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19 May 2011 Kütahya – Simav earthquake and evaluation of existing sample RC buildings according to the TEC-2007 criteria
M. H. Arslan, M. Olgun, M. A. K ro lu, I. H. Erkan, A. K ken,O. Tan
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2013,
Abstract: This study examines the damage caused to reinforced concrete structures by the 2011 earthquake that occurred in Simav, Turkey. The study briefly reports on post-earthquake field observations, tectonic characteristics of the earthquake area, geotechnical characteristics of the field, and seismic characteristics of the earthquake. The main part of the study comprises a field study, material experiments, and performance analyses of two reinforced concrete buildings that survived the earthquake with medium level damage. The building performance was calculated and assessed according to the Turkish Earthquake Code requirements for existing building stock, and recommendations were made based on the findings.
Relation between the rapid evaluation method scores and the damage states of buildings  [PDF]
H. B. Ozmen
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2013, DOI: 10.5194/nhess-13-763-2013
Abstract: A major portion of the existing Turkish building stock consists of seismically deficient buildings, like in many other earthquake-prone developing countries. For the mitigation of the damage before an earthquake, the seismic evaluation of the existing building stock is the first step. However, the great number of buildings to be evaluated is an obstacle for the detailed assessment. Rapid evaluation methods are developed to minimize the need of resources for the evaluation of the buildings in great numbers. In this study, performances of the rapid evaluation methods to estimate seismic damage are investigated by examining the correlation between the rapid evaluation method scores and the quantified damage states after the 19 May 2011 Simav (Turkey) earthquake. A total of 144 reinforced concrete buildings are carefully examined in terms of the properties of structural system, architectural layout, concrete strength, soil conditions and damage state. The correlation of rapid evaluation methods with the observed damage happened to be low. It is concluded that, if the building damage state is determined by the local brittle damages in members, the estimations with the rapid evaluation methods may diverge from the actual scene after an earthquake.
Study of Short Column Behavior Originated from the Level Difference on Sloping Lots during Earthquake (Special Case: Reinforced Concrete Buildings)  [PDF]
Keyvan Ramin, Foroud Mehrabpour
Open Journal of Civil Engineering (OJCE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojce.2014.41003

The disorders originated from architectural design in buildings, show in different forms. One of them is the level difference originated from lot’s slope which affects structures through short column phenomenon. The great stiffness of short columns enables them to absorb large amounts of structural energy. Inattention of some manuals and regulations such as Earthquake regulations to this phenomenon necessitates paying further attention to it. On this basis, the present study employed experimental modeling and numerical modeling for a four-story reinforced concrete building that involves the analysis of simple 2-D frames of varying floor heights and varying number of bays using a very popular software tool STAAD Pro on both a sloping and a flat lot. Also Sap2000 software had been used to show that the displacement of floors is greater for a flat lot building than a sloping lot building. However, the increase in shear was found to be quite greater in short columns compared to common ones and an enormous moment should be tolerated by sloping lot structures. The greater stiffness of the structure was also revealed by non-linear static (Push-Over) analysis. According to the results, short column are required to have more resistant sections and are suggested to be reinforced with more bars. In addition, more steel should be used as stirrups than as longitudinal bars. Also for existing structures, shear capacity of short columns should be retrofitted by FRP, Steel Jacket or other materials.

Structural damages observed in state buildings after Simav/Turkey earthquake occurred on 19 May 2011  [PDF]
Y. S. Tama
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/nhess-12-2709-2012
Abstract: Different levels of damages occurred in state buildings, especially in educational facilities, during the Simav earthquake (ML=5.7) on 19 May 2011. A site survey was carried out in the area after the earthquake, where six state buildings were examined in detail. The results of the survey showed that main reasons for the formation of damages in these buildings are the use of low strength concrete, insufficient reinforcement, inappropriate detailing, and low-quality workmanship. The investigated buildings were also evaluated by P25-rapid assessment method. The method demonstrates that two of the buildings in question are in "high risk band"; the other two fall into "detailed evaluation band", and the rest are in the "low risk band". This figure also matches with the damages observed in the site survey.
