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CHEMICAL ECOLOGY OF MARINE CYANOBACTERIAL SECONDARY METABOLITES: A MINI-REVIEW  [cached]
Lik Tong Tan* and Beverly Pi Lee Goh*
Journal of Coastal Development , 2009,
Abstract: More than 300 nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites have been reported from the procaryotic marinecyanobacteria. A majority of these compounds are of the polypeptide or mixed polyketide-polypeptidestructural class and they are a potential source of novel pharmaceuticals. In spite of the chemical richnessof marine cyanobacteria, not much is known regarding their ecological functions. To date only a handful ofmarine cyanobacterial compounds have been examined for their involvement in predator-prey interactions.This mini-review surveys the various chemical ecology studies conducted on marine cyanobacterialcompounds. From these ecological studies, many marine cyanobacterial compounds are known to deterfeeding by several species of marine predators. Such chemical defense may be crucial in maintaining thepopulation of marine cyanobacterial bloom in nature. In addition, a series of ecological studies from ourlaboratory revealed the anti-settlement properties of a number of benthic marine cyanobacterialcompounds. These studies suggested marine cyanobacteria as a potential source of natural antifoulants forthe control of fouling organisms.
Secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms
KELECOM, ALPHONSE;
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0001-37652002000100012
Abstract: after 40 years of intensive research, chemistry of marine natural products has become a mature field. since 1995, there are signals of decreased interest in the search of new metabolites from traditional sources such as macroalgae and octocorals, and the number of annual reports on marine sponges stabilized. on the contrary, metabolites from microorganisms is a rapidly growing field, due, at least in part, to the suspicion that a number of metabolites obtained from algae and invertebrates may be produced by associated microorganisms. studies are concerned with bacteria and fungi, isolated from seawater, sediments, algae, fish and mainly from marine invertebrates such as sponges, mollusks, tunicates, coelenterates and crustaceans. although it is still to early to define tendencies, it may be stated that the metabolites from microorganisms are in most cases quite different from those produced by the invertebrate hosts. nitrogenated metabolites predominate over acetate derivatives, and terpenes are uncommon. among the latter, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and carotenes have been isolated; among nitrogenated metabolites, amides, cyclic peptides and indole alkaloids predominate.
Secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms  [cached]
KELECOM ALPHONSE
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências , 2002,
Abstract: After 40 years of intensive research, chemistry of marine natural products has become a mature field. Since 1995, there are signals of decreased interest in the search of new metabolites from traditional sources such as macroalgae and octocorals, and the number of annual reports on marine sponges stabilized. On the contrary, metabolites from microorganisms is a rapidly growing field, due, at least in part, to the suspicion that a number of metabolites obtained from algae and invertebrates may be produced by associated microorganisms. Studies are concerned with bacteria and fungi, isolated from seawater, sediments, algae, fish and mainly from marine invertebrates such as sponges, mollusks, tunicates, coelenterates and crustaceans. Although it is still to early to define tendencies, it may be stated that the metabolites from microorganisms are in most cases quite different from those produced by the invertebrate hosts. Nitrogenated metabolites predominate over acetate derivatives, and terpenes are uncommon. Among the latter, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and carotenes have been isolated; among nitrogenated metabolites, amides, cyclic peptides and indole alkaloids predominate.
SECONDARY METABOLITES FROM MARINE PENICILLIUM BREVICOMPACTUM
ROVIROSA,JUANA; DIAZ-MARRERO,ANA; DARIAS,JOSE; PAINEMAL,KARIN; SAN MARTIN,AURELIO;
Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society , 2006, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-97072006000100004
Abstract: in a screening of basidiomycete cultures isolated from marine invertebrates collected along the chilean coastline for the production of antibiotics we identified a penicillium brevicompactum strain as a producer of metabolites inhibiting the growth of bacteria and fungi. bioactivity guided purification resulted in the isolation of four known metabolites. their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods
SECONDARY METABOLITES FROM MARINE PENICILLIUM BREVICOMPACTUM  [cached]
JUANA ROVIROSA,ANA DIAZ-MARRERO,JOSE DARIAS,KARIN PAINEMAL
Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society , 2006,
Abstract: In a screening of Basidiomycete cultures isolated from marine invertebrates collected along the Chilean coastline for the production of antibiotics we identified a Penicillium brevicompactum strain as a producer of metabolites inhibiting the growth of bacteria and fungi. Bioactivity guided purification resulted in the isolation of four known metabolites. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods
Application of chemical ecology in controlling marine fouling organisms
化学生态学在海洋污损生物防除中的应用

FANG Fang,YAN Tao,LIU Qing,
方芳
,严涛 刘庆

应用生态学报 , 2005,
Abstract: Many marine organisms can produce secondary metabolites beneficial to the protection of marine environments against fouling,and thus,applying chemo-ecological methods to extract the natural antifoulants from marine organisms to resolve the problems relevant to marine fouling is a new thinking in resent years.Its aim is to search for high efficient and non-toxic antifoulants to replace the existing chemically synthetic ones which are unfortunately found to have widespread toxic effects on marine environment.Although we know few about the antifouling mechanisms of secondary metabolites,many natural products have been proved to have antifouling activity.Therefore,basic and applied researches on the ecological roles of these natural compounds,their action mechanisms,coating compatibility,controlled release,and field test are required in the future.
