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The impact of employee level and work stress on mental health and GP service use: an analysis of a sample of Australian government employees
Ruth A Parslow, Anthony F Jorm, Helen Christensen, Dorothy H Broom, Lyndall Strazdins, Rennie M D' Souza
BMC Public Health , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-4-41
Abstract: 806 government employees aged between 40 and 44 years were surveyed as part of an epidemiological study conducted in Australia. Data collected from participants included sociodemographic attributes, physical health, psychological measures and work stressors relating to job control, job demands, job security and skills discretion at work. For 88% of these participants, information on visits made to general practitioners (GPs) for the six months before and after their survey interview was obtained from health insurance records.When work stress and personal factors were taken into account, men at more junior levels reported better mental health, more positive affect and used fewer GP services. Women at middle-management levels obtained less GP care than their more senior counterparts. Both men and women who reported higher levels of work stress were found to have poorer mental health and well-being. The impact of such stressors on GP service use, however, differed for men and women.Measures of work stress and not employee level affect the mental health and well-being of government employees. For governments with responsibility for funding health care services, reducing work stress experienced by their own employees offers potential benefits by improving the health of their workforce and reducing outlays for such services.In 1999, the World Health Organization reported that workers continued to suffer high levels of work-related injuries and deaths [1]. It also flagged, however, the increase in mental health problems reported by workers in industrialized countries as a result of their experiencing psychological stress and excessive job demands in the workplace [1]. The health consequences of such psychosocial aspects of the work environment have been examined in a range of settings across different countries. Much of this research has drawn on the model developed and refined by Karasek who proposed that work-related mental strain and associated psychiatric disorder resu
Employee Share Option Scheme And Employees’ Motivation
Rebecca Yew Ming Yian,Rose Ruziana Samad
Terengganu International Management and Business Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Employee stock options scheme (ESOS) is a call option on the ordinary share of a company, issued as a form of non-cash compensation or as an incentive tool. ESOS gives an employee the right to buy shares at a fixed price for a defined number of years into the future. The trend toward broad-based share options may come to an end as companies are scaling back due to the changes in accounting standards. Similarly, companies in Malaysia, especially in the banking industry which originally offered share options to their employees are now pulling back this scheme. Does the movement to scale back share options affect employees’ motivation? This is an empirical question which this paper intends to explore. It is hope that the commercial banks will reconsider offering ESOS in rewarding their employees if the research finding indicates that it plays a significant role in motivating employees.
Impact of Devolution on Public Service Delivery: An empirical study of District Government Dera Ismail Khan  [cached]
Najeebullah khan,Shadiullah Khan,Sher Kamal
Current Research Journal of Social Science , 2012,
Abstract: Despite devolving substantial resources and Prowers to local levels to improve public service delivery, anecdotal evidence suggests that service delivery in Pakistan is still far behind from expectations. This paper aims to examine the impacts and consequences of devolution on public service delivery in District Dera Ismail Khan, KPK, Pakistan. We developed and tested a set of empirical measures to identify the real patterns of public service delivery on one hand and to assess the impacts of factors (both demographic and other) on the delivery of public services on the other. The results indicate many reasons for poor service delivery however, limited transparency and poor monitoring system is the most critical. Furthermore, Data show that poverty is causing many problems including unawareness of masses from their interests and duties at the public level thereby giving free hand to the ruling elite in exploiting public resources for self-interest at the cost of public goods.
