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Determinants for HIV testing and counselling in Nairobi urban informal settlements
Abdhalah K Ziraba, Nyovani J Madise, James K Kimani, Samuel Oti, George Mgomella, Mwau Matilu, Alex Ezeh
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-663
Abstract: Data are derived from a cross-sectional survey nested in an ongoing demographic surveillance system. A total of 3,162 individuals responded to the interview and out of these, 82% provided a blood sample which was tested using rapid test kits. The outcome of interest in this paper was HIV testing status in the past categorised as "never tested"; "client-initiated testing and counselling (CITC)" and provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC). Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify determinants of HIV testing.Approximately 31% of all respondents had ever been tested for HIV through CITC, 22% through PITC and 42% had never been tested but indicated willingness to test. Overall, 62% of females and 38% of males had ever been tested for HIV. Males were less likely to have had CITC (OR = 0.47; p value < 0.001) and also less likely to have had PITC (OR = 0.16; p value < 0.001) compared to females. Individuals aged 20-24 years were more likely to have had either CITC or PITC compared to the other age groups. The divorced/separated/widowed were more likely (OR = 1.65; p value < 0.01) to have had CITC than their married counterparts, while the never married were less likely to have had either CITC or PITC. HIV positive individuals (OR = 1.60; p value < 0.01) and those who refused testing in the survey (OR = 1.39; p value < 0.05) were more likely to have had CITC compared to their HIV negative counterparts.Although the proportion of individuals ever tested in the informal settlements is similar to the national average, it remains low compared to that of Nairobi province especially among men. Key determinants of HIV testing and counselling include; gender, age, education level, HIV status and marital status. These factors need to be considered in efforts aimed at increasing participation in HIV testing.Although the HIV/AIDS epidemic is in its third decade, many more new infections continue to occur [1]. HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa is predominantly
On existence of nonformal simply connected symplectic manifolds  [PDF]
Ivan K. Babenko,Iskander A. Taimanov
Mathematics , 1998,
Abstract: Examples of nonformal simply connected symplectic manifolds are constructed.
On nonformal simply connected symplectic manifolds  [PDF]
Ivan K. Babenko,Iskander A. Taimanov
Mathematics , 1998,
Abstract: For any $N \geq 5$ nonformal simply connected symplectic manifolds of dimension $2N$ are constructed. This disproves the formality conjecture for simply connected symplectic manifolds which was introduced by Lupton and Oprea.
An Efficient Automated Validation Procedure for Exoplanet Transit Candidates  [PDF]
Timothy D. Morton
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/761/1/6
Abstract: Surveys searching for transiting exoplanets have found many more candidates than they have been able to confirm as true planets. This situation is especially acute with the Kepler survey, which has found over 2300 candidates but has confirmed only 77 planets to date. I present here a general procedure that can quickly be applied to any planet candidate to calculate its false positive probability. This procedure takes into account the period, depth, duration, and shape of the signal; the colors of the target star; arbitrary spectroscopic or imaging follow-up observations; and informed assumptions about the populations and distributions of field stars and multiple-star properties. I also introduce the concept of the "specific occurrence rate," which allows for the calculation of the FPP without relying on an assumed planet radius function. Applying these methods to a sample of known Kepler planets, I demonstrate that many signals can be validated with very limited follow-up observations: in most cases with only a spectrum and an AO image. Additionally, I demonstrate that this procedure can reliably identify false positive signals. Because of the computational efficiency of this analysis, it is feasible to apply it to all Kepler planet candidates in the near future, and it will streamline the follow-up efforts for Kepler and other current and future transit surveys.
Sequence Validation of Candidates for Selectively Important Genes in Sunflower  [PDF]
Mark A. Chapman, Jennifer R. Mandel, John M. Burke
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071941
Abstract: Analyses aimed at identifying genes that have been targeted by past selection provide a powerful means for investigating the molecular basis of adaptive differentiation. In the case of crop plants, such studies have the potential to not only shed light on important evolutionary processes, but also to identify genes of agronomic interest. In this study, we test for evidence of positive selection at the DNA sequence level in a set of candidate genes previously identified in a genome-wide scan for genotypic evidence of selection during the evolution of cultivated sunflower. In the majority of cases, we were able to confirm the effects of selection in shaping diversity at these loci. Notably, the genes that were found to be under selection via our sequence-based analyses were devoid of variation in the cultivated sunflower gene pool. This result confirms a possible strategy for streamlining the search for adaptively-important loci process by pre-screening the derived population to identify the strongest candidates before sequencing them in the ancestral population.
