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Welvarend Holland  [cached]
J. de Vries
BMGN : Low Countries Historical Review , 1987,
Abstract: L. Noordegraaf, Hollands welvaren? Levensstandaard in Holland 1450-1650
Incidence of Coliform in Butter  [PDF]
Ikram-ul-Haq,Nuzhat Inam,Sikander Ali,M.A. Qadeer
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2001,
Abstract: Microbial examination of 50 samples of both packed and unpacked butter was carried out. The samples were examined for total viable count, mould and yeast count, spore formers and coliform. The microbial load in the unpacked sample of butter was highest i.e., 3.8 x 106/gm - 6.6 x l06/gm. The coliform count was found maximum in unpacked sample and one of the packed sample of butter (Kausar brand) i.e., 39/ml. The unpacked sample of butter contained highest number of aerobic spore formers i.e., 280/gm. The anaerobic spore-formers were found absent in 20 samples of butter and the rest contained in the range of 0-170/gm. The yeast cultures were found only in the sample of Lyallpur and Kausar butter. The mould count of these samples ranged from 0-280/gm.
Sensory evaluation of buffalo butter  [cached]
S.A.A. Fernandes,A. de L.S. Ramos,E. M. Ramos,D.V.S. Veras
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2007.s2.1140
Abstract: Butter obtained from buffalo milk was compared with commercial products obtained from cow milk. One buffalo butter and two cow butters were subjected to sensory analysis using non-trained panelists. The acceptance related to sensorial characteristics (color, flavor, and firmness) was evaluated through a 9 point structured hedonic scale varying from “I displeased extremely” to “I liked extremely”. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to evaluate the sensory characteristics and the means were compared by Tukey’s Test at 5% of significance. The buffalo butter received lower scores than the others for all attributes. The greatest difference was observed for color, as the buffalo butter exhibited a white color contrasting with the yellow color of commercial butters, which is the pattern expected by the consumers. For flavor and firmness attributes, the buffalo butter received scores similar to the commercial products. These results show. These results shows that the buffalo’s butter has a good acceptance on local market, and this could be improved through the correction of product’s color, what can be obtained by adding a dye.
Optimizing Formulation of Pistachio Butter Production  [cached]
A SHaker Ardekani,M SHahedi,G Kabir
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2009,
Abstract: Pistachio processing, such as production of pistachio butter, is one of the ways to increase the added value of pistachio. Pistachio butter is a paste containing mainly milled, roasted pistachio kernel and sugar. In this investigation, the effect of two emulsifiers (lecithin and mono-di glycerids) at three levels of 0.0, 1.0, 2.0%, on the oil leakage and the effects of BHT as an antioxidant at three levels of 0.00, 0.01 and 0.02% on the peroxide values of pistachio butter and paste after 4 months storage at 20 °C were studied. Each experiment was performed in triplicates. Rheological and organoleptic tests were performed on the finished products. The results were statistically analyzed by a completely randomized Design and by making comparisons between the means via multiple range Duncan's test (P <0.05). Roasting of the pistachios at 110°C for 15 min was the best condition as determined by taste panelists. Moreover, addition of 15-25% of sugar in butter formula, received the best score by the panelists. The results of organoleptic tests showed that the sample containing lecithin and mono-diglycerides had the least leakage of oil. Based on the results, pistachio butter produced in this investigation received higher score in terms of flavor and texture than industrial pistachio butter in the market. Results also showed that addition of BHT had a significant effect on shelf life of pistachio butter. Rheological experiments showed that pistachio butter produced in this investigation was 1.5 times softer than its industrial counterpart. The results indicated that the best formula for production of pistachio butter was 72.99 - 82.99 % roasted pistachio kernels, 15-25 % sugar, 1% lecithin, 1% mono di glyceride and 0.01 % BHT.
Nutritional and Sensory Evaluation of Cashew Nut Butter Produced from Nigeria Cashew
S.O. Ogunwolu,M.A.K. Ogunjobi
Journal of Food Technology , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/jftech.2010.14.17
Abstract: Cashew nut butter recipe of 70, 80 and 90% cashew kernel inclusion was formulated and produced. Nutritional composition of the 3 cashew nut butter and a commercial Peanut butter was determined in terms of nutrient composition. The Nutritional composition of the cashew nut butter increased with the increased inclusion of cashew kernel in the recipe. The protein content of cashew nut butter compared favourably with that of commercial Peanut butter. Also, Magnesium, Phosphorous and Potassium content of 80 and 90% cashew nut butter were significantly higher than that of Peanut butter at p<0.05. Sensory evaluation conducted on the 3 cashew nut butter, with commercial Peanut butter as reference sample, revealed that Aroma and Taste of cashew nut butter were significantly different (p<0.05) from that of Peanut butter. Cashew nut butter of 80% cashew kernel inclusion was more accepted by the panellist than Peanut butter at p<0.05.
