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Anita Kirrolia and Vikas Nehra*
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research , 2012,
Abstract: This review describes the potential and, in particular, some relevant hazards associated with the use of veterinary drugs, various pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals that have produced serious environmental risks and affected the life of people along with other animals by posing great health risks. Risk analysis regarding these problems has also been discussed with the measures to handle the problem at global level. The most contentious residues which occur in meat, milk and eggs along with the environment are antibacterial drugs, hormonal growth promoters, heavy metals and industrial chemicals that are producing potential toxic health effects that include systemic toxicity, mutations, cancer, birth defects and reproductive disorders. Systemic toxicity involves changes in the structure and function of organs and organ systems: weight change, structural alterations and changes in organ system or whole animal function. Functional effects may include changes in the lungs, liver, kidneys, cardiovascular function, brain, nervous system activity, behavior and in production of resistance to disease. Furthermore, continued monitoring and periodic reassessment of risks posed by these contaminants is needed to detect or anticipate new problems so that appropriate action can be taken in the interests of public safety.
Integrating human health into environmental impact assessment: an unrealized opportunity for environmental health and justice
Bhatia,Rajiv; Wernham,Aaron;
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-81232009000400022
Abstract: the national environmental policy act and related state laws require many public agencies to analyze and disclose potentially significant environmental effects of agency actions, including effects on human health. in this paper we review the purpose and procedures of environmental impact assessment (eia), existing regulatory requirements for health effects analysis, and potential barriers to and opportunities for improving integration of human health concerns within the eia process. we use statutes, regulations, guidelines, court opinions, and empirical research on eia along with recent case examples of integrated health impact assessment (hia)/eia at both the state and federal level. we extract lessons and recommendations for integrated hia/eia practice from both existing practices as well as case studies. the case studies demonstrate the adequacy, scope, and power of existing statutory requirements for health analysis within eia. the following support the success of integrated hia/eia: a proponent recognizing eia as an available regulatory strategy for public health; the openness of the agency conducting the eia; involvement of public health institutions; and complementary objectives among community stakeholders and health practitioners. we recommend greater collaboration among institutions responsible for eia, public health institutions, and affected stakeholders along with guidance, resources, and training for integrated hia/eia practice.
Annals of the University of Oradea : Economic Science , 2012,
Abstract: Because environmental information reporting remains voluntary on an international scale, there are major difference in terms of quality and quantity of environmental information, reported by entities from varied sectors and countries. Within this study, I have focused on internal characteristics, consisting mainly in how the entity is managed, in order to identify the existence of certain associations between the characteristics of corporate governance and the existence of environmental reporting. The literature in the field suggests various results related to the correspondence between corporate governance characteristics and environmental reporting. Within the factors suggested by the literature are the board structure, presence of the board committee, the separation between the Chairman of the Board and the Chief Executive Officer, shareholder structure. The paper represent an empirical analyze on how corporate governance characteristics might explain the level of environmental reporting. I suggest a model comprising corporate governance characteristics like: board independence, board size, existence of a Social Responsibility Committee that could explain environmental reporting. The sample comprises 48 companies listed at London Stock Exchange FTSE 100. From FTSE 100 I select only the companies that activates in sectors of activity that may have an impact on the environment such as Aerospace & Defence, Automobiles & Parts, Beverages, Chemicals, Electricity, Food & Drug Retailers, Food Producers, Gas, Water & Multiutilities, General Industrials, Health Care Equipment & Services, Household Goods, Industrial Engineering, Mining, Oil & Gas Producers, Oil Equipment, Services & Distribution, Personal Goods, Pharmaceuticals & Biotechnology, Tobacco. My results show that, from the point of view of the London Stock Exchange FTSE 100 listed companies, the presence of an environmental committee in the board help reduce the conflict of interests between the stakeholders and the company's management regarding the disclosure of environmental information. The environmental committee monitors the companya€ s activity regarding the impact on the environmental, bringing about increasing transparency, and independence inside the board regarding environmental aspects. For assuring a high transparency level of environmental performance within a company, the board should ensure a sufficiently large number of members able to exercise an independent reasoning in order to solve potential conflict of interest. The directors represent the interests of the stakeholders and hav
Management of Environmental Risks in the Life Cycle of Human Pharmaceuticals in Lithuania  [cached]
Jolita Kruopien?,Jolanta Dvarionien?