Planck early results. IX. XMM-Newton follow-up for validation of Planck cluster candidates  [PDF]
Planck Collaboration,N. Aghanim,M. Arnaud,M. Ashdown,J. Aumont,C. Baccigalupi,A. Balbi,A. J. Banday,R. B. Barreiro,M. Bartelmann,J. G. Bartlett,E. Battaner,K. Benabed,A. Beno?t,J. -P. Bernard,M. Bersanelli,R. Bhatia,J. J. Bock,A. Bonaldi,J. R. Bond,J. Borrill,F. R. Bouchet,M. L. Brown,M. Bucher,C. Burigana,P. Cabella,J. -F. Cardoso,A. Catalano,L. Cayòn,A. Challinor,A. Chamballu,R. R. Chary,L. Y Chiang,C. Chiang,G. Chon,P. R. Christensen,E. Churazov,D. L. Clements,S. Colafrancesco,S. Colombi,F. Couchot,A. Coulais,B. P. Crill,F. Cuttaia,A. Da Silva,H. Dahle,L. Danese,P. de Bernardis,G. de Gasperis,A. de Rosa,G. de Zotti,J. Delabrouille,J. -M. Delouis,F. -X. Désert,J. M. Diego,K. Dolag,S. Donzelli,O. Doré,U. D?rl,M. Douspis,X. Dupac,G. Efstathiou,T. A. Ensslin,F. Finelli,I. Flores,O. Forni,M. Frailis,E. Franceschi,S. Fromenteau,S. Galeotta,K. Ganga,R. T. Génova-Santos,M. Giard,G. Giardino,Y. Giraud-Héraud,J. González-Nuevo,K. M. Górski,S. Gratton,A. Gregorio,A. Gruppuso,D. Harrison,S. Henrot-Versillé,C. Hernández-Monteagudo,D. Herranz,S. R. Hildebrandt,E. Hivon,M. Hobson,W. A. Holmes,W. Hovest,R. J. Hoyland,K. M. Huffenberger,A. H. Jaffe,W. C. Jones,M. Juvela,E. Keih?nen,R. Keskitalo,T. S. Kisner,R. Kneissl,L. Knox,H. Kurki-Suonio,G. Lagache,J. -M. Lamarre,A. Lasenby,R. J. Laureijs,C. R. Lawrence,S. Leach,R. Leonardi,M. Linden-Vornle,M. López-Caniego,P. M. Lubin,J. -F. Macías-Pérez,C. J. MacTavish,B. Maffei,D. Maino,N. Mandolesi,R. Mann,M. Maris,F. Marleau,E. Martínez-González
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201116460
Abstract: We present the XMM-Newton follow-up for confirmation of Planck cluster candidates. Twenty-five candidates have been observed to date using snapshot (~10 ksec) exposures, ten as part of a pilot programme to sample a low range of signal-to-noise ratios (45 candidates. The sensitivity and spatial resolution of XMM-Newton allows unambiguous discrimination between clusters and false candidates. The 4 false candidates have S/N <= 4.1. A total of 21 candidates are confirmed as extended X-ray sources. Seventeen are single clusters, the majority of which are found to have highly irregular and disturbed morphologies (about ~70%). The remaining four sources are multiple systems, including the unexpected discovery of a supercluster at z=0.45. For 20 sources we are able to derive a redshift estimate from the X-ray Fe K line (albeit of variable quality). The new clusters span the redshift range 0.09 <= z <= 0.54, with a median redshift of z~0.37. A first determination is made of their X-ray properties including the characteristic size, which is used to improve the estimate of the SZ Compton parameter, Y_SZ. The follow-up validation programme has helped to optimise the Planck candidate selection process. It has also provided a preview of the X-ray properties of these newly-discovered clusters, allowing comparison with their SZ properties, and to the X-ray and SZ properties of known clusters observed in the Planck survey. Our results suggest that Planck may have started to reveal a non-negligible population of massive dynamically perturbed objects that is under-represented in X-ray surveys. However, despite their particular properties, these new clusters appear to follow the Y_SZ-Y_X relation established for X-ray selected objects, where Y_X is the product of the gas mass and temperature.
The 'reformation' of counselling  [cached]
G.A. Lotter
In die Skriflig , 2001, DOI: 10.4102/ids.v35i2.562
Abstract: Although the Reformation took place some four hundred years ago, one area in which reformation is really needed today is the counselling of people. Since Wilhelm Wundt started the “study of the mind” in 1879, William James and Sigmund Freud followed and secular psychology gradually has developed to take the “front seat”; hence moving Biblical counselling, which has been practised since the times of the New Testament, to the “back burner”. This development had been going on for the greater part of the 20th century, up to the publication of Competent to Counsel by Jay E. Adams in 1970. In the model for counselling suggested by Adams, the principles of the Reformation of the sixteenth century, Soli Deo Gloria, Soli Scriptura, Soli Fidei, Sola Gratia, etc. were again implemented in assisting and counselling people with personal and interpersonal problems. The epistomological and anthropological approach of secular psychology differs radically from that of Biblical principles, thus necessitating a new “reformation” of counselling. Within this new form counselling, inter alia, implies the following: the Word of God has its rightful place, sin has to be taken seriously and the work of the Holy Spirit should be recognised. In this article it is proposed that the “reformation” of counselling was started by scholars with a Biblical Reformational approach and that this method of counselling followed the parameters of the Reformation of the sixteenth century. This “reformation” developed into a new direction in counselling and still continues today with fascinating new frontiers opening up for Biblical counselling.
