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Protein composition in tofu of corrected quality
Stanojevi? Sla?ana P.,Bara? Miroljub B.,Pe?i? Mirjana B.,Milovanovi? Mirjana M.
Acta Periodica Technologica , 2010, DOI: 10.2298/apt1041077s
Abstract: Soybeans are an inexpensive, high-quality protein source. Soybeans have long been a staple of the human diet in Asia, especially as tofu, which is prepared from soymilk. In this study, tofu was made using a new production method which includes hydrothermal cooking (HTC) and rennin-pepsin coagulant. The effects of the addition of gallic acid to the slurry during tofu processing were studied. Tofu was made from two soybean genotypes: Lana and Balkan. The observed genotypes are characterized by relatively high content of total proteins in flour, from 45.88% to 48.83%. The prepared tofu samples are characterized by extremely high content of total proteins (52.17% - Lana tofu and 56.08% - Balkan tofu). The presence of gallic acid significantly affects the solubility of tofu protein. The applied modifications of traditional procedure of tofu production significantly improved sensory properties of soybean protein products.
Quality and delivery of milk in Slovenia  [cached]
Marjan Jan?ekovi?,Maksimiljan Brus,Lidija Mu?erlin
Mljekarstvo , 2007,
Abstract: Milk production represents the possibility of earning monthly income and assures social security to many farms in Slovenia. In Slovenia the European rules and regulations on the quality of the delivered milk have been introduced, relating to the hygienic quality of milk and the count of somatic cells. The purchase price of the milk depends also on the protein and fat content. The aim of the research was to establish, whether the quality of the delivered milk complies with the prescriptions regulated by the Slovene legislation. The quality of the delivered milk in the area of the entjur agricultural cooperative (AC ) and in the entire area of Slovenia (SLO) has been studied. The bacteriological data in the individual quality classes, the data on the total count of somatic cels and the data on the fat and proteincontents have been analyzed. 36 monthly accounts have been included in statistical processing. It has been established that the delivered milk of the areas in question does not differ in the relevant quality values.
Characterising the Progress of Gelation in Tofu Making with Ohmic Heating  [PDF]
Cheng-Chang Lien, Ching-Hua Ting
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment (JACEN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jacen.2015.42B001

In tofu making by heat treatment, the addition of coagulant ionizes the proteins as a result of heat dissolution and the ionized proteins aggregate with the coagulant to form protein clusters. The electrical conductivity (EC) of the soya milk emulsion varies in response to the progress of gelation. By ohmic heating, the applied current and voltage directly indicate the electrical conductivity of the soya milk emulsion and then indirectly the progress of tofu gelation. In this paper, ultrasonic measurement is adopted to explore the feasibility of using EC as an indicator of tofu gelation. Experiments showed a strong correlation between EC and ultrasonic measurement in characterisation of tofu gelation.

Ohmic Heating for Tofu Making—A Pilot Study  [PDF]
Cheng-Chang Lien, Yu-Chieh Shen, Ching-Hua Ting
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment (JACEN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jacen.2014.32B002

The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between temperature and electrical conductivity of soya milk under ohmic heating in tofu making. The soya milk of 10 Brix was heated to a steady temperature of 90?C. The applied voltage was increased and the temperature rising rate was investigated for adequate heating profiles in tofu making. Experimental results showed that the electrical conductivity of soya milk is proportional to the heating time. The temperature rising rate was increased from 1.46?C to 3.82?C/min as a result of increased voltage. Hence ohmic heating could be an efficient, convenient heating measure in tofu making.

