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The Effects of Self-esteem, Age and Gender on the Speaking Skills of Intermediate University EFL Learners
Bahareh Koosha,Saeed Ketabi,Zohreh Kassaian
Theory and Practice in Language Studies , 2011, DOI: 10.4304/tpls.1.10.1328-1337
Abstract: This study aimed at investigating the relationship between self-esteem, age and gender on the one hand and speaking skills on the other hand. For this purpose, based on an OPT test twenty intermediate Persian learners of English were selected from among undergraduate EFL students studying towards a B.A. in teaching English as a foreign language at Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch. Using a modified version of Farhady, et. al.’s scale (1995), measuring the five subskills of vocabulary, structure, pronunciation, fluency and comprehensibility, two raters evaluated the speaking ability of the participants at the end of the required course (Oral Production of Short Stories). The Sorensen’s (2005) questionnaire for measuring self-esteem containing 50 items was also administered to the participants. The result showed a significant relationship between self-esteem and speaking skill with fluency exerting the most influence. There was also a reverse relationship between age and speaking skills. Concerning the relationship between gender and speaking skills, no statistically significant association was found. The study could have implications for English language teachers, learners and text book writers.
Self-assessment: an alternative method of assessing speaking skills  [cached]
Ekaterini Chalkia
Research Papers in Language Teaching and Learning , 2012,
Abstract: The present study focuses on self-assessment as an alternative method of assessing the speaking skills of a group of sixth graders of a Greek State Primary School. The paper consists of two parts. In the first part, traditional and alternative assessment approaches are compared and a literature review on self-assessment is presented. In the second part the methodology and the findings of the study are presented. The study was carried out by means of a questionnaire and observation notes. This was done in order to draw conclusions on the benefits of self-assessment, the difficulties students faced while carrying out self-assessment as well as to reveal the extent to which students improved their speaking skills after being involved in self-assessment. The findings revealed that the students were positive towards self-assessment. Although self-assessment was of limited duration, it turned out to be a worthwhile activity as it fostered motivation and sensitized the students to take a more active role in the learning process. It also enabled them to notice their strengths and weaknesses and improve their speaking skills. The study also revealed the practical difficulties the students faced in carrying out their self-assessment. Finally, the study concludes with recommendations for further research into this specific assessment method.
Environmentally Initiated, Self-Confirming Alienation in the Workplace  [PDF]
Laura Riolli, Victor Savicki
Open Journal of Depression (OJD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojd.2014.34020
Abstract: Employees face an increasing number of stressors that can originate from the actual performance of their duties, from the relationships with fellow workers and supervisors, and from organizational structures and expectations which accumulated over time results on burnout which contains the factor of depersonalization/cynicism. This conceptual paper focuses on an insidious pattern of behavior that evolves from chronic stress in the workplace into a pattern of ongoing behavior that increases worker alienation from others and perpetuates itself through self-confirming perceptions and actions. We argue that depersonalization/cynicism needs to be addressed at the organizational and individual level.
The Effects of Self-Focused Attention on Mood: Differences of Self-Aspect Valence while Self-Focusing  [PDF]
Rie Tabuchi, Asami Yamazaki, Megumi Oikawa
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2017.89093
Abstract: Self-focused attention is a primary risk factor for depression in adolescents. Previous studies have suggested that sustained self-focus ultimately leads to depression. However, in recent years, it has been suggested that focusing on all aspects of the self, both positive and negative, has a positive effect on mental health. Hence, in this study, we aimed to explore adaptive self-focusing and examined the effects on mood following manipulation of the self-aspect (i.e., both positive and negative aspects of self, only positive, and only negative). Eighty-eight Japanese undergraduate and graduate students participated in the experiment. Results suggest that focusing on both positive and negative aspects of the self does not amplify depressed mood. Furthermore, this type of self-focus also does not decrease positive mood, and exhibits the same adaptive effects on mood as focusing only on positive aspects of the self.
A Preliminary Research on Self-Initiated Expatriation as Compared to Assigned Expatriation
Mo HU,Jian-ming XIA
Canadian Social Science , 2010,
Abstract: The ever changing complexity of global staffing calls for a fundamental reassessment of international assignment, among which self-initiated expatriation is one of the burgeoning patterns. This paper discusses the basic characteristics of self-initiated expatriates compared with those who known as assigned expatriates, and finds out that the new born group of expatriates not only differ with those assigned expatriates in the visible, or called the “outside” part, as the technical skill set, career boundary, career stages, financial support, and time boundary, etc; but more important, the inherent, or called the “inner” part, as for motivation, information focus and value concern, and so on. Moreover, it reveals the so far neglected cross-cultural adjustment abilities of SIE and gives advice for human resource management practice. Keywords: Expatriation; Self-initiated expatriates; Assigned expatriates Résumé: La complexité du personnel global est en constante évolution et elle exige une réévaluation fondamentale de l’affectation internationale, dont l'expatriation auto-initiée est l'un des modèles en plein essor. Cet article examine les caractéristiques de base des expatriés auto-initiés par rapport à ceux qui sont connus sous le nom des expatriés affectés, et découvre que le nouveau groupe des expatriés diffèrent avec des expatriés affectés non seulement dans le visible, ou la partie extérieure autrement dit, comme compétences techniques définies, contraintes de carrière, étapes de carrière, soutien financier et limite de temps, etc, mais ce qui est plus important, c’est l’inhérent, ou sous l'appellation la partie interne , comme motivation, information ciblée, conception des valeurs, et ainsi de suite. En outre, il révèle les capacités de l'adaptation interculturelle des expartriés auto-initiés, ce qui est pour lontemps négligé et donne des conseils pour la pratique de gestion des ressources humaines. Mots-clés: Expatriation; expatriés auto-initiés; expatriés affectés
Self-Initiated Expatriates: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Professional Female Expatriates
Ceili Fitzgerald,Liza Howe-Walsh
International Journal of Business and Management , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v3n10p156
Abstract: This study is an original piece of work that offers the opportunity to ascertain and comprehend the experiences of professional female self-initiated expatriates in the Cayman Islands, and presents a valuable insight into what is now an important dimension of international careers and the contexts within which they evolve. Analysis and interpretation of data was achieved through use of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) a distinctive approach to conducting qualitative research that is concerned with understanding lived experiences. Findings suggest that several contributory factors exist in influencing the female expatriates’ decision to expatriate and that they maintained positive perceptions of the effects their overseas experience would bring to their career prospects. Findings also suggest that while gender discrimination was not commonly experienced, discrimination because of their expatriate identity was.
