Abstract:
The paper aims at presenting two of the most applied methods in determining the inflation rate, based on the GDP deflator and Consumer Price Index, and comparing the calculation proceedings, advantages and drawbacks of each of them. Even if the results are close as a value, the structures of consumption taken into account in measuring each index are quite different, one of them evaluating the price raise for all the goods/services produced inside the country borders, the other starting the calculations by composing a typical market basket for a typical urban consumer.

Abstract:
The impact of inflation on society has significant consequences. One of the major effects of inflation is the uncertainty generated when the inflation rate is volatile which can lower purchasing power of consumers, which means that it is thanks to the less if you do not increase and the revenue in the same rhythm. In this article we intend to analyze statistically the impact of inflation on the size of the domestic demand for consumer goods and services in the period 2000-2010.

Abstract:
Recently, a model of inflation using non-minimally coupled massive vector fields has been proposed. For a particular choice of non-minimal coupling parameter and for a flat FRW model, the model is reduced to the model of chaotic inflation with massive scalar field. We study the effect of non-zero curvature of the universe on the onset of vector inflation. We find that in a curved universe the dynamics of vector inflation can be different from chaotic inflation, and the fraction of the initial conditions leading to inflationary solutions is reduced compared with the chaotic inflation case.

Abstract:
In hybrid inflation models, typically only a tiny fraction of possible initial conditions give rise to successful inflation, even if one assumes spatial homogeneity. We analyze some possible solutions to this initial conditions problem, namely assisted hybrid inflation and hybrid inflation on the brane. While the former is successful in achieving the onset of inflation for a wide range of initial conditions, it lacks sound physical motivation at present. On the other hand, in the context of the presently much discussed brane cosmology, extra friction terms appear in the Friedmann equation which solve this initial conditions problem in a natural way.

Abstract:
String theory gives rise to various mechanisms to generate primordial inflation, of which ``brane inflation'' is one of the most widely considered. In this scenario, inflation takes place while two branes are approaching each other, and the modulus field representing the separation between the branes plays the role of the inflaton field. We study the phase space of initial conditions which can lead to a sufficiently long period of cosmological inflation, and find that taking into account the possibility of nonvanishing initial momentum can significantly change the degree of fine tuning of the required initial conditions.

Abstract:
We investigate, in a model-independent way, the conditions required to obtain a satisfactory model of extended inflation in which inflation is brought to an end by a first-order phase transition. The constraints are that the correct present strength of the gravitational coupling is obtained, that the present theory of gravity is satisfactorily close to general relativity, that the perturbation spectra from inflation are compatible with large scale structure observations and that the bubble spectrum produced at the phase transition doesn't conflict with the observed level of microwave background anisotropies. We demonstrate that these constraints can be summarized in terms of the behaviour in the conformally related Einstein frame, and can be compactly illustrated graphically. We confirm the failure of existing models including the original extended inflation model, and construct models, albeit rather contrived ones, which satisfy all existing constraints.

Abstract:
We perform a numerical investigation of the fields evolution in the supersymmetric inflationary model based on radiative corrections. Supergravity corrections are also included. We find that, out of all the examined initial data, only about 10% give an adequate amount of inflation and can be considered as ''natural''. Moreover, these successful initial conditions appear scattered and more or less isolated.

Abstract:
We consider the classical evolution of the inflaton field $\phi(t)$ and the Hubble parameter $H(t)$ in homogeneous and isotropic single-field inflation models. Under an extremely broad assumption, we show that the universe generically emerges from an initial singularity in a non-inflating state where the kinetic energy of the inflaton dominates its potential energy, $\dot{\phi}^2 \gg V(\phi)$. In this kinetically-dominated regime, the dynamical equations admit simple analytic solutions for $\phi(t)$ and $H(t)$, which are independent of the form of $V(\phi)$. In such models, these analytic solutions thus provide a simple way of setting the initial conditions from which to start the (usually numerical) integration of the coupled equations of motion for $\phi(t)$ and $H(t)$. We illustrate this procedure by applying it to spatially-flat models with polynomial and exponential potentials, and determine the background evolution in each case; generically $H(t)$ and $|\phi(t)|$ as well as their time derivatives decrease during kinetic dominance until $\dot{\phi}^2\sim V(\phi)$, marking the onset of a brief period of fast-roll inflation prior to a slow roll phase. We also calculate the approximate spectrum of scalar perturbations produced in each model and show that it exhibits a generic damping of power on large scales. This may be relevant to the apparent low-$\ell$ falloff in the CMB power spectrum.

Abstract:
In the year 2004 ten states from Central and South-Eastern Europe joined the European Union. The majority of them have registered a significant consumer price increase in the year 2004. The goal of this paper is to examine the fundamental factors that have influenced inflation rate after EU accession and to analyse the causes of the inflation differential in EU member states which acceded in 2004. The impact of EU accession was different in analysed countries, the increasing of inflation rate in accession year being determined by the adoption of the Common Agricultural Policy, the harmonization of the structure and rates of indirect taxes, the introduction of the Common Customs Policy, the free movement of goods, the free movement of capital and the expected inflation. From the analyses we have done, we have remarked that the main cause of inflation differential has been the oil price on the international market, because of the different degree of dependence on oil import of these countries, but also on the different weight of electricity, gases and other fuels in the consumer basket.

Abstract:
We consider the behaviour of a quintessence field during an inflationary epoch, in order to learn how inflation influences the likely initial conditions for quintessence. We use the stochastic inflation formalism to study quantum fluctuations induced in the quintessence field during the early stages of inflation, and conclude that these drive its mean to large values (> 0.1 m_{Planck}). Consequently we find that tracker behaviour typically starts at low redshift, long after nucleosynthesis and most likely also after decoupling.