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Calidad bacteriológica del agua de consumo humano de la zona urbana y rural del municipio de Guatavita, Cundinamarca, Colombia Bacteriological quality of the water for human consumption in urban and rural areas of the municipality of Guatavita, Cundinamarca, Colombia  [cached]
Sara Lilia ávila de Navia,Sandra Mónica Estupi?án Torres
Revista Cubana de Higiene y Epidemiología , 2012,
Abstract: Guatavita es un municipio ubicado en el Departamento de Cundinamarca, Colombia. Posee recursos hídricos como ríos, quebradas, lagunas y nacimientos, que representan un alto porcentaje del agua con que se abastece. El municipio tiene 16 acueductos en funcionamiento, pero solo el que abastece a la población de la zona urbana cuenta con un sistema de tratamiento de agua. En la zona rural existen 14 acueductos con un sistema básico de pretratamiento. Se analizó la calidad bacteriológica del agua de consumo humano de la zona urbana y rural (veredas Corales, Potrero Largo y Carbonera Alta), por medio de los indicadores de contaminación: coliformes totales y Escherichia coli, mediante la técnica de filtración por membrana. El agua de consumo humano de la zona urbana cumplió con los parámetros establecidos en la Resolución 2115 de 2007 del Ministerio de Protección Social, contrario a la zona rural, donde se encontraron recuentos de los indicadores de contaminación fecal, superiores a lo establecido. Por lo tanto, este recurso debe ser considerado como "agua natural", no apta para consumo humano, según el Decreto 1594 de 1984, por lo que debe ser destinada para potabilización bajo un tratamiento convencional. Guatavita is a municipality in the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia. Guatavita has water resources such as rivers, streams, lakes and springs, which provide a large proportion of the water consumed by the population. Sixteen water supply systems are in operation, but only the one supplying the urban area is equipped with water treatment facilities. In the rural area there are 14 aqueducts with a basic pretreatment system. An analysis was made of the bacteriological quality of the water for human consumption in urban and rural areas (districts of Corales, Potrero Largo and Carbonera Alta) based on two contamination indicators: total coliforms and Escherichia coli, using membrane filtration technique. The water for human consumption in the urban area complied with the parameters contained in Resolution 2115/2007 of the Ministry of Social Protection. In the rural area, however, fecal contamination indicators were above the established limits. Therefore, this resource should be viewed as "natural water" not suitable for human consumption, according to Decree 1594/1984, and destined for potabilization by conventional treatment.
Urban displacement and migration in Colombia
Sebastián Albuja,Marcela Ceballos
Forced Migration Review , 2010,
Abstract: In order to improve urban policies and planning for IDPs, migrantsand local communities, it is important to understand forceddisplacement to urban areas in Colombia in the context ofrural-urban migration.
Urban geographic processes of settlements network of Ljig municipality
Matijevi? Dragana
Glasnik Srpskog Geografskog Dru?tva , 2005, DOI: 10.2298/gsgd0502087m
Abstract: Principles of modern development of settlements are taking place under the strong influence of great urban agglomerations. Belgrade and its gravitational role have triggered huge spatial and populational changes with distinctive differences within its metropolitan area. In northern parts of Belgrade functional zone, there are zones of strong concentration of population and economy, as opposed to southern parts, where depopulation and dissection of economy and activities are present. As a part of Belgrade functional area, settlements network of Ljig municipality has been subject to considerable urban-geographic changes. This paper gives the analysis of all changes in settlements network which occurred as a consequence of gravitational impacts of the capital.
PRODUCTIVITY IN TRADITIONALLY DEVELOPED CROPS: THE BLACKBERRIES CASE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF ENVIGADO, ANTIOQUIA-COLOMBIA
López González,Mauricio; Méndez Restrepo,Carlos; Montoya Llano,Lina;
Revista Facultad Nacional de Agronomía, Medellín , 2009,
Abstract: a vast area of the municipality of envigado, antioquia-colombia, is considered a rural zone. in this zone, the districts of perico and pantanillo stand out for their traditional production of blackberry crop. in the past few years, blackberry producers have encountered new major competitors due to elements that have strengthened the competition. factors such as: the technification of crops, urban infrastructure improvements, and the establishment of competing productive chains in adjacent municipalities. nevertheless, despite still being developed with very traditional techniques, the blackberry crop is still profitable for local producers. therefore, the objective of this work is to calculate the actual level of blackberry productivity and to identify some of the principal determinants of said productivity. for this purpose, strategic information from a representative number of blackberry producing farms was collected. the research shows that some factors have become determinant differentiators of blackberry production. among these factors are: the use of inputs, soil qualities and level of associativity.
