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Season of Birth and Exceptional Longevity: Comparative Study of American Centenarians, Their Siblings, and Spouses  [PDF]
Leonid A. Gavrilov,Natalia S. Gavrilova
Journal of Aging Research , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/104616
Abstract: This study explores the effects of month of birth (a proxy for early-life environmental influences) on the chances of survival to age 100. Months of birth for 1,574 validated centenarians born in the United States in 1880–1895 were compared to the same information obtained for centenarians' 10,885 shorter-lived siblings and 1,083 spouses. Comparison was conducted using a within-family analysis by the method of conditional logistic regression, which allows researchers to control for unobserved shared childhood or adulthood environment and common genetic background. It was found that months of birth have significant long-lasting effect on survival to age 100: siblings born in September–November have higher odds to become centenarians compared to siblings born in March. A similar month-of-birth pattern was found for centenarian spouses. These results support the idea of early-life programming of human aging and longevity. 1. Introduction Studies of centenarians (persons living to age 100 and over) are useful in identifying factors leading to long life and avoidance of fatal diseases. These studies may be a sensitive way to find genetic, familial, environmental, and life-course factors associated with lower mortality and better survival [1, 2]. Several theoretical concepts suggest that early-life events and conditions may have a significant long-lasting effect on survival to advanced ages. These concepts include (but are not limited to) the idea of fetal origin of adult diseases also known as the Barker hypothesis [3, 4] and the related idea of early-life programming of aging and longevity; the theory of technophysio evolution [5], the reliability theory of aging, and the high initial damage load (HIDL) hypothesis in particular [6, 7]. These ideas are supported by the studies suggesting significant effects of early-life conditions on late-life mortality [3, 8–10]. Finch and Crimmins [11] suggested that historical decline in chronic inflammation (due to decreasing exposure to early-life infections) has led to a decrease in morbidity and mortality from chronic conditions at old age. They showed that both childhood mortality and cardiovascular diseases of old age may share common infectious and inflammatory causes rooted in the external environment [12]. Month of birth often is used by epidemiologists as a proxy characteristic for environmental effects acting during in-utero and early infancy development. These early effects include temperature and sun exposure during in-utero and early postnatal period, nutritional status during early development, exposure to
AN ANALYSIS OF THE DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGIES OF RURAL FOUNDRIES IN THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY IN THE PROVINCE OF QUEBEC  [cached]
Lisa Baillargeon,Patrice Gélinas
Essays in Economic & Business History , 2009,
Abstract: The business model and strategic position of Quebec's rural foundries at the beginning of the 20th century is virtually unknown. Inferences have been made based on pictorial and oral data sources. This data reveals that successful rural foundries were, in essence, confined to producing and selling agricultural tools to local farmers on an as-needed basis, because large urban foundries were already mass-producing domestic and industrial objects. In contrast, use of detailed accounting records and advertising publications of three rural foundries over the 1900 to 1914 period provides a clearer picture of the production and of the clientele of those rural foundries. Analysis of these sources suggests that the strategic business model of rural foundries was much more elaborate than the existing literature posits. Rural owner-managers of the early 20th century were sophisticated strategists, marketers, and operators.
Discovery of Novel Sources of Vitamin B12 in Traditional Korean Foods from Nutritional Surveys of Centenarians  [PDF]
Chung Shil Kwak,Mee Sook Lee,Se In Oh,Sang Chul Park
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/374897
Abstract: Human longevity can be explained by a variety of factors, among them, nutritional factor would play an important role. In our study of Korean centenarians for their longevity, the apparent nutritional imbalance in the traditional semi-vegetarian diet raised a special attention, especially on vitamin B12 status, supplied by animal foods. Interestingly, we found that the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficient Korean centenarians was not higher compared with those from Western nations with animal-oriented traditional foods. We assumed that there might be some unveiled sources for vitamin B12 in the Korean traditional foods. Screening of vitamin B12 contents has revealed that some traditional soybean-fermented foods, such as Doenjang and Chunggukjang, and seaweeds contain considerable amounts of vitamin B12. Taken together, it can be summarized that the traditional foods, especially of fermentation, might be evaluated for compensation of the nutritional imbalance in the vegetable-oriented dietary pattern by supplying vitamin B12, resulting in maintenance of health status. 