Motivation Model for Employee Retention: Applicability to HRM Practices in Malaysian SME Sector  [cached]
Sakinah Mat Zin,Noorazlina Ahmad,Nazlin Emieza Binti Ngah,Rusnah Binti Ismail
Canadian Social Science , 2012, DOI: 10.3968/j.css.1923669720120805.zr0194
Abstract: In the Vision 2020, Malaysian government aims at achieving a developed nation status by the year 2020. To realize the vision, the country needed the support and motivation from all Malaysians. Hence, human resource management (HRM) plays an important role for the said vision since it is a significant capital in the operation of an organization. For Malaysian entrepreneurial firms, it is crucial to retain their employees in order to achieve their ultimate goal i.e. maximizing profits. Such small, growthoriented firms are considered vulnerable to lose even one key employee because it may aggravate extensive consequences and, at the extreme, may imperil exertions to attain organizational objectives. Employee retention becomes a vital human capital objective for entrepreneurial companies which are seeking to grow and capture market share. Motivation is essential in leading the employees towards achieving organizational goals besides fostering the organizational commitment. Such organizational attachment and motivation has implications for whether an employee will opt for remaining with the organization or not. With HRM, the human resource (HR) model would regard humans as being inspired by an intricate collection of interconnected aspects, such as recognition, interpersonal relation, and desire for meaningful work. HR managers must endeavour to redesign the job to be more varied and decentralized in order to encourage sovereignty among employees. Therefore, motivation model is relevant to be employed in HRM practices for employee retention. This paper is primarily based on literature review. Extensive literature study is used to identify relevant information and references. This paper intends to elucidate one particular issue with regards to Malaysian SMEs which is employee retention and in more specifically, this study will aim to produce a model for employee retention conjoining it with organizational strategies, organizational culture and benefits factors. To attain this aim, the two-factor, or motivation-hygiene theory (Herzberg, 1968) was taken as the basic foundation. Key words: Motivation-hygiene; Vital human capital; Sovereignity; JEL Codes: C11, J12
Meaning of Work and Employee Motivation
Winnie Mujah,Rose Ruziana Abdul Samad,Harpajan Singh,Owen Timothy D’Cruz
Terengganu International Management and Business Journal , 2011,
Abstract: The research aim is to discover the meaning of work to employees, how central work is in their lives, their perceived level of motivation at work and factors that would increase their motivation level. The centrality of work is compared against other factors such as leisure, community, religion and family. The factors representing the meaning of work include: (1) work provides needed income; (2) working is interesting and satisfying; (3) working gives opportunity to meet and socialize with other people; (4) working is a useful way to serve society; (5) working gives status, prestige and respect; (6) working is a religious or spiritual obligation; (7) working to stay occupied. The research method used is a quantitative questionnaire distributed to employees, both academics and non-academics at INTI International University. The research concludes that work is of averagely centrality to employees and that their primary motivation to work is to earn an income. The implication of this is that money is a motivator (which contradicts Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory which says that money is not a motivator) and as such, the organisation should thus provide adequate compensation and reward as a means of motivating employees. According to Moncrief (2010), managers may apply to encouraging their employees by monetary awards when they act in the way expected from them. The effect of such awards is still limited like other motivating tools and they may be useless or even become a damaging factor in the case that they are not used carefully and in a fair manner or not individualized sufficiently. The function of economic awarding used by many enterprises today in various ways in motivating people cannot be denied. However it is seen that appeal to the motivating economic tools and expecting from them more than needed does not seem to result in success very much. Therefore, in planning rewarding, encouraging economic tools should be employed in accordance with employees’ needs. In fact, there are ways of increasing employees’ work motivation and satisfaction other than monetary tools.
Does Transformational Leadership Leads To Higher Employee Work Engagement. A Study of Pakistani Service Sector Firms  [PDF]
M. Waqas Raja
International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The Present study explores how transformational leadership leads to higher employee work engagement in the service sector firms of Pakistan. The data was collected with the help of a structured questionnaire using stratified random sampling technique from various types of service firms. The result drawn from the sample of 150 respondents shows that inspirational motivation, idealized influence, individual consideration and intellectual stimulation when all these aspects of transformational leadership are practiced by the managers it leads to higher employee work engagement.
Golden Research Thoughts , 2013, DOI: 10.9780/22315063
Abstract: A good manager should perform - planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Employees are a resource of institutions and managers need to look at how to maximize their resources. If managers can understand what employees' needs are and help them meet those needs, those smiling, familiar, and hard working faces will be seen around the office for a much longer time. Managers must acknowledge each person's expectations, preoccupations and needs. He must also display model leadership behavior and skills. He must find ways to motivate the employees in order to encourage productivity and ensure job satisfaction. A manager cannot force an employee to be successful at his job, but he can motivate him with fair treatment, proper incentives and adequate compensation.