Earthquake Response of Reinforced Concrete Frame with Open Ground Storey  [PDF]
J. Prakashvel
Bonfring International Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management Science , 2012, DOI: 10.9756/bijiems.1622
Abstract: Open ground storey buildings have consistently shown poor performance during past earthquakes across the world. For example during 1999 Turkey, 1999 Taiwan and 2003 Algeria earthquakes, a significant number of them have collapsed. For instance, the city of Ahmedabad alone has about 25,000 five-storey buildings and about 1,500 eleven-storey buildings; majority of them have open ground storey. There are huge numbers of such buildings in urban areas of moderate to severe seismic zones of the country. The collapse of more than a hundred reinforced concrete frame buildings with in Ahmedabad (~225km away from epi-centre) during the 2001 Bhuj earthquake has emphasised that such buildings with open ground storey are extremely vulnerable under earthquake shaking. The presence of walls in upper storeys makes them much stiffer than the open ground storey. Still Multi storey reinforced concrete buildings are continuing to be built in India which has open ground storeys. These buildings are not designed as per the earthquake resistant design. It is imperative to know the behaviour of soft storey building to the seismic load for designing various retrofit strategies. Hence it is important to study and understand the response of such buildings and make such buildings earthquake resistant based on the study to prevent their collapse and to save the loss of life and property. Based on the above an attempt is made in this paper to assess the seismic performance of the soft storey reinforced concrete building by shake table test.
Зал зобетонн рамн конструкц для промислових буд вель REINFORCED CONCRETE FRAME CONSTRUCTIONS FOR INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS Железобетонные рамные конструкции для промышленных зданий  [cached]
Valery N. Pershakov,Roman V. Borovsky,Oleksandra O. Gorbenko,Nataliya Y. Vrublevska
Proceedings of National Aviation University , 2009,
Abstract: Проведено огляд анал з досв ду проектування буд вництва одноповерхових промислових буд вель з рамними зал зобетонними конструкц ями. Generalization and the analysis of experience of designing and construction of single-storied industrial buildings from reinforced concrete constructions is lead. Проведен обзор и анализ опыта проектирования и строительства одноэтажных промышленных зданий с рамными железобетонными конструкциями.
Reinforced Concrete Buildings Following NSR-10 vs Quetame Earthquake Registered on Bogotá D.C. Edificios de concreto reforzado siguiendo la NSR-10 vs sismo de Quetame registrado en Bogotá D.C.  [cached]
D M Ruiz,R Jaramillo,C E Riveros,Mauricio Gallego Silva
Ingeniería y Ciencia , 2012,
Abstract: A three dimensional nonlinear dynamic analysis of 6 concrete reinforcedbuildings of 5, 12 and 20 stories, designed according to NSR-10 and seismicresponse zoning for Bogotá 2010 version is presented. These 6 buildings weresubjected to 78 seismic signals of the Quetame earthquake (2008) registeredin 26 stations of the Bogotá’s accelerometer array (RAB). “Piedmont-B” and“Lacustrine-500” absolute acceleration design response spectra from the seismic response zoning of Bogota (2010) were used to design buildings analyzed.Plastic hinges were de ned and assigned to each of the structural elementsof the 6 buildings, and for columns the interaction diagrams were establishedtoo. With these nonlinear parameters, the 6 structures were subject simultaneously to the time history registers North-South, East-West and vertical.For each building and for each seismic register the performance levels, the interstory drifts, roof displacements and base shear demanded were determined.With this information seismic demand maps were plotted for Bogota for eachone of buildings. The results suggest that, buildings designed under the newrules to Bogotá and provisions of NSR-10, develop strong damage level, related to limit states, such as: “llife security” for low-magnitude quake, was theQuetame earthquake, so far, from the design scenario. Se presenta el análisis no lineal dinámico en tres direcciones de 6 edificiosde concreto reforzado de 5, 12 y 20 pisos, dise ados con la NSR-10 yla zonificación de respuesta sísmica de Bogotá del a o 2010. Estos 6 edificios,con planta típica idéntica, fueron sometidos a 78 se ales sísmicas del sismo deQuetame (a o 2008) registradas por 26 estaciones de la red de acelerógrafosde Bogotá (RAB). Para el dise o de los edificios se utilizaron los espectros derespuesta de aceleración absoluta para las zonas: Piedemonte-B y Lacustre-500 de la microzonificación sísmica de Bogotá. Posteriormente, se calcularonlas rótulas plásticas para cada elemento estructural de los 6 edificios, y en elcaso de las columnas, también sus diagramas de interacción. Luego, las edificacion estridimensionales fueron sometidas simultáneamente a los registros contra el tiempo norte-sur, este-oeste y vertical. Para cada edificio sometidoa las se ales de cada estación, se obtuvieron las demandas de deriva, los desplazamientosde la cubierta, el cortante en la base y los niveles de da o segúnestimadores internacionalmente aceptados. Finalmente, se generaron mapasde demandas de deriva y aceleración por edificio en la ciudad de Bogotá D.C.Los resultados sugieren que los edificios
