Abstract:
We consider competition of Kondo effect and s-wave superconductivity in heavy fermion and mixed valence superconductors, using the phenomenological approach for the periodic Anderson model. Similar to the well known results for single-impurity Kondo effect in superconductors, we have found principal possibility of a re-entrant regime of the superconducting transition temperature, $T_c$, in heavy fermion superconductors in a narrow range of model parameters and concentration of f-electrons. Suppression of $T_c$ in mixed valence superconductors is much weaker. Our theory has most validity in the low-temperature Fermi liquid regime, without re-entrant behavior of $T_c$. To check its applicability, we performed the fit for the $x$-dependence of $T_c$ in Ce$_{1-x}$La$_x$Ru$_3$Si$_2$ and obtained an excellent agreement with the experimental data, although no re-entrance was found in this case. Other experimental data are discussed in the light of our theoretical analysis. In particular, we compare temperatures of the superconducting transition for some known homologs, i.e., the analog periodic lattice compounds with and without f-elements. For a few pairs of homologs superconductivity exists only in the heavy fermion materials, thus confirming uniqueness of superconductivity mechanisms for the latter. We suggest that for some other compounds the value of $T_c$ may remain of the same order in the two homologs, if superconductivity originates mainly on some light Fermi surface, but induces sizable superconducting gap on another Fermi surface,for which hybridization or other heavy fermion effects are more significant.

Abstract:
The nature of the quantum valence transition is studied in the one-dimensional periodic Anderson model with Coulomb repulsion between f and conduction electrons by the density-matrix renormalization group method. It is found that the first-order valence transition emerges with the quantum critical point and the crossover from the Kondo to the mixed-valence states is strongly stabilized by quantum fluctuation and electron correlation. It is found that the superconducting correlation is developed in the Kondo regime near the sharp valence increase. The origin of the superconductivity is ascribed to the development of the coherent motion of electrons with enhanced valence fluctuation, which results in the enhancement of the charge velocity, but not of the charge compressibility. Statements on the valence transition in connection with Ce metal and Ce compounds are given.

Abstract:
Using the Bethe ansatz technique, the exact eigenstates of the Hamiltonian of the boson-fermion model for mixed-valence systems are constructed. The Bethe ansatz equations are obtained from the periodic boundary conditions.

Abstract:
We study the mixed valence regime of a generalized Anderson impurity model using the bosonization approach. This single impurity problem is defined by the $U=\infty$ Anderson model with an additional density-density interaction, as well as an explicit exchange interaction, between the impurity and conduction electrons. We find three points in the interaction parameter space at which all the correlation functions can be calculated explicitly. These points represent the mixed valence counterparts of the ususal Toulouse point for the Kondo problem, and are appropriately named the Toulouse points of the mixed valence problem. Two of the Toulouse points exhibit the strong coupling, Fermi liquid behavior. The third one shows spin-charge separation; here, the spin-spin correlation functions are Fermi-liquid-like, the charge-charge correlation functions and the single particle Green function have non-Fermi-liquid behaviors, and a pairing correlation function is enhanced compared to the Fermi liquid case. This third Toulouse point describes the novel intermediate mixed valence phase we have previously identified. In deriving these results, we emphasize the importance of keeping track of the anticommutation relation between the fermion fields when the bosonization method is applied to quantum impurity problems.

Abstract:
Based on specific heat and magnetoresistance measurements, we report that a "heavy" electronic state exists below $T \approx$ 20 K in KNi$_2$Se$_2$, with an increased carrier mobility and enhanced effective electronic band mass, $m$* = 6$m_b$ to 18$m_b$. This "heavy" state evolves into superconductivity at $T_c$ = 0.80(1) K. These properties resemble that of a many-body heavy-fermion state, which derives from the hybridization between localized magnetic states and conduction electrons. Yet, no evidence for localized magnetism or magnetic order is found in KNi$_2$Se$_2$ from magnetization measurements or neutron diffraction. Instead, neutron pair-distribution-function analysis reveals the presence of local charge-density-wave distortions that disappear on cooling, an effect opposite to what is typically observed, suggesting that the low-temperature electronic state of KNi$_2$Se$_2$ arises from cooperative Coulomb interactions and proximity to, but avoidance of, charge order.

Abstract:
Motivated by the recent discovery of superconductivity in two dimensional CoO$_2$ layers, we present some possibly useful results of the RVB mean field theory applied to the triangular lattice. Away from half filling, the order parameter is found to be complex, and yields a fully gapped quasiparticle spectrum. The sign of the hopping plays a crucial role in the analysis, and we find that superconductivity is as fragile for one sign as it is robust for the other. Na$_x$CoO$_2\cdot y$H$_2$O is argued to belong to the robust case, by comparing the LDA Fermi surface with an effective tight binding model. The high frequency Hall constant in this system is potentially interesting, since it is pointed out to increase linearly with temperature without saturation for T $>$ T$_{degeneracy}$.

Abstract:
We present a neutron scattering investigation of Ce1-xYxAl3 as a function of chemical pressure, which induces a transition from heavy-fermion behavior in CeAl3 (TK=5 K) to a mixed-valence state at x=0.5 (TK=150 K). The crossover can be modeled accurately on an absolute intensity scale by an increase in the k-f hybridization, Vkf, within the Anderson impurity model. Surprisingly, the principal effect of the increasing Vkf is not to broaden the low-energy components of the dynamic magnetic susceptibility but to transfer spectral weight to high energy.

Abstract:
We use an effective Hamiltonian for two-dimensional Hubbard model including an antiferromagnetic spin-spin coupling term to study recently proposed gossamer superconductivity. We formulate a renormalized mean field theory to approximately take into account the strong correlation effect in the partially projected Gutzwiller wavefucntions. At the half filled, there is a first order phase transition to separate a Mott insulator at large Coulomb repulsion U from a gossamer superconductor at small U. Away from the half filled,the Mott insulator is evolved into an resonating valence bond state, which is adiabatically connected to the gossamer superconductor.

Abstract:
The pressure-dependent relation between Eu valence and lattice structure in model compound EuO is studied with synchrotron-based x-ray spectroscopic and diffraction techniques. Contrary to expectation, a 7% volume collapse at $\approx$ 45 GPa is accompanied by a reentrant Eu valence transition into a $\emph{lower}$ valence state. In addition to highlighting the need for probing both structure and electronic states directly when valence information is sought in mixed-valent systems, the results also show that widely used bond-valence methods fail to quantitatively describe the complex electronic valence behavior of EuO under pressure.

Abstract:
We investigate localized intragap states in mixed-valence bimetal chains in an attempt to encourage further explorations into quasi-one-dimensional halogen-bridged binuclear metal (MMX) complexes. Within a coupled electron-phonon model, soliton and polaron excitations in the two distinct ground states of MMX chains are numerically calculated and compared. Making a continuum-model analysis as well, we reveal their scaling properties with particular emphasis on the analogy between MMX chains and trans-polyacetylene.