Alternative Service Delivery Arrangements in Local Municipalities in Israel: A Case Study  [PDF]
Eti Sarig
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2013.13006
Abstract: The adoption of alternative service delivery arrangements (ASDAs) is not a new phenomenon in Israeli local government. The current study is based on empirical quantitative research which examined the effect of economic and political factors on the scope of privatization and alternative service delivery arrangements (ASDAs) in local municipalities in Israel. The “economic constraint” model and the “political choice” model served as the theoretical framework for examining considerations underlying service privatization. The contribution of the current study to previous literature on ASDAs is in examining the effect of moderator variables on the scope of privatization (SOP). A study of 29 services in 106 local mu- nicipalities in Israel indicated that political factors have a dominant effect on the scope of privatization in local municipalities while the effect of economic factors is small and statistically insignificant. The following variables were found to have a statistically significant effect on the scope of privatization: number of employees, age of local municipality, employee costs and characteristics of the head of the local municipality.
Management of employee wellness in South Africa: Employer, service provider and union perspectives  [cached]
Charlotte Sieberhagen,Jaco Pienaar,Crizelle Els
South African Journal of Human Resource Management , 2011, DOI: 10.4102/sajhrm.v9i1.305
Abstract: Orientation: This article focuses on how South African organisations manage their employees’ wellness through their Employee Wellness Programmes (EWPs). Research purpose: The objective of this research is to describe employee wellness in South Africa by investigating the types, foci and perceived success of EWPs. Motivation for the study: Despite the growing awareness of the importance of EWPs in South Africa, the nature, content, context, participants, role-players and anticipated benefits as well as the possible drawbacks of these programmes in the South African context are unclear. Research design, approach and method: The researchers used a cross-sectional design. The first author developed the Employee Wellness Survey, consisting of quantitative and qualitative questions, to collect data from 16 organisations, four service providers and seven labour unions in South Africa. Main findings: The results showed that organisations, service providers and labour unions define employee wellness differently and that these role players give different reasons for introducing EWPs. Almost half of the participating organisations have no baseline measurement with which to compare the effectiveness of their EWPs. Generally, all the organisations present the results of their programmes reasonably. However, the programmes involve little overall expenditure to the organisations. Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should monitor the state of their employees’ wellness in order to manage it effectively. This will only become possible when information about employee wellness improves. Contribution/value-add: This study provides new information about the nature, content, context, participants, role-players, anticipated benefits and possible drawbacks of EWPs in the South-African context. How to cite this article: Sieberhagen, C., Pienaar, J., & Els, C. (2011). Management of employee wellness in South Africa: Employer, service provider and union perspectives. SA Journal of Human Resource Management/SA Tydskrif vir Menslikehulpbronbestuur, 9(1), Art. #305, 14 pages. doi:10.4102/sajhrm.v9i1.305
The Benchmarking of the Government to Employee (G2e) Technology Development: Theoretical Aspects of the Model Construction  [PDF]
Alvydas Bale?entis,Gintar? Para?inskait?
Social Technologies , 2012,
Abstract: Purpose—To fill the gap in the currently very rare discussion on the important topic of e-government research—design, development and usage of information and communication technologies for human resource management in the public sector and to formulate theoretical benchmarks for development of the government to employee (G2E) model.Design/methodology/approach—Literature analysis of mostly empirical research from the field of government to government (G2G), government to citizen (G2C) and business to employee (B2E) was made. With the help of analogy method possible elements of model were described.Findings—Analysis of literature gave a clearer understanding of thre G2E model, it’s possible stages and elements. Analogy methods helps to recognize which parts of other models can be adopted for the G2E model. The results of the review of literature on this theme and the given conclusions provide a strong background for the G2E research roadmap on the international as well as national level.Research limitations/implications—Article is based on theoretical analysis of theoretical and empirical researches.Practical implications, originality/Value—This article fills the gap in literature and prognoses future research directions.Keywords—government to employee (G2E), government to government (G2G), government to citizen (G2C), business to employee (B2E), human resource management, public sector, e-government, benchmarking.Research type—viewpoint.
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