Urban malaria transmission in Buenaventura, Colombia: entomologic aspects
Olano,Víctor; Carrasquilla,Gabriel; Méndez,Fabián;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 1997, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49891997001200002
Abstract: in recent years, the number of cases of urban malaria in buenaventura, colombia, has increased, rising from 576 in 1987 to 3296 in 1991 and 2017 in 1992. for this reason, an epidemiologic study to identify malaria transmission patterns was carried out in this municipality on colombia?s pacific coast. this article describes the entomologic findings regarding the vectors, their breeding sites, and the behavior of anopheles species during the period from june 1993 to may 1994. of the 469 potential breeding sites identified in the urban area, 28 were positive for anophelines, while in neighboring zones 20 out of 80 potential breeding sites were positive for the immature forms of these mosquitoes. mining excavations, lakes, and commercial fish and crayfish rearing ponds were the places where a. albimanus was most frequently found. for a. nu?eztovari, the breeding sites were rain puddles and aquiculture ponds. a. neivai larvae were collected from bromeliads. mosquitoes were collected both inside and outside houses, and 90% of the collected mosquitoes were identified as a. albimanus. of the female a. albimanus, 54.8% were parous. this species was found to have peak peridomiciliary activity between 6 p.m. and 10 p.m. the highest biting rate outside houses was 7.1 bites per person-hour and was observed during march. it is hoped that this entomologic information will permit the launching of a strong community participation process and the implementation of control measures that are guided by these results.
Urban malaria transmission in Buenaventura, Colombia: entomologic aspects  [cached]
Olano Víctor,Carrasquilla Gabriel,Méndez Fabián
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 1997,
Abstract: In recent years, the number of cases of urban malaria in Buenaventura, Colombia, has increased, rising from 576 in 1987 to 3296 in 1991 and 2017 in 1992. For this reason, an epidemiologic study to identify malaria transmission patterns was carried out in this municipality on Colombia's Pacific coast. This article describes the entomologic findings regarding the vectors, their breeding sites, and the behavior of Anopheles species during the period from June 1993 to May 1994. Of the 469 potential breeding sites identified in the urban area, 28 were positive for anophelines, while in neighboring zones 20 out of 80 potential breeding sites were positive for the immature forms of these mosquitoes. Mining excavations, lakes, and commercial fish and crayfish rearing ponds were the places where A. albimanus was most frequently found. For A. nu eztovari, the breeding sites were rain puddles and aquiculture ponds. A. neivai larvae were collected from bromeliads. Mosquitoes were collected both inside and outside houses, and 90% of the collected mosquitoes were identified as A. albimanus. Of the female A. albimanus, 54.8% were parous. This species was found to have peak peridomiciliary activity between 6 p.m. and 10 p.m. The highest biting rate outside houses was 7.1 bites per person-hour and was observed during March. It is hoped that this entomologic information will permit the launching of a strong community participation process and the implementation of control measures that are guided by these results.
