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Unsing Geographic Information System Visualisation for the Seismic Risk Assesment of the Romanian Infrastructure  [cached]
Ana-Maria Toma
Bulletin of the Polytechnic Institute of Jassy, Constructions, Architechture Section , 2010,
Abstract: All over the world, the seismic risk assessment is becoming the problem of the century. Scientists from the interdisciplinary field of informatics have been trying to develop software to help societies to improve their management of situations, in case of earthquakes. At present, Romania does not have any complex software to monitor the vulnerability and the seismic risk using Geographic Information System (GIS). NetSET product is the first version of this specific software which permits further developments in the seismic risk assessment. In the following years it is meant to become a very powerful complex tool, in order to help the society in case of disasters. With its help, in Romania, scenarios will be designed, and as a result a better time response and management of situations in case of disasters will be provided.
Creating Interaction Scenarios With a New Graphical User Interface  [PDF]
Céline Jost,Brigitte Le Pévédic,Dominique Duhaut
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: The field of human-centered computing has known a major progress these past few years. It is admitted that this field is multidisciplinary and that the human is the core of the system. It shows two matters of concern: multidisciplinary and human. The first one reveals that each discipline plays an important role in the global research and that the collaboration between everyone is needed. The second one explains that a growing number of researches aims at making the human commitment degree increase by giving him/her a decisive role in the human-machine interaction. This paper focuses on these both concerns and presents MICE (Machines Interaction Control in their Environment) which is a system where the human is the one who makes the decisions to manage the interaction with the machines. In an ambient context, the human can decide of objects actions by creating interaction scenarios with a new visual programming language: scenL.
Creating Scenarios and Guiding Learning in a Medical Simulation Center  [PDF]
Gregorio Ma?eru Zunzarren, Alfredo Rodriguez-Sedano
Creative Education (CE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2011.23044
Abstract: In this article we propose to address the importance of learning scenarios in a simulation center in graduate studies in Medicine. We will describe in detail the context in which this learning is developed. To do this, we need to reflect briefly on the contents that permit the configuration of these scenarios as teaching units, the objectives which should be commensurate with the level of training and experience of the students, the activities to develop and the means by which these are arranged, and, finally, the evaluation of the process. The development of this learning would not be possible without an activity guide, as a well as an evolution and debriefing stage.
Seismic scenarios and assessment of intensity: some criteria for the use of the MCS scale
G. Ferrari,E. Guidoboni
Annals of Geophysics , 2000, DOI: 10.4401/ag-3664
Abstract: The macroseismic scale used for the classification of the more than 33100 seismic effects of the Catalogue of Strong Italian Earthquakes (CFTI3) is the Mercalli Cancani Sieberg (MCS). As in all scales, the use of the MCS scale in determining the macroseismic intensity of historical earthquakes involves difficulties regarding the classification of descriptions of a quality nature. These descriptions often lack standardisation as regards levels of information and the semantic value of the statements, and there are also various levels of description of the damage in relation to the various economic and building contexts. As is known, the intensity scales were compiled to classify the effects of earthquakes contemporary to the observers. The scales are therefore classification tools designed to be applied from direct observations. The general criteria used in assessment of the intensity degrees are those of a direct comparison between the descriptive outlines gained from historical research and the descriptions given by the different degrees of the scale. While this is true in a general sense, there are a number of cases where the interpretation may vacillate when the context examined contains no elements of clarification, in relation to the levels of detail of the research or the context. To understand how the many problems connected to the assessment of intensity of seismic scenarios carried out from historical sources have been solved the criteria applied are here described.
