oalib
匹配条件: “” ,找到相关结果约100条。
列表显示的所有文章,均可免费获取
第1页/共100条
每页显示
Strategic Random Networks: Why Social Networking Technology Matters  [PDF]
Benjamin Golub,Yair Livne
Statistics , 2010,
Abstract: This paper develops strategic foundations for an important statistical model of random networks with heterogeneous expected degrees. Based on this, we show how social networking services that subtly alter the costs and indirect benefits of relationships can cause large changes in behavior and welfare. In the model, agents who value friends and friends of friends choose how much to socialize, which increases the probabilities of links but is costly. There is a sharp transition from fragmented, sparse equilibrium networks to connected, dense ones when the value of friends of friends crosses a cost-dependent threshold. This transition mitigates an extreme inefficiency.
Why the mental disorder concept matters  [PDF]
Dusan Kecmanovic
Dialogues in Philosophy, Mental and Neuro Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The mental disorder concept has not been paid due attention to. The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to assess how much space has been given to the mental disorder concept in textbooks of psychiatry, and second, to show in how many domains both within and beyond psychiatry the mental disorder concept plays a key role. A number of textbooks written in English, German, French, Spanish, and Italian, selected as examples, have been scanned so as to see if there is a chapter dealing with mental disorder, in particular with its definition. Also, the fields in which the mental disorder plays a major role have been identified, and the reasons why the concept of mental disorder is relevant for them have been explored. There is no chapter dealing with the definition of mental disorder in some textbooks of psychiatry in English, German, French, Spanish, and Italian that have been selected as examples. Yet there are numerous domains, directly or indirectly related to psychiatry, in which the mental disorder concept is a substantial element. The results show that the concept of mental disorder should be kept high on psychiatric agenda and given due space in textbooks of psychiatry accordingly.
Ten years to VISION 2020: why information matters
Peter Ackland
Community Eye Health Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Why do we collect information in our eye care programmes? One important reason is that we use information to enhance our knowledge and then apply that knowledge to improve what we do.Information is the first step in a process of learning and improvement that enables us to make better decisions, improve the systems and places we work in, and enhance the quality of our own individual work.
Review of ‘Taste Matters: Why We Like the Foods We Do’ by John Prescott
Charles Spence
Flavour , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2044-7248-1-23
Abstract: Taste Matters: Why We Like the Foods We DoLondon: Reaktion Books; 2012208 pages, ISBN 978 1 86189 914 9In Taste Matters: Why We Like the Foods We Do, Professor John Prescott – a Sydney-based psychologist, and long-time editor of the popular food science journal Food Quality & Preference – tackles the fundamental question of why it is that we like certain foods and not others. After all, every one of us has been in the situation where something that we find delicious tastes disgusting to others around us: Japanese natto, or fermented beans, for the westerner, and rice pudding for those from Asia, being but two popular examples. One novel addition to the list of disgusting foods introduced by Prescott in his latest book is the Icelandic dish hakarl, a kind of putrefied shark. This particular fish is somewhat unusual in that it excretes ammonia through its skin. The people from Iceland prepare the shark by burying it in the ground for a couple of months until it reaches maturity. A delicious treat to the locals, apparently, but absolutely horrible to pretty much everyone else. But what exactly are the key factors that are responsible for driving our differing responses to food? And what can we do to change people’s food preferences (that is, to get young children to eat more vegetables, say)?Perhaps just as important as the question of why it is that we do not all like the same foods, however, is the related issue of why it is that we actually do share so many of our food likes/dislikes. Chocolate, for instance, appears to be universally liked. Similarly, most people find the orthonasal smell of coffee to be very pleasing (of course, the same cannot be said for this beverage’s bitter taste). As one might expect, answering the question of what factors drive our food likes and dislikes turns out to be a very complex matter. What is more, much of the relevant science has only started to emerge over the last decade or so. That said, Prescott does a great job of guiding the
Language, identity and HIV: why do we keep talking about the responsible and responsive use of language? Language matters  [cached]
Sophie Dilmitis,Olive Edwards,Beri Hull,Shari Margolese
Journal of the International AIDS Society , 2012, DOI: 10.7448/ias.15.4.17990
Abstract: Language matters. It impacts on how we think about ourselves, as individuals within our families and within society. As advocates and activists, we constantly use language as a tool to effect change. People living with HIV have been critical in shaping this language over the last 30 years and still play a central role in ensuring that new discourse in the HIV field does not stigmatize, but rather that it catalyzes empowerment for our community members. In this annotation, we seek to shift the language used in relation to ourselves, our medical condition, our bodies, our identities and the events we face, towards something more life-enhancing, self-affirming and positive in outlook.