1. Introduction It is well known that older adults comprise the fastest growing portion of the world population and that the oldest old (including centenarians) are one of the fastest growing subgroups. The oldest population varies greatly depending upon nation, region, and biodemographic trends. At the end of the 20th century, it was reported that the centenarian population numbered approximately 1 per 100,000 persons, with higher numbers (10 per 100,000) in developed countries, and still higher numbers in the regions with very low mortality levels, such as Okinawa prefecture, in southern Japan (about 34 per 100,000) while about 4.7per 100,000 existed in Korea during this period [1]. Korean centenarian numbers were first reported to be 2,220 (172 males and 2,048 females) in the year 2000, based on the birth record data from Statistics Korea, and the ratio of centenarians to the elderly of 65 and older was reported to be 6.6% [2]. However, we have found that one third of birth records of older people may be mistaken due to problems within the civil registration system and therefore we produced a more conservative estimate of 1,481 Korean centenarians in the year 2000 [3]. Since that time, the National Bureau of Statistics of Korea has not officially reported the number of centenarians. The actual number of Korean centenarians is still waiting to be confirmed after individual age verification can take place. When the gender difference in number of centenarians is taken into consideration,
Electrocardiographic abnormalities in centenarians: impact on survival
Ramón Rabu?al-Rey, Rafael Monte-Secades, Adriana Gómez-Gigirey, Sonia Pértega-Díaz, Ana Testa-Fernández, Salvador Pita-Fernández, Emilio Casariego-Vales
BMC Geriatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2318-12-15
Abstract: We performed a domiciliary visit, where a medical history, an ECG and blood analysis were obtained. Barthel index (BI), cognitive mini-exam (CME) and Charlson index (ChI) were all determined. Patients were followed up by telephone up until their death.A total of 80 centenarians were studied, 26 men and 64 women, mean age 100.8 (SD 1.3). Of these, 81% had been admitted to the hospital at least once in the past, 81.3% were taking drugs (mean 3.3, rank 0–11). ChI was 1.21 (SD 1.19). Men had higher scores both for BI (70 -SD 34.4- vs. 50.4 -SD 36.6-, P?=?.005) and CME (16.5 -SD 9.1- vs. 9.1 –SD 11.6-, P?=?.008); 40.3% of the centenarians had anaemia, 67.5% renal failure, 13% hyperglycaemia, 22.1% hypoalbuminaemia and 10.7% dyslipidaemia, without statistically significant differences regarding sex. Only 7% had a normal ECG; 21 (26.3%) had atrial fibrillation (AF), 30 (37.5%) conduction defects and 31 (38.8%) abnormalities suggestive of ischemia, without sex-related differences. A history of heart disease was significantly associated with the presence of AF (P?=?.002, OR 5.2, CI 95% 1.8 to 15.2) and changes suggestive of ischemia (P?=?.019, OR 3.2, CI 95% 1.2-8.7). Mean survival was 628?days (SD 578.5), median 481?days. Mortality risk was independently associated with the presence of AF (RR 2.0, P?=?.011), hyperglycaemia (RR 2.2, P?=?.032), hypoalbuminaemia (RR 3.5, P?<?.001) and functional dependence assessed by BI (RR 1.8, P?=?.024).Although ECG abnormalities are common in centenarians, they are not related to sex, functional capacity or cognitive impairment. The only abnormality that has an impact on survival is AF.
How Well Can Centenarians Hear?  [PDF]
Zhongping Mao, Lijun Zhao, Lichun Pu, Mingxiao Wang, Qian Zhang, David Z. Z. He
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065565
Abstract: With advancements in modern medicine and significant improvements in life conditions in the past four decades, the elderly population is rapidly expanding. There is a growing number of those aged 100 years and older. While many changes in the human body occur with physiological aging, as many as 35% to 50% of the population aged 65 to 75 years have presbycusis. Presbycusis is a progressive sensorineural hearing loss that occurs as people get older. There are many studies of the prevalence of age-related hearing loss in the United States, Europe, and Asia. However, no audiological assessment of the population aged 100 years and older has been done. Therefore, it is not clear how well centenarians can hear. We measured middle ear impedance, pure-tone behavioral thresholds, and distortion-product otoacoustic emission from 74 centenarians living in the city of Shaoxing, China, to evaluate their middle and inner ear functions. We show that most centenarian listeners had an “As” type tympanogram, suggesting reduced static compliance of the tympanic membrane. Hearing threshold tests using pure-tone audiometry show that all centenarian subjects had varying degrees of hearing loss. More than 90% suffered from moderate to severe (41 to 80 dB) hearing loss below 2,000 Hz, and profound (>81 dB) hearing loss at 4,000 and 8,000 Hz. Otoacoustic emission, which is generated by the active process of cochlear outer hair cells, was undetectable in the majority of listeners. Our study shows the extent and severity of hearing loss in the centenarian population and represents the first audiological assessment of their middle and inner ear functions.
