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Bills of exchange and promissory notes – comparative perspective
Ileana VOICA
Juridical Tribune , 2011,
Abstract: his paper presents the legal system for the bills of exchange and promissory notes, and also the similarities and differences between the bills of exchange and promissory notes in the Romanian law and private international law. This article analyzed: procedures for issuing bills of exchange and promissory notes, the essential terms must include bills of exchange and promissory notes, rights and obligations arising from document exchange and the promissory notes, transmission of bills of exchange and promissory note, presentation of bills of exchange and promissory notes for payment in the original or truncation (in electronic format), the law applicable to bills of exchange and promissory notes in international trade law. This article investigates and rules in the new Romanian Civil Code of the aspects of private international law on bills of exchange and promissory notes. The conclusions of this article emphasizes the particular usefulness of these debt securities for the contemporary market economy. The institutionalization of this debt securities circulation represents one of the most important contributions of the commercial law to the progress of modern commercial activity.
Legal Aspects of Electronic Bills of Lading in Shipping Industry
Mohammed Shamim Uddin Khan,Mohammed Shahedul Quader,Tanvir Mohammad Hayder Arif
Asian Journal of Information Technology , 2012,
Abstract: A major portion of global trade transactions is handling of information. Traditional (local or international) trade essentially consists of moving goods and money. This cannot be done without sharing information between all the parties involved in the trade transactions. Paper document represents an old fashion, slow and ineffective system. If information is communicated and transferred on paper, it is needed to transport a lot of paper in addition to the actual information. It is time consuming as well as expensive. For this, there is a strong desire to get rid of papers in trade and the business community wants to utilize modern information technology for the purpose of effective and rational handling of information. At present the global traders use a system known as Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) for transferring their information. EDI is quick as well as efficient system. The shipping industry is expected to get benefit greatly from its adoption, particularly in the areas of bills of lading. Electronic bill of lading has the ability to reduce the time span between ordering, delivering, invoicing and payment system. But existing legislation does not encourage the uptake of this technology. Numerous technical and legal obstacles have slowed the implementation of EDI at various stages. The rapid increase of electronic transactions and the plethora of technologies involved inevitably leads to problems on a global scale with legislation and regulation as because the legislatures’ machinery cannot keep pace with the changes regarding electronic commerce. This paper highlights the legal obstacles to the use of EDI system for electronic bills of lading. It also sheds light on the existing rules, which attempt to facilitate the use of electronic bills of lading. Finally, solutions to the legal problems that may arise from the use of electronic bills of lading are discussed.]
Posting of Graphical Bills: An Analytical Perception of Environmental Pollutions in Nigerian Cities  [PDF]
Emmanuel Bankole Oladumiye, B. A. Ogunlade, F. Kayode Omole
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2017.810070
Abstract: More than ever before, environmental preservation has been a critical issue for the survival of the world’s habitat. An attempt to explore global trends in environmental monitoring using numerous ways based on different techniques is an exercise in the right direction. This is expedient, given the recent overwhelming growing rate of environmental pollution of advertisement graphical bills worldwide. Posting of advertisement graphical bills constitutes one of the biggest threats to man and his environment as it now appears and as we live in an age of growing sensitivity to environmental cleanliness. Pollution of the Nigerian cities through advertisement bills assumes the general term of outdoor advertising ranging from hand-printed signs, posters, painted bulletins and spectaculars. However this paper discusses the trends of posting graphic advertisement bills in Nigerian cities. Its impact on aesthetics, as well as the pollution problems associated with the urban development. The study areas are Abuja, Akure, Ibadan and Lagos. In order to ensure that each unit of the population is represented, random sampling technique was used to get the necessary information from the samples. The findings emphasize the importance of strict control and market regulations in posting of advertisement bill in built environment and eradication of pollution of the environment.
The Amount and Causes Deductions of Bills in Tehran University of Medical Sciences Hospitals
R Safdari,R Sharifian,G saeedi Marjan,N Masoori
Payavard Salamat , 2011,
Abstract: Background and Aim: Annually, large amounts of fees that paid by hospitals will not be reimbursed as deductions by health insurances and takes irreparable financial losses to hospitals. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of deductions imposed on hospital bills of Tehran University of Medical Sciences and their causes related to documentation. Materials and Methods: The present research was a cross-sectional and descriptive study performed in year 2009 on educational hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. All deductions reports related to Medical Services and Social Insurance related to year 2008 was collected from Income Unit of hospitals. The amount of deduction of each hospital was extracted and organized in the form of comparative tables. Data was analysed by descriptive statistics and Excel application. Then, the amount, type and causes of annually deduction of each hospital was determined. Results: Most deductions imposed on inpatient bills have been related to the tests, appliances, medicine, residency, surgeon commission, and anesthesia and for outpatient bills have been related to visit, tests and medicine which most of them have been created due to documentation deficiencies. Conclusion: Most of deductions are due to unfamiliarity of care staff with documentation requirements of insurance organizations. Therefore it is necessary to use a multi-aspect mechanism including education of documentation principles to staff, supervision on record control in the Medical Record Unit and establishment of a committee by university for related activities.