Production and milk quality of Pag sheep  [cached]
Zoran Vuka?inovi?,Neven Antunac,Nata?a Mikulec,Boro Mio?
Mljekarstvo , 2008,
Abstract: eep milk production and processing in last ten years show significant increase in Croatia. Market has recognized the product quality of sheep milk, so today even more number of cheese producers is interested for obtaining the protected geographical indication of products. Because of specific climate conditions on island Pag, as well as specific herbal cover, numerous aromatic plant varieties, milk, i.e. cheese, has specific taste and smell which consumers recognize, search and appreciate. Because of milk production increase and achieving better quality, production regularly controls and chemical composition analyzes and hygiene quality of sheep milk are conducted. In that propose during 2003 and 2004 years, research was carried out, which had for aim to explore milk quality of Pag sheep and to determine influence of paragenetic factors (year - climate) on production, chemical composition (milk fat and proteins content) and hygiene milk quality (number of somatic cells count), in two herds (A and B). Climate characteristics in 2003 and 2004 were different, regarding precipitations quantity and vegetation. Milking capacity control was carried out according to AT method. Chemical composition analyzes and hygiene quality of milk was carried out with infrared spectrometry and fluoro-opto-electronic method. During milking period in 2004, on island Pag, there were considerably more precipitations and due to the fact, vegetation was exuberant, which influenced on bigger total milk production in lactation (P<0.01) regarding to 2003. Average milk fat content (%) in milk was in 2003 on family farm A, higher regarding on family farm B (P<0.01). However, because of higher quantities of produced milk on family farm B, total yield of milk fat (9.43 kg) was higher (P<0.01) regarding to family farm A (7,93 kg). During 2004, differences in milk fat yield were very small and were not significant. Average daily milk quantity was from 689 mL (year 2003) to 940 mL (year 2004) on family farm A, apropos from 840 mL (year 2003) to 850 mL (year 2004) on family farm B. Between individual production features and individual milk quality parameters, significant correlations coefficients were determined. Based on results, it can be concluded that influence of paragenetic factors on individual production features and milk quality was significant.
E. Nurdin,T. Amelia,M. Makin
Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture , 2011,
Abstract: This experiment aimed to observe the effect of herbs (Black Cumin,Curcuma zeodharia,Curcuma mangga, and Curcuma aeruginosa) supplementation on milk yield and milk quality (milk fat, milk protein, milk lactosa and mastitis status) in lactating dairy cows suffering mastitis. Twenty cows in 2nd-4th lactation suspected mastitis subclinical (++) were used in the experiment. Completely randomized design was used in this experiment with 5 treatments (A. Non Herb; B. Black Cumin; C. Curcuma zeodharia; D. Curcuma mangga, and E. Curcuma aeruginosa) with four replicates per treatment. The collected data were analyzed by analysis of variance and difference between the treatment effects was tested by using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results showed that supplementation of herbs significantly increased (P<0.01) milk yield, milk protein, milk lactosa and significantly decreased mastitis status and did not significant affect milk fat.
Hygienic quality of raw milk with regard to legislation  [cached]
Slavko Kirin
Mljekarstvo , 2001,
Abstract: Hygienic quality of raw milk is basic indicator of hygienic conditionduring processing and handling of milk as well as economical valorisation of animal product as a raw material in dairy products manufacture. Thus, total bacterial count in 1 mL of raw milk is used in modern legislation in milk pricing system. Apart from the economical and technological reasons hygienic quality of raw milk is also important from the health safety issue. In this paper microbiological quality legislation, set down by the EU and Croatian directives, are presented. Apart form the total microorganisms number the normative on the somatic cell number in row milk, as one of the quality indicators, are also presented. Pricing system of raw milk with regard to hygienic quality, current legislation especially from the point of view of a new legislation on row milk quality as well as suggestions to faster association into progressive dairy, legislation are listed.
World production and quality of cow's milk  [cached]
Petar Bosni?
Mljekarstvo , 2003,
Abstract: World milk production has a great economical effect being in the function of human food production and nutrition. Milk is obtained from cows, buffalos, sheeps, goats, camels and donkey with cow's milk production dominating. The world milk production in 2000 was 568.480 thousands of tons of all types of milk of which 484.895 thousands tons are cow's milk with a total of 85.30 % of the world milk production. Buffalo's milk production is on the second place with 61.913 thousands of tonnes (10.89 %) production capacity. On the three continents (Europe, North America and Asia) 81.82 % of total cow's milk production is located. Developed countries produce 50 % of total milk production, while higher milk production is forecast for the developing countries. The EU countries participate with 23.72 % in the world milk production and with 55.60 % on the European area. High annual lactation production, under selected cow's milk production, of above 6000 kg is located in developed countries, where annual participation of Israel accounts for over 10000 kg of milk per cow. Commercial milk production of genetics cattle accounts from 80 % to 85 %. Milk quality, with regard to milk fat and proteincontent, in developed countries is above an average value. With the annual milk production of 7000 kg of cow's milk, up to 294 kg of milk fat and 238 kg of protein are produced. Due to milk characteristics as agro-food product, milk and dairy products manufacture and transportation are in details regulated with existing quality standards. 95 % of the EU milk producers fulfil international hygienic rules on milk safety standards (somatic cells, microorganisms). With regard to long term development, until 2030, changes on herd management (outdoor and indoor exposure), between continents, will occur. In 2030, the world milk production is forecast to increase by 64%, with cow's milk production of 765.9 million tonnes.
F. Conte,S. Agosta
Italian Journal of Food Safety , 2008, DOI: 10.4081/ijfs.2008.2.37
Abstract: Today little scientific data have been published endorsing the perception that organic and sustainable production systems will result in improved food quality. Some comparative investigations reveal no major differences between organic milk (OM) and conventional milk (CM); contradictory results on OM require more information of these products. The results on quality and safety of OM and CM are presented here, with the aim to compare the composition and microbiological parameters of productions. The survey did not reveal differences between physical, chemicals and microbiological parameters of samples from OM and from CM. An improvement of hygienic conditions of both kind of examined farms was suggested to the producers and implemented.
Survey on Raw Milk Quality in Kosovo  [PDF]
Hysen Bytyqi, Stefan Bigler, Skender Muji, Ardita Jahja, Urs Zaugg
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.25058
Abstract: In Kosovo, a new regulation on quality standards and grade of fresh milk is valid since January 1, 2007. The regulation was based on the respective EU-regulation and has an ambitious time frame with a transition period of only three years. In order to estimate the impact of this new regulation, a survey on the quality of raw milk delivered to the Kosovar dairies was carried out from January to May 2007. The aim was to get a reliable picture of the current raw milk quality in the dairy channel in Kosovo, to discuss the findings with the relevant actors of the dairy sector and the government, and to draw the necessary conclusions. In total 364 milk samples, from the leading 14 dairies constitute the basis for the statistical analyses of this study. The four most important parameters of raw milk quality: TBC, SCC, FP and AB were analyzed. Regarding TBC, the results show that around 20% of samples meet the Kosovo standard 2008 (< 500,000 CFU/ml) and only around 10% meet the (higher) Kosovo standard 2009 (<100,000 CFU/ml) while for SCC, around 80% of the samples meet the Kosovo standard 2008 (<600,000 cells/ml) and 66% meet the (higher) Kosovo standard 2009 (<400,000 cells/ml). Therefore at the moment the problem of high microbiological content is more prominent than the one of high somatic cell count. Beside this, in one third of the samples, the freezing point is at least questionable. In 2.2% of the samples antibiotics could be proven—a major risk for public health. Raw milk quality in Kosovo still is very poor and must be improved in order the dairy processors be able to produce qualitatively good end products and therefore can compete with imported dairy products or export their products.
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