Chemical Screening Method for the Rapid Identification of Microbial Sources of Marine Invertebrate-Associated Metabolites  [PDF]
Fabrice Berrue,Sydnor T. Withers,Brad Haltli,Jo Withers,Russell G. Kerr
Marine Drugs , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/md9030369
Abstract: Marine invertebrates have proven to be a rich source of secondary metabolites. The growing recognition that marine microorganisms associated with invertebrate hosts are involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites offers new alternatives for the discovery and development of marine natural products. However, the discovery of microorganisms producing secondary metabolites previously attributed to an invertebrate host poses a significant challenge. This study describes an efficient chemical screening method utilizing a 96-well plate-based bacterial cultivation strategy to identify and isolate microbial producers of marine invertebrate-associated metabolites.
Production of Bioactive Secondary Metabolites by Marine Vibrionaceae  [PDF]
Maria Mansson,Lone Gram,Thomas O. Larsen
Marine Drugs , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/md9091440
Abstract: Bacteria belonging to the Vibrionaceae family are widespread in the marine environment. Today, 128 species of vibrios are known. Several of them are infamous for their pathogenicity or symbiotic relationships. Despite their ability to interact with eukaryotes, the vibrios are greatly underexplored for their ability to produce bioactive secondary metabolites and studies have been limited to only a few species. Most of the compounds isolated from vibrios so far are non-ribosomal peptides or hybrids thereof, with examples of N-containing compounds produced independent of nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS). Though covering a limited chemical space, vibrios produce compounds with attractive biological activities, including antibacterial, anticancer, and antivirulence activities. This review highlights some of the most interesting structures from this group of bacteria. Many compounds found in vibrios have also been isolated from other distantly related bacteria. This cosmopolitan occurrence of metabolites indicates a high incidence of horizontal gene transfer, which raises interesting questions concerning the ecological function of some of these molecules. This account underlines the pending potential for exploring new bacterial sources of bioactive compounds and the challenges related to their investigation.
Diversity of Secondary Metabolites from Marine Bacillus Species: Chemistry and Biological Activity  [PDF]
Muhammad Abdul Mojid Mondol,Hee Jae Shin,Mohammad Tofazzal Islam
Marine Drugs , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/md11082846
Abstract: Marine Bacillus species produce versatile secondary metabolites including lipopeptides, polypeptides, macrolactones, fatty acids, polyketides, and isocoumarins. These structurally diverse compounds exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, and antialgal activities. Some marine Bacillus strains can detoxify heavy metals through reduction processes and have the ability to produce carotenoids. The present article reviews the chemistry and biological activities of secondary metabolites from marine isolates. Side by side, the potential for application of these novel natural products from marine Bacillus strains as drugs, pesticides, carotenoids, and tools for the bioremediation of heavy metal toxicity are also discussed.
Localization of Secondary Metabolites in Marine Invertebrates: Contribution of MALDI MSI for the Study of Saponins in Cuvierian Tubules of H. forskali  [PDF]
Séverine Van Dyck,Patrick Flammang,Céline Meriaux,David Bonnel,Michel Salzet,Isabelle Fournier,Maxence Wisztorski
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013923
Abstract: Several species of sea cucumbers of the family Holothuriidae possess a particular mechanical defense system called the Cuvierian tubules (Ct). It is also a chemical defense system as triterpene glycosides (saponins) appear to be particularly concentrated in Ct. In the present study, the precise localization of saponins in the Ct of Holothuria forskali is investigated. Classical histochemical labeling using lectin was firstly performed but did not generate any conclusive results. Thus, MALDI mass spectrometry Imaging (MALDI-MSI) was directly applied and completed by statistical multivariate tests. A comparison between the tubules of relaxed and stressed animals was realized.
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