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中国高端人才政策的生成逻辑与战略转型:1978-2017
Generative Logic and Strategic Transformation of Talent Policy in China:1978-2017
 [PDF]

黄海刚, 曲 越
- , 2018,
Abstract: 摘要 在全球化时代,高端人才的国际环流和区域聚集作为重要的人口学现象,既是一国经济与科技创新活力的体现,亦是国家获得竞争优势的关键。在这一背景下,吸引高端引领人才回流和聚集日益成为一个重要的公共政策领域——高端人才政策体系。以1978-2017年中国政府颁布的844件高端人才政策文本为分析样本,利用社会网络分析方法和政策文献量化研究方法,对改革开放40年我国高端人才政策的制度变迁、话语结构转向以及发文机构网络关系进行分析。研究发现,中国高端人才政策具有显著的政府主导性和变革渐进性、强调“引”大于“育”的政策价值隐喻等特征,也经历了政策工具从单一到多元、发文机构从相对独立到协同的制度变迁。从政策的生成逻辑来看,高端人才政策是实现国家战略的人才支撑与智力基础,其形成与变迁既是国内经济、科技、教育以及产业结构转型的重要组成部分,也是应对全球化所带来的对竞争和卓越逻辑的主动、积极回应。在战略转型上,高端人才政策的体系化和科学化过程,依赖于与其他类型和层面创新政策的嵌入性和耦合性。研究认为,在“一带一路”倡议、“双一流”建设以及实施科技高端引领背景下,应通过积分体系建设、促进人才合理有序流动、完善人才搜索机制、创新人才招募和使用模式以及实现从“引”向“育”和“聚”并举的战略转型,构建一个与教育、科技和对外开放战略新格局精准匹配、具有国际竞争力的高端人才政策体系。
Abstract:In an era of globalization, brain circulation and regional gathering is essential to economic progress and competitive advantage, and how to attract talent returnees and brain mobility through public policy becomes national strategy. Taking the 844 pieces policy text issued by government from 1978 to 2017 as sample, using social network and text quantitative research method, the paper analyzes the policy changes, policy discourse transformation and institutions network since 1978.It is found that talent policy system in China is characterized as changing slowly and state-assisted, more emphasis on “oversea returnee” than “local talent”, with the tendency of diversity of policy tools and more collaboration among organizations. As a part of social transformation, talent policy system plays a key role in response to the international competition and domestic development. In the context of “Belt and Road”, “Double First-rate” and Innovation-driven Development model, efforts should be made to build a more competitive and attractive talent policy system.
Физическое воспитание советского населения в начале 1950-х гг. (на примере Пензенской области)
Лариса Королева, Марина Мезинова
Path of Science , 2017, DOI: 10.22178/pos.21-2
Abstract: В статье рассматривается государственная политика в сфере физического воспитания и спорта населения СССР в начале 1950 гг. на региональном уровне – в Пензенской области, имевшая задачу подготовку физически крепких, здоровых, мотивированных ?строителей коммунизма?, способных к высокопроизводительному труду и защите Родины. Реализацией данного направления деятельности советского руководства в регионе занимался Комитет по физической культуре и спорту при Пензенском облисполкоме, ключевыми направлениями деятельности которого являлись подготовка значкистов ГТО; создание спортивных секций и коллегий судей; организация и проведение спортивных соревнований и т.п.
Rural Housing Land Consolidation and Transformation of Rural Villages under the “Coordinating Urban and Rural Construction Land” Policy: A Case of Chengdu City, China  [PDF]
Chun Huang, Liangji Deng, Xuesong Gao, Yi Luo, Shirong Zhang, Li Liu
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2013.43010
Abstract:

The rapid urbanization and industrialization of China have led to a substantial reduction in farmland and the rapid expansion of urban-rural construction land, with the introduction of economic liberalization reforms in 1978. At present, scarcity of construction land for development has become the lead limiting factor in constraining economic growth. Rural housing land consolidation under the “coordinating urban and rural construction land” policy (CURCL) is an effective means of providing urban construction land for economic development, as well as controlling the amount of rural construction land. To better understand rural housing land consolidation in China, this paper, which takes Chengdu as a case study, has examined the implementation status. From this we conclude that although the rural housing land consolidation of Chengdu ostensibly changes only farmers’ place of residence, it actually involves changes in rural society, economy and organizational function. Through extensive interviews, this study indicates that although local governments are still the main body responsible for implementing rural housing land consolidation, external investment also plays an important role by improving the resettled farmers’ economic condition and promoting the transformation of their production modes and lifestyles to some extent.