Creating scenarios of the impact of copd and their relationship to copd assessment test (CAT?) scores
Paul W Jones, Margaret Tabberer, Wen-Hung Chen
BMC Pulmonary Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2466-11-42
Abstract: A Bland and Altman plot showed a consistent relationship between CAT scores and scores obtained with the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire for COPD (SGRQ-C) permitting a direct mapping process between CAT and SGRQ items. The severity associated with each CAT item was calculated using a probabilistic model and expressed in logits (log odds of a patient of given severity affirming that item 50% of the time). Severity estimates for SGRQ-C items in logits were also available, allowing direct comparisons with CAT items. CAT scores were categorised into Low, Medium, High and Very High Impact. SGRQ items of corresponding severity were used to create scenarios associated with each category.Each CAT category was associated with a scenario comprising 12 to 16 SGRQ-C items. A severity 'ladder' associating CAT scores with exemplar health status effects was also created. Items associated with 'Low' and 'Medium' Impact appeared to be subjectively quite severe in terms of their effect on daily life.These scenarios provide users of the CAT with a good sense of the health impact associated with different scores. More generally they provide a surprising insight into the severity of the effects of COPD, even in patients with apparently mild-moderate health status impact.Understanding a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patient's health status is an integral part of overall patient management. International guidelines on the management of COPD recommend that both lung function and health status are monitored regularly to guide any changes in treatment [1], and both the European Respiratory Society and the American Thoracic Society recommend that health status should be assessed as an outcome in clinical trials of new and existing pharmacological therapies for treatment of COPD [2]. A number of different questionnaires are available that assess health status in COPD, these include the Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ) [3], the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ) [4],
Earthquake scenarios and seismic input for cultural heritage: applications to the cities of Rome and Florence  [PDF]
Fabio Romanelli,Franco Vaccari
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: For historical buildings and monuments, i.e. when considering time intervals of about a million year (we do not want to loose cultural heritage), the applicability of standard estimates of seismic hazard is really questionable. A viable alternative is represented by the use of the scenario earthquakes, characterized at least in terms of magnitude, distance and faulting style, and by the treatment of complex source processes. Scenario-based seismic hazard maps are purely based on geophysical and seismotectonic features of a region and take into account the occurrence frequency of earthquakes only for their classification into exceptional (catastrophic), rare (disastrous), sporadic (very strong), occasional (strong) and frequent. Therefore they may provide an upper bound for the ground motion levels to be expected for most regions of the world, more appropriate than probabilities of exceedance in view of the long time scales required for the protection of historical buildings. The neo-deterministic approach naturally supplies realistic time series of ground motion, which represent also reliable estimates of ground displacement readily applicable to seismic isolation techniques, useful to preserve historical monuments and relevant man made structures. This methodology has been successfully applied to many urban areas worldwide for the purpose of seismic microzoning, to strategic buildings, lifelines and cultural heritage sites; we will discuss its application to the cities of Rome and Florence.
Scenarios for Ecosystem Services: An Overview  [cached]
Stephen R. Carpenter,Elena M. Bennett,Garry D. Peterson
Ecology and Society , 2006,
Abstract: The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) scenarios address changes in ecosystem services and their implications for human well-being. Ecological changes pose special challenges for long-term thinking, because of the possibility of regime shifts that occur rapidly yet alter the availability of ecosystem services for generations. Moreover, ecological feedbacks can intensify human modification of ecosystems, creating a spiral of poverty and ecosystem degradation. Such complex dynamics were evaluated by a mixture of qualitative and quantitative analyses in the MA scenarios. Collectively, the scenarios explore problems such as the connections of poverty reduction and ecosystem services, and trade-offs among ecosystem services. Several promising approaches are considered by the scenarios, including uses of biodiversity to build resilience of ecosystem services, actively adaptive management, and green technology. Although the scenarios do not prescribe an optimal path, they illuminate the consequences of different policies toward ecosystem services.
Effect of Strength Reduction on Seismic Performance of the Steel Structures with Different Elevations  [cached]
Siroos Gholampour,Azam Nabizadeh
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology , 2013,
Abstract: There have been considerable developments in techniques concerning seismic retrofitting of the structures in recent years which have been employed the same as the old ones. In this study, a new procedure with difference from common methods is proposed. The main objective of this procedure is to reduce simultaneously seismic requirements and maximum acceleration of the structure. Reducing seismic requirements of the structure, the lateral strength of the structure is decreased in the first step. Then, supplement damping devices are used to control the deformations caused by the first step. Fluid viscous damping devices are considered as inactive damping systems. Three moment steel frames with different elevation of 2, 4 and 7 stories were investigated using nonlinear static analysis (push over) and nonlinear dynamic analysis (time history). The results showed the reduction in base shear and decrease in acceleration induced on the structure as lateral strength. It is also concluded that, as the displacements are decreased by using damping devices, the performance of the structures has been improved significantly.
Modeling the Specific Seismic Risk Considering the Weight of Determining Variables
Liber Galbán Rodriguez, Elio Quiala Ortiz
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1101157
Abstract: The seismic risk determination for any country is a vital tool in the process of physical planning, construction and reduction of disasters caused by earthquakes. In recent years, there have been several studies on the subject, however, different methodologies could be improved from the design of a set of basic criteria, which using the advantages of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), could help to establish greater clarity in the seismic risk determining. To meet this goal, in this study, the authors propose a new allocation methodology based on levels of importance of variables that influence the specific seismic risk assessment and propose a new formula for mathematical determination through modeling with GIS.
Designing fuzzy expert system for creating and ranking of tourism scenarios using fuzzy AHP method
Ahmad Makui,Zohre Nikkhah
Management Science Letters , 2011,
Abstract: One of the most important activities of tour and travel agencies is to select the appropriate tour configuration. There are normally two primary objectives of season and time period to set a group of cities called designing tour scenarios. The success of tour scenarios is deeply related to the experiments and wisdom of the experts and planners in travel agencies. This paper presents a fuzzy rule decision making to find the suitable set of cities where different possible criteria are ranked using analytical hierarchy procedure. The proposed model of this paper is applied for a real-world case study of Iranian tour agency and the results are analyzed under different circumstances.
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