought to play a driving role in the transformation of normal cells to malignant clones. These genomic copy number changes may result
Mutation Screening and Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization Using a 180K Oligonucleotide Array in VACTERL Association  [PDF]
Johanna Winberg, Peter Gustavsson, Nikos Papadogiannakis, Ellika Sahlin, Frideborg Bradley, Edvard Nordenskj?ld, P?r-Johan Svensson, G?ran Annerén, Erik Iwarsson, Ann Nordgren, Agneta Nordenskj?ld
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085313
Abstract: In order to identify genetic causes of VACTERL association (V vertebral defects, A anorectal malformations, C cardiac defects, T tracheoesofageal fistula, E esophageal atresia, R renal anomalies, L limb deformities), we have collected DNA samples from 20 patients diagnosed with VACTERL or with a VACTERL-like phenotype as well as samples from 19 aborted fetal cases with VACTERL. To investigate the importance of gene dose alterations in the genetic etiology of VACTERL association we have performed a systematic analysis of this cohort using a 180K array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) platform. In addition, to further clarify the significance of PCSK5, HOXD13 and CHD7 genes in the VACTERL phenotype, mutation screening has been performed. We identified pathogenic gene dose imbalances in two fetal cases; a hemizygous deletion of the FANCB gene and a (9;18)(p24;q12) unbalanced translocation. In addition, one pathogenic mutation in CHD7 was detected, while no apparent disease-causing mutations were found in HOXD13 or PCSK5. Our study shows that although large gene dose alterations do not seem to be a common cause in VACTERL association, array-CGH is still important in clinical diagnostics to identify disease cause in individual cases.
Application of a target array Comparative Genomic Hybridization to prenatal diagnosis
Ji Hyeon Park, Jung Hoon Woo, Sung Han Shim, Song-Ju Yang, Young Min Choi, Kap-Seok Yang, Dong Hyun Cha
BMC Medical Genetics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-11-102
Abstract: We designed a target bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based aCGH platform (MacArray? M-chip), which specifically targets submicroscopic deletions/duplications for 26 known genetic syndromes of medical significance observed prenatally. To validate the DNA chip, we obtained genomic DNA from 132 reference materials generated from patients with 22 genetic diseases and 94 clinical amniocentesis samples obtained for karyotyping.In the 132 reference materials, all known genomic alterations were successfully identified. In the 94 clinical samples that were also subjected to conventional karyotyping, three cases of balanced chromosomal aberrations were not detected by aCGH. However, we identified eight cases of microdeletions in the Yq11.23 chromosomal region that were not found by conventional karyotyping. This region harbors the DAZ gene, and deletions may lead to non-obstructive spermatogenesis.We have successfully designed and applied a BAC-based aCGH platform for prenatal diagnosis. This platform can be used in conjunction with conventional karyotyping and will provide rapid and accurate diagnoses for the targeted genomic regions while eliminating the need to interpret clinically-uncertain genomic regions.Speed and precision are two major requirements in prenatal chromosome analyses. Conventional G-banded karyotyping remains the gold standard in prenatal genetic diagnosis, but it is time-consuming and labor-intensive. Routinely, about 10-14 days is required to obtain the result and this may increase the patient's anxiety. To overcome these limitations, rapid fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR), and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) have been developed and are widely used as adjuncts to conventional methods for detecting common chromosome aneuploidies such as trisomies 21, 13, 18, X and Y [1-6]. However, only a few loci may be tested at a time, so all those methods can usually be
SeeGH – A software tool for visualization of whole genome array comparative genomic hybridization data
Bryan Chi, Ronald J deLeeuw, Bradley P Coe, Calum MacAulay, Wan L Lam
BMC Bioinformatics , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-5-13
Abstract: We have developed a visualization tool for displaying whole genome array CGH data in the context of chromosomal location. SeeGH is an application that translates spot signal ratio data from array CGH experiments to displays of high resolution chromosome profiles. Data is imported from a simple tab delimited text file obtained from standard microarray image analysis software. SeeGH processes the signal ratio data and graphically displays it in a conventional CGH karyotype diagram with the added features of magnification and DNA segment annotation. In this process, SeeGH imports the data into a database, calculates the average ratio and standard deviation for each replicate spot, and links them to chromosome regions for graphical display. Once the data is displayed, users have the option of hiding or flagging DNA segments based on user defined criteria, and retrieve annotation information such as clone name, NCBI sequence accession number, ratio, base pair position on the chromosome, and standard deviation.SeeGH represents a novel software tool used to view and analyze array CGH data. The software gives users the ability to view the data in an overall genomic view as well as magnify specific chromosomal regions facilitating the precise localization of genetic alterations. SeeGH is easily installed and runs on Microsoft Windows 2000 or later environments.Metaphase comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a molecular cytogenetic technique used to detect segmental DNA copy number differences between two samples of DNA [1]. This is accomplished by a competitive hybridization of two differentially labeled samples to normal metaphase chromosomes, allowing the detection of single copy number changes at a resolution of 10–20 Mb [1]. Array CGH improves on the resolution of copy number profiling by utilizing discrete genomic loci spotted onto glass microscope slides as opposed to metaphase chromosomes as the hybridization target [2]. In array CGH the resolution in detecting s
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