Use of health services and medicines amongst Australian war veterans: a comparison of young elderly, near centenarians and centenarians
Elizabeth E Roughead, Lisa M Kalisch, Emmae N Ramsay, Philip Ryan, Andrew L Gilbert
BMC Geriatrics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2318-10-83
Abstract: The study population included veterans eligible for all health services subsidised by the Department of Veterans' Affairs (DVA) aged 95 years and over at August 1st 2006. A cohort of veterans aged 65 to 74 years was identified for comparison. Data were sourced from DVA claims databases. We identified all claims between August 1st 2006 and July 31st 2007 for medical consultations, pathology, diagnostic imaging and allied health services, hospital admissions, number of prescriptions and unique medicines. Chi squared tests were used to compare the proportion of centenarians (those aged 100 years and over) and near centenarians (those aged 95 to 99 years) who accessed medicines and health services with the 65 to 74 year age group. For those who accessed health services during follow up, Poisson regression was used to compare differences in the number of times centenarians and near centenarians accessed each health service compared to 65 to 74 year olds.A similar proportion (98%) of centenarians and near centenarians compared to those aged 65 to 74 consulted a GP and received prescription medicine during follow up. A lower proportion of centenarians and near centenarians had claims for specialist visits (36% and 57% respectively), hospitalisation (19% and 24%), dental (12% and 18%), physiotherapy (13% and 15%), pathology(68% and 78%) and diagnostic imaging services (51% and 68%) (p < 0.0001) and a higher proportion had claims for care plans (19% and 25%), occupational therapy (15% and 17%) and podiatry services (54% and 58%) (p < 0.0001). Compared to those aged 65 to 74, a lower proportion of centenarians and near centenarians received antihypertensives, lipid lowering therapy, antiinflammatories, and antidepressants (p < 0.0001) and a higher proportion received antibiotics, analgesics, diuretics, laxatives, and anti-anaemics (p < 0.0001).Medical consultations and medicines are the health services most frequently accessed by Australian veteran centenarians and near cente
The mystery of Japan's missing centenarians explained  [cached]
Yasuhiko Saito,Vanessa Yong,Jean-Marie Robine
Demographic Research , 2012,
Abstract: This report elucidates the issue of Japan's missing centenarians, which was uncovered in 2010. We provide the latest figures from verification efforts, discuss sources of centenarian information in Japan, examine possible causes, and evaluate the effect of the missing centenarians on official statistics. In Japan 234,354 people registered before 1910 remained on the family registers in 2010, without being crossed out. They would have been 100 years old at least and represent 0.5 of the births recorded between 1872 and 1910. The impact of this group on life expectancy statistics, however, is effectively nil.
Quebec: a Nation at the Cross-road  [cached]
Roberto Perin
Scienza & Politica : per una Storia delle Dottrine , 1994, DOI: 10.6092/issn.1825-9618/2978
Abstract: Quebec: a Nation at the Cross-road
The pecularities of the spouses dialogue in the students family
Gladkovskaya I. A.
Sociosfera , 2011,
Abstract: The research of features of the dialogue between spouses in a student's family of high school is presented in this article The characteristic of a student's family is short presented. The forms of work directed on the improvement of the dialogue in student's families are recommended.
Psychoeducation in Quebec: Past to Present Psychoeducation in Quebec  [cached]
Jean-Yves Bégin,Jonathan Bluteau,Catherine Arseneault,Jocelyne Pronovost
Ricerche di Pedagogia e Didattica , 2012,
Abstract: This article is the first of three written on the topic of Quebec psychoeducation. The object of this article is to explain the historical and theoretical foundations of psychoeducation as a academic discipline in Quebec. Developments within the field will be highlighted to illustrate how it has evolved up to the present day. Psychoeducation originated within live-in rehabilitation centres for troubled youth and was then integrated within the contexts of schools, community centres, psychiatric hospitals and physical rehabilitation centres. Psychoeducators in Quebec are making their mark in providing support and assistance to all age groups, from children to seniors, helping people with adjustment difficulties who struggle to integrate. Today, Quebec psychoeducation can cross borders and cultures, to broaden the perspectives of other specialized higher-education programs at the university level. Sharing the Quebec model, its theoretical expertise and its history of clinical practice will enable others to benefit in improving the social integration and psychosocial adaptation of those in need. Questo articolo è il primo di una trilogia sulla psicoeducazione in Quebec. Lo scopo dell’ articolo è presentare i fondamenti storici e teorici della psicoeducazione intesa come disciplina accademica. Saranno presentate la tappe e gli sviluppi che hanno portato la disciplina a quello che è oggi. La psicoeducazione nasce all’interno dei centri residenziali di riabilitazione per giovani problematici ed è stata poi inserita in altri contesti come le scuole, i centri comunitari, gli ospedali psichiatrici e i centri per la riabilitazione fisica. Gli psicoeducatori hanno un loro specifico marchio nel fornire supporto e assistenza a persone di ogni età, dai bambini agli anziani, e nel sostenere le persone che a diverso titolo presentano problemi di integrazione e adattamento. La Psicoeducazione può, oggi, permettersi di attraversare i confini, aprirsi alle altre culture e allargare le prospettive di altri programmi di educazione specializzata di alto livello universitario. Conoscere il modello quebecchese, la sua expertise teorica e la storia delle sue applicazioni cliniche può consentire ad altri di migliorare la promozione dell’ integrazione sociale e dell’ adattamento delle persone in difficoltà.
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