Barriers of access to care in a managed competition model: lessons from Colombia
Ingrid Vargas, María Luisa Vázquez, Amparo Susana Mogollón-Pérez, Jean-Pierre Unger
BMC Health Services Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-10-297
Abstract: An exploratory, descriptive-interpretative qualitative study was carried out, based on case studies of four healthcare networks in rural and urban areas. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted to a three stage theoretical sample: I) cases, II) providers and III) informants: insured and uninsured users (35), health professionals (51), administrative personnel (20), and providers' (18) and insurers' (10) managers. Narrative content analysis was conducted; segmented by cases, informant's groups and themes.Access, particularly to secondary care, is perceived as complex due to four groups of obstacles with synergetic effects: segmented insurance design with insufficient services covered; insurers' managed care and purchasing mechanisms; providers' networks structural and organizational limitations; and, poor living conditions. Insurers' and providers' values based on economic profit permeate all factors. Variations became apparent between the two geographical areas and insurance schemes. In the urban areas barriers related to market functioning predominate, whereas in the rural areas structural deficiencies in health services are linked to insufficient public funding. While financial obstacles are dominant in the subsidized regime, in the contributory scheme supply shortage prevails, related to insufficient private investment.The results show how in the Colombian healthcare system structural and organizational barriers to care access, that are common in developing countries, are widened by both the insurers' use of mechanisms that limit the utilization and the public healthcare providers' change of behavior in a competition environment. They provide evidence to question the promotion of the managed competition model in low and middle-income countries.The managed competition model is one of the reforms promoted in the last few decades in Latin America, in response to the objective to improve equity and efficiency of health systems. It has been characterized
URBAN DEVELOPMENT OF BOTO ANI MUNICIPALITY IN TERMS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT  [PDF]
Nicoleta Delia Vieru,Narcis Paul Vieru
Present Environment and Sustainable Development , 2010,
Abstract: This article wants to examine issues concerning the sustainable character of urban development in Boto ani municipality, very important especially for a own exposed to social exclusion, environmental damage, lands waste or uncontrolled urban extension. The new cohesion policy takes into account the fact that the urban areas are seen as economical engines and as key elements of regional development inside European Union. The fact that 80% of the economical activities are developed in towns imposes a new vision on the role and importance of local authorities, which become partners in regional development. The contemporary period is under the pressure of some important qualitative changes in all social life compartments, with consequences felt in the whole structure of human environment
Municipality Declaration, Urban Imagination and Urban Experience A Case of Putalibazaar and Walling, Syangja, Nepal  [PDF]
Amrit Kumar Bhandari
Himalayan Journal of Sociology and Anthropology , 2014, DOI: 10.3126/hjsa.v6i0.10686
Abstract: Municipalities, which are basically administrative divisions, have been treated as urban entities in Nepal, though most of them lack even the basic urban amenities. Municipality declaration by government can be taken as an effort to foster the process of urbanization in Nepal. On the basis of firsthand qualitative data collected through interviews, observations and focused group discussions conducted in the two municipalities: Putalibazaar and Walling of Syangja District of Western Nepal, this article attempts to highlight the status of urbanization here after 17 years of municipality declaration. This article reveals that local people were out of sorts about how urbanization flourishes in their area due to municipality declaration. It also divulges that local people themselves, municipality offices and other governmental and non-governmental agencies have not been able to make vibrant contribution in the urbanization process. Therefore, this article concludes that the mere act of municipality declaration cannot foster urbanization; thus local people and municipalities offices need to play collective, more responsible, productive and meaningful role to transform the urban imagination into a reality. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/hjsa.v6i0.10686 Himalayan Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.6 2014: 1-21
Prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents of municipality of Floridablanca, Colombia
Edna Magaly Gamboa Delgado,Nahyr López Barbosa,Doris Cristina Quintero Lesmes
MedUNAB , 2007,
Abstract: Objective: To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in school adolescents. Place and date: Floridablanca, Santander, Colombia; second semester of 2005. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study among 195 students aged 11-18 years old from private or public schools. They responded a survey on demographic variables and eating habits. We estimated body mass index to determine association between explanatory variables with each one of interest variables. Results: Global overweight prevalence was 6.7% (95%CI 3.5-11.1) and to obesity 1.0% (95%CI0.1-3.6). Overweight in males was 8.6% (95%CI 3.7-16.2) and in females 4.9% (95%CI 0.1-11.0). Obesity prevalence in males was 2.1% (95%CI 0.2-7.5), whereas in females was 1.9% (IC 95% 0.2-6.9). No significant differences were found. There is association between alcohol consumption and overweight (OR 4,11; 95%CI1.10-15.58; p=0.009). Conclusion. It is necessary to continue doing research on overweight, obesity and their associated factors, with the purpose of raising and executing effective solution strategies that control their incidence and avoid them in earlier ages.
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