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Bandelier: The Life and Adventures of Adolph Bandelier, by Charles H. Lange and Carroll L. Riley, 1996
Richard B. Woodbury
Bulletin of the History of Archaeology , 1996, DOI: 10.5334/bha.06203
Abstract: Adolph F. Bandelier (1840-1914) is best known for his work in the Southwestern United States, particularly among the pueblos and prehistoric sites of the Rio Grande area, although he did extensive field and archival research in Mexico and South America as well. Self-taught, like most of his contemporaries, his research included archaeology, ethnology, history, and geography, plus a serious interest in botany, zoology, and meteorology. Bandelier was born in Bern, Switzerland, but when he was eight his family moved to the largely Swiss settlement of Highland, Illinois, 30 miles east of St. Louis, where he attended school, was tutored privately, and taught by his well educated mother. He mastered German and English, as well as his native French, and later added Spanish and Latin. For many years he worked in his father's general store, finally, at the age of forty, making the difficult decision to devote himself to scholarship rather than business. In 1869 at the St. Louis Mercantile Library he had begun the study of prehistoric Mexican cultures. He met Lewis Henry Morgan on a trip to the east and for many years was greatly influenced by his view of cultural evolution, but he.remained far more fact oriented than concerned with theory. Bandelier's first major work, "On the Art of War and Mode of Warfare of the Ancient Mexicans," was published in 1877 by the Peabody Museum of Harvard.
Relating underrepresented genomic DNA patterns and tiRNAs: the rule behind the observation and beyond
Miklos Cserzo, Gabor Turu, Peter Varnai, Laszlo Hunyady
Biology Direct , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1745-6150-5-56
Abstract: The Human and Mouse genomes have been screened with a statistical model for sequence patterns underrepresented in these genomes, and a subset of motifs, named spanions, has been identified. The common portion of the motif lists of the two species is 75% indicating evolutionary conservation of this feature. These motifs are arranged in clusters at close proximity of distinct genetic landmarks: 5' ends of genes, exon side of the exon/intron junctions and 5' ends of 3' UTRs. The length of the clusters is typically in the 20 to 25 bases range. The findings are in agreement with the known C/G bias of promoter regions while access much more sequential information than the simple composition based model.In the Human genome the recently reported transcription initiation RNAs (tiRNAs) are typically transcribed from these spanion clusters according to the presented results. The spanion clusters account for 70% of the published tiRNAs. Apparently, the model access the common statistical feature of this new and mostly uncharacterized non-coding RNA class and, in this way, supports the experimental observations with theoretical background.The presented results seem to support the emerging model of the RNA-driven eukaryotic gene expression control. Beyond that, the model detects spanion clusters at genetic positions where no tiRNA counterpart was considered and reported. The GO-term analysis of genes with high concentration of spanion clusters in their promoter proximal region indicates involvement in gene regulatory processes. The results of the analysis suggest that the gene regulatory potential of the small non-coding RNAs is grossly underestimated at present.This article was reviewed by Frank Eisenhaber, Sandor Pongor and Rotem Sorek (nominated by Doron Lancet).The regulation of eukaryotic gene expression is one of the central problems in recent biology. The currently ruling view of the process relies on protein - DNA interaction as the initiation step [1]. Transcription fact
Beyond usage: understanding the use of electronic journals on the basis of information activity analysis. Electronic journals, Use studies, Information activity, Scientific communication
Anna?g Mahé
Information Research: an international electronic journal , 2004,
Abstract: In this article, which reports the second part of a two-part study of the use of electronic journals by researchers in two French research institutions, we attempt to explain the integration of the use of electronic journals in the scientists' information habits, going beyond usage analysis. First, we describe how the development of electronic journals use follows a three-phase innovation process - research-development, first uses, and technical acculturation. Then, we attempt to find more significant explanatory factors, and emphasis is placed on the wider context of information activity. Three main information activity types are outlined - marginal, parallel, and integrated. Each of these types corresponds to a particular attitude towards scientific information and to different levels of electronic journal use.