An Analysis Of Self-Inflicting Violence In The English-Speaking Caribbean  [PDF]
Tazhmoye V Crawford
Arts and Social Sciences Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Injuries including those that are self-inflicted results in 12% of the world’s burden of disease. In the case of attempted suicide, this attracts globaldisability adjusted life years lost (11%) throughout the World, while in the Caribbean, potential years of life lost represents 27%. These aremanifested in the form of (i) microfracture of vertebrae; (ii) echimosis (from asphyxiation); (iii) long-term developmental, reproductive andsystemic effects (from poisoning); inter alia. The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of self-inflicting violence on the well-being ofindividuals in the English-Speaking Caribbean. Information was obtained via field research (convenience and snowball sampling), police statisticsusing the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) 17.0 to analyze the data. Self-inflicting violence in the form of attempted suicide has shownconstant increase over the period 2005 (N=121) to 2006 (N=134), but a slight decline in 2007 (N=133). Attempted suicide was significantlydominant among female than male, especially those within the 10-44 age cohort. Males were more likely to fail at attempted suicide than theirfemale counterparts were over the period 2003-2007 (male = 225, female = 38). The method of suicide most practiced in Jamaica over the period2003-2008 was hanging, followed by shooting, poisoning and drowning. The least practiced methods were jumping and electrocution. In 2008,causes of such suicide methods were as a result of depression (19.1%), domestic matters (10.6%), mental disorder (8.5%), murder (2.1%), andunknown (59.6%). Self-inflicting violence (commonly drug overdose, cutting, hanging, poisoning, shooting) bears serious socio-medical implicationsand has economic impact on both individuals and states.
Effects of Immediate Repetition in L2 Speaking Tasks: A Focused Study  [cached]
Gavin Xiaoyue Bei
English Language Teaching , 2013, DOI: 10.5539/elt.v6n1p11
Abstract: This paper reports on a focused investigation into the immediate effects of oral narrative task repetition by two adult EFL learners of intermediate and high proficiency. Two participants performed a narrative speaking task after watching a cartoon video clip and repeated their performance three times, followed by a retrospective report in an interview. The results showed that repetition of narrative tasks increased fluency and accuracy, while complexity was the least sensitive to the practice effect. At the same time, it was found that the learners had generally correct self-perception of their performances, which was the interaction of enhanced repeated performance, fatigue, and their proficiency levels.
Self quenching streamer mode in quenching gases initiated by alpha particles  [PDF]
Yu. I. Davydov,R. Openshaw
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1109/TNS.2009.2029104
Abstract: The transition from a proportional to a self quenching streamer mode, as a function of track length and angle, was investigated in a single wire chamber filled with either pure DME or isobutane. The chamber was irradiated with $^{241}$Am alpha particles. An investigation of multistreamer events in DME due to alpha particles entering the chamber at 20$^\circ$ with track length 4 mm gave an estimate of a dead zone, defined as the product of dead length and dead time, to be less than 0.1 $\mu$s$\cdot$cm. This value is 3 orders of magnitude less than those observed by other groups for noble gases based mixtures. No second streamers were observed with pure isobutane for similar tracks.
Impact of “Body Language and Public Speaking” Training on Physical Education Trainees’ Perceptions Self-Efficacy Pedagoguique  [PDF]
Aymen Hawani, Hsan Melki, Maher Mrayeh, Mohamed Sami Bouzid, Nizar Souissi, Moez Mrabet
Creative Education (CE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2016.714188
Abstract: This study measures the impact of additional training in communication (Body Language and Public Speaking) on the sense of self-efficacy trainee teachers of physical education during the preparation internship working life. An experimental group that received additional theoretical and practical training in the classroom communication was compared to a control group that followed the initial training course. Two measures of this sentiment were taken at different times using the questionnaire “Perceptions of self-efficacy of teachers (PAE)” cited by Crahay & Laduron (2009). This device allows to apprehend two dimensions: the perception of overall effectiveness and perceived self-efficacy. The analysis provides students who have received training in Body Language and Public Speaking to express a sense of greater efficiency than those who have received usual initial training.
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