MinuteontheLifeandScientificLaborsofAmadeusWilliamGrabau(1870-1946)  [PDF]
WILLIAM,KING,GREGORY
地质学报 , 1947,
Abstract: AmadeusWilliamGrabauwasbornofGermanstockatCedarburgh,Wisconsin,January9,1870.HisgrandfatherwasaprotestantLutheranclergymanandsowashisfather.Attheageoffifteenhewasapprenticedtoabook-binderinBoston.HereceivedhisprofessionalgroundingasageologistandpalaeontologistintheBostonSocietyofNaturalHistory(1890),theMassachusettsInstitute
'1800' Ter discussie. Een repliek  [cached]
W.W. Mijnhardt
BMGN : Low Countries Historical Review , 2002,
Abstract: 1800 W.W. Mijnhardt In '1800 a reply' the various reviews of Blauwdrukken vooreen samenleving [Blueprints for living together] are dealt with. The most interesting criticism was put forward by Frank Ankersmit. According to him, Dutch intellectual culture after 1750 failed to make the transition to intellectual modernity. The Republic's literati remained prisoners of the Cartesian culture that in the 17th century had been responsible for their central position in the cosmopolitan Republic of Letters. This reply contends that the opposition of a unified intellectual Europe on the road to modernity versus a unified Republic that was intellectually backward-looking does not do justice to the cosmopolitan character of European culture. In Blauwdrukken it is argued that in the 18th century differences between national cultures were slight and that European authors (including the Dutch) shared a common vocabulary and a common set of intellectual instruments. What made the Dutch stand out was that their problems differed from those in surrounding aristocratic and monarchical countries. As a result, most solutions debated in these countries did not fit the problems of the Republic. The Republic had to beat out its own path to modernity. It not only did so in the field of intellectual culture, but also in the areas of politics, economics and the arts.
Keeping the quality of cows’ butter by γ-irradiation
Badr, H. M.,Rady, A. H.
Grasas y Aceites , 2003,
Abstract: This investigation aims to study the use of gamma irradiation for keeping the quality of cowsa€ butter. Fresh butter samples were exposed to gamma irradiation at doses of 0, 2.5 and 5 kGy followed by refrigerated storage and the effects of these treatments on the microbiological aspects and lipid characteristics of butter samples were studied. Moreover, fatty acid profiles and unsaponifiable matter constituents were determined by gas chromatographic analysis, while the stability of butter was determined by rancimat. The results indicated that gamma irradiation at 2.5 kGy dose reduced the counts of total bacteria, lipolytic bacteria, coliforms, molds and yeasts, however, these counts gradually increased during cold storage. Also irradiation at 5 kGy dose greatly reduced the total bacterial count which gradually increased upon storage, while completely eliminated the other determined microorganisms. Irradiation treatments increased the acid value and peroxide value of butter, while the iodine number was not altered. Moreover, gas chromatographic analysis showed that gamma irradiation slightly increased the total volatile fatty acids, total saturated fatty acids and total hydrocarbons, while slightly decreased the total unsaturated fatty acids and total sterols. In addition, irradiation of butter decreased its stability as determined by rancimat and upon storage of both irradiated and non irradiated butter samples, the acid value gradually increased, while a flexuous changes in the peroxide value were observed. The present study proved that 2.5 and 5 kGy gamma irradiation doses could keep the quality of cowsa€ butter and increased its shelf life at 4 ±1 oC for 8 and 12 weeks as compared to 4 weeks for non irradiated butter (based on the visual appearance of mold growth on the surface of samples) without any effects on its sensory properties. En esta investigación se estudió el uso de la radiación gamma para mantener la calidad de la mantequilla de vaca. Muestras de mantequilla fresca fueron expuestas a diferentes dosis de radiación gamma (0, 2.5 y 5 kGy) y guardadas en frío. Se determinaron parámetros microbiológicos y lipídicos, incluyendo el análisis de ácidos grasos y constituyentes del insaponificable mediante cromatografía gaseosa, y la estabilidad de la mantequilla por rancimat. Los resultados indicaron que la radiación gamma a la dosis de 2.5 kGy reducía el número total de bacterias, bacterias lipolíticas, coliformes, hongos y levaduras, aunque la recuperación era gradual con el tiempo de almacenamiento. A la dosis de 5 kGy, el efecto sobre el núme
Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Butter and Kaymak in Afyonkarahisar, Turkey
Sait Bulut,Levent Akkaya,Veli Gok,Muhsin Konuk
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2010.2797.2801
Abstract: Kaymak and butter are traditionally produced from cream of cow or buffalo milk and consumed as Turkish dairy products. About 16 Organochlorine Pesticide (OCP) residues in kaymak and butter marketed in Afyonkarahisar province of Turkey were analyzed by gas chromatography technique. The results showed that kaymak and butter samples were contaminated with 13 and 15 OCPs, respectively. The amount of total OCPs was determined as 672.46 ng g-1 in kaymak and 308.95 ng g-1 in butter samples. The gas chromatography results indicated that three OCPs [(Beta-HCH (90.01 ng g-1), Aldrin (528.04 ng g-1 ) and Endrin (7.31 ng g-1 )] in kaymak and five OCPs [(Beta-HCH (214.18 ng g-1 ), Heptachlor (10.38 ng g-1 ), Aldrin (12.34 ng g-1 ), Dieldrin (12.69 ng g-1) and Endosulfan Sulfate (8.08 ng g-1 )] in butter were found to exceed the accepted level set by the EU Codex. Overall, OCP residues of kaymak and butter could be a potential risk for public health due to their extensive consumption.
Quantity of cholesterol in butter from Zagreb market  [cached]
?eljka Cvrtila,Bela Njari,Davorin Ba?uli?,Mirza Had?iosmanovi?
Mljekarstvo , 2001,
Abstract: In this article the quantity of cholesterol in butter - a representative of dairy products with known high quantity of milk fat, is determined. The results show that the quantity of milk fats for the butter samples from domestic production (n=17) was 83.9 %, and from the industrial production (n=5) 85.2 %. Average cholesterol quantities, in before mentioned samples, were 227 mg/100g or 22 mg of cholesterol per 100 g of sample. The results show that the increase of milk fats does not strictly influence cholesterol increase in the individual butter sample.
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