Reflections on Bills of Lading and Silo Receipts used in the South African Futures Market
Sarel F. du Toit
Journal of International Commercial Law and Technology , 2007,
Abstract: South African law, as a mixed jurisdiction, is based on both common law and civil law principles. The legal rules pertaining to the bill of lading illustrate how divergent legal systems are harmonised in South African law. Although neither the bill of lading nor the Safex silo receipt can be regarded as negotiable instruments, both exhibit the characteristics of a document of title. Bulk cargo and grain stored in a silo, however, provide particular difficulties with regard to effecting symbolical delivery of the goods and thus transferring ownership. It is submitted that, despite reservations about construing an attornment in the case of bills of lading in English law, attornment could be employed as a form of delivery, both in the case of grain in mass storage, and where bills of lading and silo receipts are dematerialised.
Explosion bills of materials of products in information systems of a production enterprise Rozwini cia struktury materia owej wyrobów
Marek Tabert
Journal of Agribusiness and Rural Development , 2012,
Abstract: The paper presents algorithms for the listing of information on bills of materials for as-sembled products. Bills of materials were distinguished into explosions: single-level, multi-level and aggregate. Bills of materials were developed using the concepts of the master and slave components. Proposed algorithms for information gathering may be coded in selected programming languages and in this form used in data bases supporting production man-agement processes in industrial enterprises manufacturing assembled products. Application of algorithms was illustrated using an example of a furniture product.
Analysis of access in the Take-Grant model  [PDF]
Denis Brechka
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: The article discribe methods of verifing the conditions of access in computer systems based on Take-Grant protection model.
Evaluating the current equalization grant to counties in Croatia  [PDF]
Mihaela Broni?
Financial Theory and Practice , 2010,
Abstract: This paper assesses the design of the 2005 equalization grant to the counties in Croatia. Since no allocation formula for this grant has ever been publicly disclosed, this paper provides an analysis and explanation of the aforesaid formula. At the time of its introduction, the objective of the equalization grant was to mitigate differences in fiscal capacities among counties, so our work is focused on fiscal capacities and on whether the new formal allocation rule set by the central government follows the predetermined objective in the grant allocation. This article proves our hypothesis that the new equalization grant does not adequately mitigate the differences in fiscal capacities across Croatian counties.
Smart Grid Distribution Management System (SGDMS) for Optimised Electricity Bills  [PDF]
Weixian Li, Chonghao Ng, Thillainathan Logenthiran, Van-Tung Phan, Wai Lok Woo
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2018.68003
Abstract: This paper presents the use of proposed Smart Grid Distribution Management System (SGDMS) for Singapore contestable and non-contestable consumers. The SGDMS is a distributed management system proposed using Multi-Agent System (MAS) technology. This system can optimise the distribution of renewable energy while minimizing electricity bills for consumers. The entire system was developed using Java with the extension of JADE which is an IEEE FIPA compliant multi-agent system platform. This decentralised platform allows agents to interact and communicate using energy sources from different sectors and control them intelligently to minimise the cost of electricity for the consumers. Simulation studies were carried out on the proposed system to show its potential for providing solutions through intelligent distribution techniques and how it influences the cost of electricity.
Factors that influence doctors in the assessment of applicants for disability grant
JM Tumbo
South African Family Practice , 2008,
Abstract: Background: A disability grant is the financial assistance given by the government to South African citizens and bona fide refugees who have debility that results in inability to work. Doctors in state hospitals and clinics are tasked with the duty of assessing applicants for this grant. Ideally, the assessment is done by an institutional committee consisting of a doctor, physiotherapist, social worker, occupational therapist and specialised nurses. However, this is not always the case because of a shortage of personnel, particularly in rural areas. A lack of clear guidelines for the assessment process has led to confusion and differences in the outcomes. This poses major problems for the doctors, as well as the applicants, who often are dependent on the grant for survival. The aim of this study was to explore the factors that influence doctors in the assessment of applicants for a disability grant. Methods: A qualitative study using free attitude interviews was conducted amongst doctors involved in the assessment process in Limpopo province. Content analysis was used to identify themes from the interviews. Results: The assessment process was not entirely objective and was influenced by subjective factors. These included the mood of the doctors, emotions such as anger and sympathy, and feelings of desperation. Perceptions by the doctors regarding abuse of the system, abuse of the grant, the inappropriateness of the task, lack of clear guidelines and the usefulness of the committees were important in decision making. The doctors' personal life experiences were a major determinant of the outcome of the application. Conclusion: The assessment of applicants for a disability grant is a subjective and emotional task. There is need for policy makers to appreciate the difficulties inherent in the current medicalised process. Demedicalisation of certain aspects of disability assessment and other social needs that doctors do not view as a purely clinical functions is necessary. In addition, there is a need for clear, uniform policy on and guidelines for the management of the grant, the role of the doctor has to be defined, healthcare practitioners must be trained in disability assessment, institutional committees should be established and intersectoral initiatives should be encouraged to address issues of poverty and dependence. South African Family Practice Vol. 50 (2) 2008: pp. 65-65c
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