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INTERNATIONAL TOURISM, DOMESTIC TOURISM AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE: ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION CAN FIND THE BALANCE
Constantina Skanavis,Maria Sakellari
Tourismos : an International Multidisciplinary Journal of Tourism , 2011,
Abstract: Tourism researchers have begun to study the phenomenon of domestic tourism, especially in developing countries. The growth of research interest in domestic tourism in developing countries underpins a stream of research in developed countries. The analysis reveals the appeal of these distinctive forms of tourism, international and domestic with regards to leisure, recreation and tourism patterns, but also highlights potential limitations including the dilemma of how to deal with the question of environmental quality that is affected by prevailing international and domestic tourism activities. Impacts of climate change on domestic and international tourism and environmental impacts caused by domestic and international tourism are highlighted. This paper suggests that Environmental Education is the key to this critical area concerning domestic tourism, international globalized tourism and environmental impacts.
International standards and domestic violence
Nikoli?-Ristanovi? Vesna ?.,Dokmanovi? Mirjana
Temida , 2005, DOI: 10.2298/tem0502011n
Abstract: The majority states in the world, as well as Serbia and Montenegro, took over the obligations from international law documents with regards to prevention, protection and prosecution of domestic violence. Over the last several years, in Serbia and Montenegro, there have been some positive steps regarding more decisive reaction on domestic violence, in the first place thanks to NGOs advocacy. However, the state involvement and contribution is still symbolic in comparison with obligations that international documents require from it. Having that in mind, authors try to explain the role and significance of international law for improving social responses on family violence. They also give systematic review of the most important demands that international law set up before the state. The main aim of the text is the analysis of the role that international law has in making state strategies in the field of domestic violence, as well as systematic review of existing international standards in this area which have to be taken into consideration in legislative, institutionalized and other reforms which are on going in Serbia and Montenegro.
The Second-Image Reversed and Climate Policy: How International Influences Helped Changing Brazil’s Positions on Climate Change  [PDF]
Sjur Kasa
Sustainability , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/su5031049
Abstract: International climate policy over the last 7–8 years has been characterized by the increasing involvement of developing countries. While COP-13 at Bali marked a stronger willingness to participate in mitigation efforts in principle, there are now numerous examples of domestic programs for mitigation by this group of countries. Brazil has gone furthest among developing countries, with a substantial voluntary commitment to reduce its emissions proclaimed in 2009. The dynamics behind the change in Brazil’s position are discussed, with a particular eye to the effects of international influences. In conjunction with important domestic changes, a set of interacting influences through a variety of pathways both changed preferences among important interest groups in Brazilian society towards favoring some kind of commitments and helped to change the structure of government forums and decision-making rules in a way that empowered reform-minded ministries. It is argued that this perspective, drawn from Peter Gourevitch’s idea of the “second image reversed”, is increasingly relevant for understanding the influence of the broad “regime complex” on climate change on politics in developing countries.
A Note on Optimun Policy Choice under Imperfect Domestic Market Conditions and Differentiated International Goods A Note on Optimun Policy Choice under Imperfect Domestic Market Conditions and Differentiated International Goods
Pablo Serra
Revista de Análisis Económico (RAE) , 1990,
Abstract: This note derives the optimal industrial and trade policy for a two-good, one-factor small economy. The first good is an homogeneous commodity. For the second good we assume that the domestic and the foreing versions are imperfect substitutes. We also assume that the country is a price taker in international markets except for the fact that it faces a downward sloping export demand for the differentiated good. Within this framework we first show the existence of welfare-improving active commercial policies, and then we prove that the optimal intervention is an antitrust policy. These results imply that (i) once the appropiate policy intervention is enacted free trade becomes optimal, and (ii) free trade does not eliminate the need for antitrust regulation. A Note on Optimun Policy Choice under Imperfect Domestic Market Conditions and Differentiated International Goods
An overview of domestic aspects in US climate policy Uma vis o geral dos aspectos domésticos da política climática dos EUA  [cached]
Solange Reis Ferreira,Kelly Ferreira,Tullo Vigevani
Revista Brasileira de Política Internacional , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/s0034-73292012000300006
Abstract: The article shows how domestic aspects influence the United States national and international climate policy. To accomplish the task, the authors analyzes the discussions when Bill Clinton was ruling the country, a time during which global discussions were forwarded. The paper recalls the debate in the Bush administration and the growing polarization since Barack Obama took office. Este artigo mostra como os aspectos domésticos influenciam as políticas climáticas nacional e internacional dos Estados Unidos. Para cumprir essa tarefa, os autores analisam os debates que ocorreram durante o período em que Bill Clinton governava o país, quando os debates globais foram encaminhados. Este trabalho relembra o debate durante o governo Bush e a crescente polariza o desde a ascens o de Barack Obama ao poder.