Rockfall vulnerability assessment for reinforced concrete buildings  [PDF]
O. Mavrouli,J. Corominas
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2010, DOI: 10.5194/nhess-10-2055-2010
Abstract: The vulnerability of buildings to the impact of rockfalls is a topic that has recently attracted increasing attention in the scientific literature. The quantification of the vulnerability, when based on empirical or heuristic approaches requires data recorded from historical rockfalls, which are not always available. This is the reason why appropriate alternatives are required. The use of analytical and numerical models can be one of them. In this paper, a methodology is proposed for the analytical evaluation of the vulnerability of reinforced concrete buildings. The vulnerability is included in the risk equation by incorporating the uncertainty of the impact location of the rock block and the subsequent damage level. The output is a weighted vulnerability that ranges from 0 to 1 and expresses the potential damage that a rock block causes to a building in function of its velocity and size. The vulnerability is calculated by the sum of the products of the probability of block impact on each element of the building and its associated damage state, the latter expressed in relative recovery cost terms. The probability of exceeding a specific damage state such as non-structural, local, partial, extensive or total collapse is also important for the quantification of risk and to this purpose, several sets of fragility curves for various rock diameters and increasing velocities have been prepared. An example is shown for the case of a simple reinforced concrete building and impact energies from 0 to 4075 kJ.
Influence of Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall on Multistorey Buildings  [PDF]
Venkata Sairam Kumar.N,Krishna Sai.M.L.N,Satyanarayana.S
International Journal of Engineering Sciences & Research Technology , 2013,
Abstract: This work presents the behavior and change in length of shear wall in buildings varied by increasing equal heights from 3.5m to 28m i.e, ground storey (G) to G+7 keeping thickness of shear wall as constant of 250mm and observing the dimension of shear wall in length only. The study was carried by considering both wind and seismic forces for all the zones and soil types as per IS: 1893(part I):2002 and wind loads as per IS: 875(part III):1987. A total of 96 buildings were analyzed for this work using RESIST software. Buildings with symmetrical dimensions (20mx20m), varying wall length and keeping wall thickness as constant (250mm) the effect of shear wall length, wind drift, wind shear, wind moment, seismic drift, seismic shear, and seismic moment, base moment, base shear are studied and results are presented in graphs with height.
Application of Buckling Restrained Braces for Seismic Strengthening of Irregular Gravity Load Designed Reinforced Concrete Frame Buildings  [cached]
Chandra J.,Warnitchai P.
Civil Engineering Dimension , 2011,
Abstract: Past earthquake disasters have shown that irregular gravity load designed (GLD) reinforced concrete (RC) frame buildings were very vulnerable to strong ground shaking. Many of them collapsed and caused loss of human lives as well as materials. Hence, in order to prevent future disasters, this type of buildings needs to be strengthened against earthquake. This paper presents a case study of an innovative approach for seismic strengthening of a typical six story residential building with a soft/weak first story using buckling restrained braces (BRBs). The seismic performance of the original GLD building and the retrofitted one are compared using three dimensional nonlinear dynamic time history analysis in OpenSees. The analysis results show that the innovative seismic strengthening approach for irregular GLD RC frame buildings using BRBs can significantly reduce maximum story drifts as well as building damages which benefits in reducing the risk of building’s collapse during earthquake.
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