Environmental Research, Engineering and Management , 2010, DOI: 10.5755/j01.erem.52.2.77
Abstract: The paper analyzes and outlines the peculiarities and importance of different stages of the life cycle of human pharmaceuticals in Lithuania with regard to their environmental impact, and points out to the need of risk reduction measures. Use stage and disposal of unused, unwanted or expired medicines are those stages when the biggest emissions occur and risk management is not adequate yet. Pharmaceuticals consumption distribution profile is presented in the article. Environmental risk assessment was carried out indicating that for Lithuania pharmaceutical substances consumed in amounts over 25 kg/year might be causing a risk to the environment. Three substances have PEC/PNEC ratios above 1 under the worst case calculations. In reality in spite of high environmental load, one of them - amoxicillin - is not likely to pose a risk due to its low environmantal stability and high removal rates in WWTPs. The other two substances show a potential of environmental risk even after calculation of the refined PEC/PNEC ratio. The importance of proper wastewater treatment needs to be underlined due to inevitable excretion of pharmaceutical substances from the use phase. The most popular way to dispose of unused, unwanted or expired medicines in Lithuania is via the household waste. The system for collection of residual medicines is not properly functioning yet. Good management of environmental risk requires establishment of an effective system to collect and destroy pharmaceuticals in an environmentally sound manner.
Approaches to integrated monitoring for environmental health impact assessment
Hai-Ying Liu, Alena Bartonova, Mathilde Pascal, Roel Smolders, Erik Skjetne, Maria Dusinska
Environmental Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-11-88
Abstract: Integrated Environmental Health Monitoring (IEHM) is essential for identifying key stressors on the environment, to assess the state of the environment, and to evaluate the health impact of environmental changes [1]. Currently, there is no agreed definition of IEHM. The European Union (EU) funded project INTARESE (Integrated Assessment of Health Risks of Environmental Stressors in Europe) explored ways of linking and integrating various information sources and technologies to provide a more unified approach to IEHM.The aim of IEHM is to provide unbiased data of appropriate quality and quantity for IEHIA (Integrated environmental health impact assessment), defined as ‘an inclusive and, as far as feasible, comprehensive assessment of the risks to, and impacts on, human health as a result either of exposures to a defined set of environmental hazards or of the effects of policies or other interventions that operate via the ambient or living environment’ [2,3]. Accordingly, information is required about the nature, the causes, and the inter-linkages between existing environmental health risks. In the past, research studies and policy actions often addressed single-pollutant and single-effect relationships, and there was no integration of data on exposure and impact of environmental changes on human health [4]. Recently however, efforts to understand the links between multiple stressors and multiple health effects are rapidly increasing. Experience has shown that integrated studies are often limited by the lack of data, or by the fact that different data collection systems have different goals and are, therefore, not easily combined.The key issue for IEHM is to consider monitoring as a tool to measure, analyse and interpret the impact of environmental changes on human health, to support more effective decision-making. Ideally, a systematic, iterative process based on the knowledge of the cause-effect chain is needed to describe the interconnected environment and health (E
Environmental Health Impact Assessment of an Industrial Estate
M.J Dastoorani,M Yunesian,J. Nouri,A.H. Mahvi
Journal of School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research , 2009,
Abstract: Background and Aim: Environmental health impact assessment of industrial estates will help greatly in better planning for sustainable development and reducing disease risk in a community. The objective of this study was to assess the positive and negative effects of establishing an industrial estate in Jovein, Sabzevar, Iran in 2006-7 and suggest managerial strategies to reduce undesirable environmental health impacts. Methods and Materials: A modified Leopold Matrix and Scaling checklist method was used. The existing environmental situation was investigated and then environmental impact assessment alternatives were determined, bearing in mind the amounts and kinds of predicted pollutants in the construction and operational phases . The assessment was made considering the immediate, direct, and indirect impacts in the short and long terms. It was attempted to use a wide range of values of different factors (-5, +5) in order to estimate the impact of all activities on the environmental status.Results: The results of the study are presented with two alternatives, i.e., "No" (conducting the project with no concern for environmental issues), and "Yes" (performance of the project with application of methods to reduce the environmental harmful impacts), when establishing the industrial estate, in the construction and operation phases. The impact assessment with the "No" alternative scored -791, meaning that execution of the project had to be rejected. However, after reducing the harmful impacts the score rose to +252, indicating that the project would be accepted. Conclusion: The method of reducing harmful environmental impacts along with environmental management programs introduced are accepted in this study. It is recommended that the Ministry of Health and Medical Education and The Iranian Environmental Protection Agency collaborate closely in the area of environmental health impact assessment of industries and industrial estates.