POSITION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA ON THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET
Dijana Grahovac
Zbornik Radova Ekonomskog Fakulteta u Isto?nom Sarajevu , 2011,
Abstract: Intensification of internationaltrade forced states to address the foreign policyissues in the field of international economiccooperation. In contemporary world economy andimpacts of globalization, trade should be the engineof economic development. The national economy islosing, in exchange for a higher standard. This is,of course, in planetary terms, and every state andeconomy is to fight for its position in theinternational market. How to use the modern trendsof the global economy for the economicdevelopment of Bosnia and Herzegovina? Successis possible only by a combination of opportunitiesoffered by global markets, and strategy of nationaleconomic policy for achieving macroeconomicstability by strengthening the factors of economicgrowth based on the growth of production forexport. Issues related to foreign trade deficitrequire creating an institutional environment fordiversified and competitive export sector, throughthe process of the structural reforms and marketliberalization. The authorities in Bosnia andHerzegovina must act through foreign trade andmacroeconomic policies in the country towardseconomic growth, price stability, to reduce thetrade deficit and revive the economy, whosesubjects will be able to know and equallyparticipate in market competition within the EU.Within the foreign policy great emphasis should beplaced on avoiding or at least mitigating thenegative effects of trade liberalization process, aswell as the compulsory process. Liberalizationincreases the gap between the rich and the poor,and certainly it can be transmitted on a globallevel, where there is always a possibility that theglobal open trade marginalizes each state.
INFLUENCE OF REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL LAW SYSTEMS INTO DOMESTIC LAW
?tefan MO????IANU
Annals of Constantin Brancusi University of Targu-Jiu : Juridical Science Series , 2011,
Abstract: The bilateral report law-firm,involving mutual influence is confirmed in the field ofsocial relations both internally and within establishedsystems instituted at a regional and internationallevel. Law in general is experiencing a strong andcomplex development, the area of interminglingbetween domestic and international regulationslimiting excessive tendencies to promote an absolutesovereignty in the benefit of cooperation including inthe legal regulations area. Is perfectly obvious thatnational regulations are developed under theinfluence and given the established regional, but alsointernational, legal systems. Unanimously recognizedis the prevalence of the international law system inrelation to regional and national law, Article 103 ofUN Charter unequivocally supporting such arelationship. As for the relationship between EU lawand national law is recognized the primacy ofCommunity law reported to domestic regulations,report agreed by the Member States and as amanifestation of sovereignty.
For as armadas para quê? Para isso Armed forces... for what? For this  [cached]
Domício Proen?a Júnior
Contexto Internacional , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/s0102-85292011000200004
Abstract: Responde-se de maneira estrutural à pergunta: para que se tem For as Armadas no Brasil? Isso leva a um trajeto expositivo que considera os contextos estratégicos e domésticos à luz das determina es constitucionais e dos termos de acordos internacionais que constrangem as alternativas brasileiras de uso de for a. Conclui-se que o Brasil tem apenas três tarefas concretas para suas For as Armadas: a defesa do território, a participa o em a es internacionais e a garantia da lei e da ordem, circunscrito em todos os casos ao uso de armamentos convencionais. Responde-se à pergunta de partida afirmando que se tem For as Armadas para sustentar a capacidade de realizar estas tarefas ao longo do tempo e em qualquer momento. Como e quanto se sustenta tal capacidade s o os critérios essenciais para a formula o, condu o e avalia o da política de defesa do Brasil. This article offers a structural answer to the question: what are Brazil's armed forces for? This leads to the appreciation of Brazil's strategic and domestic contexts of the use of armed force. It considers the constitutional imperatives and the terms of international agreements that curtail Brazilian alternatives. It argues that Brazil has only three concrete tasks for its armed forces: the defense of its territory, the participation in international missions, and the guarantee of law and order, being constrained further to the use of conventional weapons. It answers the question it began with as follows: Brazil's armed forces exist to sustain the capacity of carrying out these tasks over time and at any time. It concludes that how and how well a Brazilian defense policy sustains this capacity are the paramount criteria for its conception, management and evaluation.
PROPHYLAXIS PRINCIPLES FOR INTERNATIONAL TASK FORCES  [cached]
Bülent A. BE??RBELL?O?LU
TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin , 2006,
Abstract: All over the world, it was determined that the morbidity and the mortality rates due to infection in international travels was 10% and 1%, respectively. Military personnel expose more often to infections because of their special duties when an international task force is planned and spreading of an infection is more rapid in this selected population due to their special living condition. In this review, the prophylactic measures needed to be taken for military personnel and their family members stationed for an international task are mentioned here with the coverage of many points of the matter.
Post-cold war international relations and foreign policies in Africa: New issues and new challenges
JK Akokpari
African Journal of International Affairs , 2001,
Abstract: This paper argues that international relations in Africa have changed especially in content since the abatement of the Cold War. These changes have been accelerated by the pressures unleashed by the international environment, including the reality of Africa’s marginalisation and the forces of globalisation. These, along with domestic factors, including debt, internal conflicts, the impact of the ubiquitous structural adjustment programmes (SAPs), HIV/AIDS and human insecurity in general have combined to underscore foreign aid and economic assistance as key driving forces of the continent’s foreign policies and diplomacy towards the North. Yet, the new thrust of foreign policies, informed by the need for foreign aid, has not occurred without a price. Among other things it has elevated technocrats in central or reserve banks and finance ministries to positions of prominence vis-à-vis officials from foreign ministries and in the process introduced extra- African actors into the foreign policy making process of the continent. This in turn has undermined Africa’s increasingly tenuous economic sovereignty. But above all, it has led to the strengthening of ties with the North and international creditors in particular at the cost of intra-African relations. The New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) and the African Union (AU) recently inaugurated, promise to open a new chapter in Africa’s international relations. It is argued, however, that against a background of a confluence of factors, these new continental projects will make only a minimal impact in terms of mitigating the consequences of the aid-driven foreign policies and thus altering the donor-oriented postures of African states.
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