Biomedical journals and databases in Russia and Russian language in the former Soviet Union and beyond
Vasiliy V Vlassov, Kirill D Danishevskiy
Emerging Themes in Epidemiology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1742-7622-5-15
Abstract: The current state of biomedical journals and databases in Russian language is rooted in the history of the USSR and Russia in 20th century. As with many other aspects of life in the Soviet Union, professional and research training was severely hampered during nearly 70 years of communist rule[1,2]. Some of the major issues impeding biomedical science were the change in style of professional training and the isolation of research groups from the rest of the world.In earlier Russian history – the 17th century – the educational system was biased towards specialized professional training in applied fields [3]. European style universities in what is now the former Soviet Union came into being in the 19th century [4]. This was followed by a system of educational reforms implemented by the Soviet government in 1930s which increased the number of technical and medical schools, or "institutes," and separated them from the universities [5]. New institutes discontinued teaching research methods and usually did not carry out any research themselves [3]. All research funding was channeled into a separate branch of "research institutes," thus further isolating centers of higher education from research [6].In the most glorious days of Russian science, the late 19th – early 20th century, the Russian university educational system was tightly interconnected with that of its European counterparts. It was common for graduates of Russian universities to undertake visiting fellowships and nearly all famous Russian scientists had international experience.In the1920s, the door was closed from the Soviet side, nearly 30 years before the "official" drop of the "Iron Curtain" [5]. A rigid hierarchy controlling the thoughts and impeding exchange with "ideological opponents" was introduced in both higher education and research, with only a few exceptions. One of exceptions – the Moscow State University, was created under a special category in the USSR national budget, consuming almost 50% of al
Writing for Electronic Journals  [cached]
Bernard Cesarone
Early Childhood Research & Practice , 1999,
Abstract: Electronic journals in scholarly or professional settings continue a tradition of fostering the creation and transmission of scientific and other knowledge that was begun long ago through print journals.Electronic journals provide publishers and readers an opportunity for wider dissemination of knowledge than was previously possible through print publications a factor that may largely account for the increasing success of electronic journals. Besides this overriding benefit, electronic journals can incorporate features that improve on or go beyond the features that have traditionally been available in print publications. Following some background information on electronic publications, this article discusses issues involved in writing for electronic journals, particularly Early Childhood Research & Practice (ECRP). Topics discussed include hypertext links, graphics, audio and video, post-publication comments and discussions (for example, via Chat rooms), access to downloadable data files, electronic review, and correction of errors. The article also covers additional notable features of electronic journals such as provision in other formats, full-text searching, and constant access and ways to find electronic journals on topics of interest.
Behind and beyond the pediatric metabolic syndrome
Paolo Brambilla, Angelo Pietrobelli
Italian Journal of Pediatrics , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1824-7288-35-41
Abstract: A recent scientific statement from the American Heart Association and other related Committees focussed the topic of the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) in pediatric age [1]. The paper provided a set of fundamental questions about what the pediatric MetS means in clinical or research setting. The Authors concluded defining limits of our current knowledge and providing suggestions for needed future research [1]. This position paper outlined most of the concerns that pediatricians feel about the usefulness of MetS diagnosis in day by day clinical practice. Concerns also are referred to which MetS definition has to be used for children. Controversies are mainly related to two diverging approaches: one adapting the definition of MetS from adults [2-4], the other considering the peculiarities of children and adolescents [5,6].Aim of the present paper is to discuss difficulties found by pediatricians facing to MetS definition and usefulness.Metabolic syndrome is the clustering of specific metabolic abnormalities found in overweight and obese subjects, but present also in some normal weight subjects. In adults, the presence of three among clinical (obesity or abdominal obesity, hypertension) and metabolic parameters (hyperglycemia, high triglycerides, low HDL-cholesterol) is used to define MetS [2-4]. In the last decade, many studies in paediatrics derived MetS definition from those used for adults, mostly adapting cut-off points for each parameter to children or adolescents. For this purpose, the percentile methodology was generally used. Recently, the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) proposed a new pediatric definition according to age groups [7]. In particular, IDF suggested that the MetS should not be diagnosed in children younger than 10 yrs, while for subjects 10 to 16 years they proposed the use of adult IDF MetS definition [3] with the only difference represented by waist 90th percentile instead of absolute values. Therefore, the IDF defined a 10-16 yrs old subjec
Behind Pvlas
Roncadelli, Marco
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2007,
Abstract: We offer a detailed review of the physics behind the PVLAS experiment. We also address some laboratory and astrophysical cross-checks for the recent claim concerning a signal consistent with an Axion-Like Particle. Our aim is that the leading role played by Emilio (Mimmo) Zavattini in this field of research will become apparent.
References of the articles in journals
Walter Ricciardi
Italian Journal of Public Health , 2004, DOI: 10.2427/6147
Abstract: References of the articles in journals
Beyond the Horizon  [PDF]
Martin B Einhorn,Manavendra Mahato
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.73.104035
Abstract: Cosmic horizons arise in general relativity in the context of black holes and in certain cosmologies. Classically, regions beyond a horizon are inaccessible to causal observers. However, quantum mechanical correlations may exist across horizons that may influence local observations. For the case of de Sitter space, we show how a single particle excitation behind the horizon changes the density matrix governing local observables. As compared to the vacuum state, we calculate the change in the average energy and entropy per unit volume. This illustrates what may be a generic property allowing some features of spacetime beyond a horizon to be inferred.
On geometry behind Birkhoff theorem  [PDF]
Pavol Severa
Mathematics , 2002,
Abstract: This is an elementary geometrical proof of Birkhoff theorem. It is hardly important, but the pictures behind are quite nice.
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