A framework for integrated environmental health impact assessment of systemic risks
David J Briggs
Environmental Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-7-61
Abstract: Integrated environmental health impact assessment is defined as a means of assessing health-related problems deriving from the environment, and health-related impacts of policies and other interventions that affect the environment, in ways that take account of the complexities, interdependencies and uncertainties of the real world. As such, it depends heavily on how issues are selected and framed, and implies the involvement of stakeholders both in issue-framing and design of the assessment, and to help interpret and evaluate the results. It is also a comparative process, which involves evaluating and comparing different scenarios. It consequently requires the ability to model the way in which the influences of exogenous factors, such as policies or other interventions, feed through the environment to affect health. Major challenges thus arise. Chief amongst these are the difficulties in ensuring effective stakeholder participation, in dealing with the multicausal and non-linear nature of many of the relationships between environment and health, and in taking account of adaptive and behavioural changes that characterise the systems concerned.Environmental effects on health have always been multi-facetted. Even when the immediate causes have been specific and clear, and the health outcomes limited, as in the case of many natural hazards or chemical contaminants, their origins typically have had deeper and more far-reaching roots. In more recent years, however, the scale and complexity of environmental health problems have become more apparent. Many factors are behind this change [1]. One is the more powerful technologies now being used, each with the potential to change the environment more extensively and radically. Another is the increased globalisation and connectedness of societies, as a result of which impacts are not restricted to those locally and immediately involved, but are felt more extensively – in terms of economic and social effects as well as health, o
Environmental and Health Impact Assessment of Wastewater Treatment Plant  [PDF]
J. Nouri,R. Nabizadeh,M. Younesian,H.A. Norouzi
Journal of Medical Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Environmental and health impact assessment of Hamadan wastewater treatment plants were studied for the treatment of wastewater produced at Hamadan, Bahar and Lalejin Cities, with the population of about one millions. In this study, a new method of EIA applied, using Leopold Matrix 3 dimensions to predict the negative and positive impacts of the project activities on environmental factors. After the data collection, processing and analyzing, Adkins and Burks check list along with new 3-dimensional Leopold Matrix were applied. This 3-dimensional method was a new method which was applied in this study for the first time in Iran. The scaling-ranking checklist was also applied which is a suitable approach for determination of intensity and importance of environmental impacts. The results obtained from this investigation showed that execution of the wastewater treatment plant could have some negative impacts, but may contain some important positive impacts particularly on the improvement of health conditions and environmental quality in the proposed project area. The mitigation measures have also been noticed for the project and in this regard some major management approaches were proposed at the construction and operational phases.
Institutionalizing policy-level health impact assessment in Europe: is coupling health impact assessment with strategic environmental assessment the next step forward?
Wright,John; Parry,Jayne; Scully,Edward;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862005000600016
Abstract: european union (eu) member states are interested in using health impact assessment (hia) as a means of safeguarding their obligations to protect human health under the 1997 treaty of amsterdam. however, several have encountered difficulties institutionalizing hia with the policy-making process. as a consequence, the world health organization (who) regional office for europe has suggested coupling hia with strategic environmental assessment (sea). traditionally, the incorporation of hia into other forms of impact assessment has been resisted, for fear of losing its focus on health issues to environmental concerns, and compromising its social model of health with the introduction of biophysical indicators. but can these fears be substantiated? in this paper, we investigate the grounds for such concerns by reviewing the relevant policy documents and departmental guidelines of four non-european countries that have considered the use of integrated assessment. we found that the case for associating hia with sea in europe is strong, and offers potential solutions to problems of screening, theoretical framework, causal pathways and ready entry to the policy process. coupling hia with sea may thus be the next step forward in a longer journey towards institutionalizing hia as an independent policy-linked device.
Developing Tools for Health Impact Assessment in Environmental Impact Assessment in Thailand  [PDF]
Acta Medica Okayama , 2011,
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to develop tools applicable to the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in a Thai context. The relevant documents and articles were extensively reviewed, analyzed, and drafted. The first draft was presented to a research advisory committee for their review, and the recommended changes were subsequently made. The second draft was then presented to respondents from 6 groups of key stakeholders-expert review committees under the Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning (ONREPP), EIA registered consulting firms, non-government organizations, members of the ONREPP, local government organizations, and government organizations responsible for issuing permission to the proposed projects. Their commentary and recommendation were considered, and modifications were made as necessary. The third draft was finally reviewed by the research advisory committee before the tryout step. The final revised version is presented in this paper.
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