Why the way we consider the body matters – Reflections on four bioethical perspectives on the human body
Silke Schicktanz
Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1747-5341-2-30
Abstract: The author begins by descriptively exploring some main positions in bioethics from which the "body" is conceptualized. Such positions conflict: the body is that which is constitutive of the individual's experience and perception, or it is conceived of materially or mechanistically; or as a constructed locus, always historically and culturally transformed. The author goes on to suggest a methodological approach that dialectically considers embodiment from four different perspectives: as bodily self-determination, as respect for the bodily unavailability of the other, as care for bodily individuality; and lastly, as acknowledgement of bodily-constituted communities. These four perspectives encompass autonomy in two of its main interpretations: as the capability of a person to act independent of external forces, and as the moral ideal of pursuing individual wishes by means of role distance, self-limitation and universalization. Various bioethical cases are utilized to show how the four perspectives on the body can complement one another.The way we consider the body matters. The author's dialectical method allows a premise-critical identification and exploration of bioethical problems concerning the body. The method is potentially applicable to other bioethical problems.During the 1970s, a number of performance artists shocked the public by making their bodies the subject of artistic performances. By being thus displayed, the body itself becomes both the medium of the artistic work and the scene on which it takes place. In the performance Zerrei?probe (1970) the Austrian artist Günter Brus injured himself by cutting his head and thigh with a razor blade. The vulnerability of the flesh was to be shown by means of the extreme display of a body disfigured by pain and by interventions from the outside. Brus' perfomance at the same time was intended to demonstrate limits and extremes. The American Chris Burden had his left arm shot by a friend in the course of the performanc
Why biogeography matters: historical biogeography vs. phylogeography and community phylogenetics for inferring ecological and evolutionary processes  [cached]
John J. Wiens
Frontiers of Biogeography , 2012,
Abstract: Phylogenetic and phylogeographic approaches have become widespread in evolutionary biology, ecology, and biogeography. However, analyses that incorporate inferences from historical biogeography (e.g. timing of colonization of a region) may be essential to answer the most important large-scale questions in these fields, but they remain infrequently used. I focus on two examples here. First, I argue that understanding the origins of biodiversity hotspots (and other high-diversity regions) requires comparing the timing of biogeographic colonization and diversification rates among regions. In contrast, phylogeographic studies (analyses within species within a region) may themselves say little about why a region is diverse relative to others. Second, incorporating historical biogeograpy can help address the processes that determine community species richness and structure, such as dispersal, in-situ trait evolution, and in-situ speciation. In contrast, the widespread “community phylogenetics” approach (focusing on relatedness of species in communities) may have limited ability to explain community richness and structure.
Partition Refinement of Component Interaction Automata: Why Structure Matters More Than Size
Markus Lumpe,Rajesh Vasa
Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4204/eptcs.37.2
Abstract: Automata-based modeling languages, like Component Interaction Automata, offer an attractive means to capture and analyze the behavioral aspects of interacting components. At the center of these modeling languages we find finite state machines that allow for a fine-grained description how and when specific service requests may interact with other components or the environment. Unfortunately, automata-based approaches suffer from exponential state explosion, a major obstacle to the successful application of these formalisms in modeling real-world scenarios. In order to cope with the complexity of individual specifications we can apply partition refinement, an abstraction technique to alleviate the state explosion problem. But this technique too exhibits exponential time and space complexity and, worse, does not offer any guarantees for success. To better understand as to why partition refinement succeeds in some cases while it fails in others, we conducted an empirical study on the performance of a partition refinement algorithm for Component Interaction Automata specifications. As a result we have identified suitable predictors for the expected effectiveness of partition refinement. It is the structure, not the size, of a specification that weighs heavier on the outcome of partition refinement. In particular, Component Interaction Automata specifications for real-world systems are capable of producing scale-free networks containing structural artifacts that can assist the partition refinement algorithm not only converge earlier, but also yield a significant state space reduction on occasion.
Why metaphor matters in education
E Botha
South African Journal of Education , 2009,
Abstract: I track the influence, presence and pivotal role of changes in the understanding of metaphor, which accompanied the paradigm shift from objectivism to pluralism and relativism in education. These shifts are also reflected in the choice of teaching methodology. I argue that metaphors are constitutive of educational activities, events and processes and that they inter alia mediate foundational world view assumptions of these events and activities. Metaphor carries epistemic and ideological freight, functions as a vehicle of a world view and provides access to a discipline’s assumptions about the way the world and humankind are structured.
Why metaphor matters in education
Elaine Botha
South African Journal of Education , 2009,
Abstract: I track the influence, presence and pivotal role of changes in the understanding of metaphor, which accompanied the paradigm shift from objectivism to pluralism and relativism in education. These shifts are also reflected in the choice of teaching methodology. I argue that metaphors are constitutive of educational activities, events and processes and that they inter alia mediate foundational world view assumptions of these events and activities. Metaphor carries epistemic and ideological freight, functions as a vehicle of a world view and provides access to a discipline's assumptions about the way the world and humankind are structured.
第1页/共100条
每页显示


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.