1950—1978年世界人口与经济发展资料综述  [PDF]
林富德
人口研究 , 1979,
Abstract: ?<正>(一)近三十年来,世界人口迅猛增长,至1978年已超过42亿,如果按1950—1978年的平均速度增长,那末只需36年,世界人口就将翻一番。亚洲人口达24亿,超过其它各大洲人口的总和,占全世界人口的57%,如再加非洲、拉丁美洲,这三个洲的人口将占世界人口的四分之三以上,构成世界人力资源最丰富的地区。经济较发达的欧洲、北美洲、大洋洲人口总数只有十一亿,约占世界人口的24%。(二)全世界的平均人口密度是每平方公里30人。西欧是全世界人口最稠密的地区,每
Farms in the concept of sustainable development policy on rural areas
Arkadiusz Sadowski
Journal of Agribusiness and Rural Development , 2009,
Abstract: Problems of the sustainable development of farms were presented in this paper. Thesis that farms like other companies are guided in their philosophy by the economic premise and short-term perspective was advanced. For this reason for implementation of sustainable development, understanding as a leading of profitable production and mineralization of negative environmental influence, it is necessary to lead active agriculture and rural areas policy. On the other hand it is indispensable to take into account both production potential of farms and current (involved before all with production technology) as well as strategic (concerned with investments) decision made by farmers.
The role of housing policy in the transformation of Central European cities  [PDF]
Nata?a Milanovi?
Urbani Izziv , 1993,
Abstract: The article deals with the process of housing privatization and urban revitalization in the transformation of Central European cities. Reforms require extensive privatization of firms as well as land and housing. The process of housing privatization includes changes in ownership, management of the housing stock and a new system of housing finances, which will affect new construction, modernization and rehabilitation of the existing stock and can lead to social and physical changes in cities. The question is whether housing privatization in Central European cities will lead to better chances for rehabilitation or just the opposite.
Urban Areas in the Transformation of the South: A Review of Modern History  [PDF]
John F. McDonald
Urban Studies Research , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/376529
Abstract: Since the 1940s, the southern US has been transformed from a region of backward agriculture, low-wage industries located in small towns and rural areas, and unrelenting racial segregation into a modern society and economy. In 1950, there were no metropolitan areas in the South with a population of one million or more, but 18 had populations in excess of one million in 2000. The populations of the Atlanta, Dallas-Fort Worth, Houston, and Miami metropolitan areas grew to over 4 millions. Population growth in the 18 largest metropolitan areas accounts for 63% of the total population growth in the South from 1950 to 2000. The transformation of the South is, to a sizable extent, a transformation to an urbanized society. This paper documents this urbanization by examining population and employment growth in those 18 metropolitan areas. 1. Introduction Beginning in the 1930s, the southern states of the US were transformed, according to the title of the book by Schulman [1], From Cotton Belt to Sun Belt. Wright’s [2] title is Old South, New South, and he states [2, page 241] that By the 1980s (and indeed much earlier in many places), a new Southern economy prevailed, located in the same geographic space as the old one, but encompassing a very different package of labor, capital, natural resources, and entrepreneurship: not an advanced version of the old economy, but a new economy. The transformation of the South was a goal of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The Tennessee Valley Authority created in 1933 did not pursue aggressive economic transformation for its first five years but, as recounted by Schulman [ 1], did so beginning from 1938. The 1938 federal Report on Economic Conditions of the South stated that “The low income belt of the South is a belt of sickness, misery, and unnecessary death.” In that same year, FDR declared that the South was the nation’s number one economic problem. At that time the economy of the South was based on backward agriculture, low-wage industries located in smaller towns and rural areas, and unrelenting racial segregation and discrimination and denial of voting and other legal rights. This southern system was created in the decades after the Civil War in the interest of a ruling coalition—a result that Olson [ 3] argued is an application of his “logic of collective action.” All of this also was documented in Myrdal’s monumental work [ 4] An American Dilemma, a book that was featured prominently in Myrdal’s Nobel Prize citation. The year 1938 is also the date of passage of the Fair Labor Standards Act, which instituted a
Forced Resettlements – Mechanism in Carrying Out the National State Policy in 1930–1950s
Nikolay F. Bugay
Bylye Gody , 2012,
Abstract: The article, basing on archive data and the results of the study of resettlement problem in the USSR, discloses the forces resettlement, followed by the Communist Party and public authorities in 1930–1950s, features the specific character of the measures, taken in different regions of the country, the reasons, caused inhuman actions, detects many quantitative characteristics of these events.
Turkey’s Cyprus Policy During Democratic Party Period (1950-1960)
Esra Sar?koyuncu De?erli
Journal of Gazi Academic View , 2012,
Abstract: In this study, the Cyprus policy of Turkey is analysed between the years 1950-1960 when the Democratic Party was in power. In the period in question, structure of bi-communal state in Cyprus was laid. Therefore, this period, has witnessed important developments which have multi-dimensional effects nowadays as well in terms of both Turkey’s foreign policy, and the future of Turkish society living in Cyprus. During the process that provides the rise of The Republic of Cyprus gradually, the Democratic Party’s vision and the policy followed about the island’s international status and the future of the people of the island have been analysed in three phases. As a result of the study during which the archive documents greatly benefited, it is seen that Turkey which had to leave Cyprus to the UK with the Lausanne Peace Treaty1923, became eligible in Cyprus again thanks to the Democratic Party’s foreign policy.
“Enterprise + Peasant Household” Pattern Explored about Land Transfer in the Distant Rural Areas
—An Analysis Based on a Survey of Beiyuan in Xiangning Country, Shanxi Province
 [PDF]

Huiju Du, Longyi Xue
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.49017
Abstract: Land transfer is the important link to realize the agricultural modernization, new rural construction and urban-rural integration. This article analyzes the influence on peasant’ income caused by the land transfer pattern of “enterprise + peasant household” which is used by the leading enterprise—Rongzi chateau in Beiyuan, Xiangning, Shanxi province by means of questionnaire and interview. It finds that a large number of peasants come back to their rural areas and the contribution rate of per capita net income of crops planting accounts for as high as 71.52% of per capita net total income after they have joined in this land transfer. This is of great significance to balance urban and rural development and to construct a new socialist countryside. The paper will discover the land transfer patterns that are suitable for the remote rural areas in China, which will be combined with some typical land transfer patterns in developed areas in China and based on the respects for peasants’ will and rights, aimed at making contribution to the new socialist countryside construction and the perfection of Chinese Rural Land System.
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