Currently Available Biomarkers and Strategies for the Validation of Novel Candidates for Neurochemical Dementia Diagnostics in Alzheimer’s Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment  [PDF]
Piotr Lewczuk
Advances in Geriatrics , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/891780
Abstract: The number of people afflicted with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other types of dementing conditions has grown exponentially in the last decades. This review focuses on the diagnostic role of the classic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of neurochemical dementia diagnostics (NDD) and critically discusses potential strategies for the development and validation of novel potential candidates. In some countries, NDD is already established as a routine diagnostic tool, used for the evaluation of patients with cognitive impairments. On the other hand, preanalytical and technical issues, partly discussed in this paper, prevent NDD from the general acceptance worldwide. Currently, two groups of biomarkers in the CSF are considered in NDD: amyloid β (Aβ) peptides and Tau proteins, including the hyperphosphorylated forms of the latter (pTau). The analyses of these two groups of biomarkers can reveal pathologic alterations as early as twenty years before the onset of clinical symptoms. In mild cognitive impairment (MCI), NDD can reliably predict which individuals are at risk of converting to AD. The roles of biomarkers of amyloid β deposition in the brain tissue (including the CSF concentration of Aβ42) and biomarkers of neurodegeneration (including the CSF concentrations of Tau/pTau proteins) are reflected in the currently proposed diagnostic criteria for AD and MCI. 1. Introduction: Alzheimer’s Disease versus Alzheimer’s Dementia The number of people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other types of dementing conditions has drastically increased over the last decades. Approximately 14 million people in Europe and the USA are currently afflicted by AD, including more than 40% of the population over the age of 85 years [1, 2]. In the USA, AD is the seventh leading cause of death, and the annual costs associated with this disease in 2010 were $172 billion in the USA and over $600 billion worldwide [3]. Moreover, dementing conditions cause a tremendous burden for the relatives of the afflicted patients; in 2010, nearly 15 million family members and other unpaid caregivers provided an estimated 17 billion hours of care for people with AD and other dementias [2]. The discovery of drugs that could treat this devastating condition would undoubtedly represent a breakthrough in medicine. However, to achieve this goal, it is important to have diagnostic tools that are capable of correctly discriminating patients and preferentially in the earliest preclinical stages. It is also important to precisely define what is being discussed; that is, it is important to realize
Validation of Kepler's Multiple Planet Candidates. II: Refined Statistical Framework and Descriptions of Systems of Special Interest  [PDF]
Jack J. Lissauer,Geoffrey W. Marcy,Stephen T. Bryson,Jason F. Rowe,Daniel Jontof-Hutter,Eric Agol,William J. Borucki,Joshua A. Carter,Eric B. Ford,Ronald L. Gilliland,Rea Kolbl,Kimberly M. Star,Jason H. Steffen,Guillermo Torres
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/784/1/44
Abstract: We extend the statistical analysis of Lissauer et al. (2012, ApJ 750, 112), which demonstrates that the overwhelming majority of Kepler candidate multiple transiting systems (multis) represent true transiting planets, and develop therefrom a procedure to validate large numbers of planet candidates in multis as bona fide exoplanets. We show that this statistical framework correctly estimates the abundance of false positives already identified around Kepler targets with multiple sets of transit-like signatures based on their abundance around targets with single sets of transit-like signatures. We estimate the number of multis that represent split systems of one or more planets orbiting each component of a binary star system. We use the high reliability rate for multis to validate more than one dozen particularly interesting multi-planet systems are validated in a companion paper by Rowe et al. (2014, ApJ, this issue). We note that few very short period (P < 1.6 days) planets orbit within multiple transiting planet systems and discuss possible reasons for their absence. There also appears to be a shortage of planets with periods exceeding a few months in multis.
Ethical Principles of Guidance and Counselling
Alokan Funmilola Bosede
International Journal of Tropical Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/ijtmed.2010.50.53
Abstract: The concept of ethical standards in counselling is mentioned to indicate that there are indeed certain ways of doing things counselling ways which are in line with what is expected of a professional person on the job. What a counsellor says and does in counselling should be fully in line in the provision of the law. A practicing counselor is required to see that all his behaviour within the context of counselling functions are in line with the ethical standards of the profession.
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