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Current Bancroftian Filariasis Elimination on Thailand-Myanmar Border: Public Health Challenges toward Postgenomic MDA Evaluation  [PDF]
Adisak Bhumiratana,Apiradee Intarapuk,Surachart Koyadun,Pannamas Maneekan,Prapa Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp
ISRN Tropical Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/857935
Abstract: From regional and global perspectives, Thailand has progressed toward lymphatic filariasis transmission-free zone in almost entire endemic provinces, being verified by WHO by the end of 2012 after the 5-year implementation of mass drug administration (MDA) with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole as part of the National Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (PELF) (2002–2006) and a 4-year expansion of post-MDA surveillance (2007–2010). However, Thai PELF has been challenging sensitive situations of not only border crossings of local people on Thailand-Myanmar border where focal distribution of forest- and forest fringe-related border bancroftian filariasis (BBF) is caused by nocturnally subperiodic Wuchereria bancrofti in local people living in pockets of endemic villages, but also intense cross-border migrations of Mon and Tanintharyi workers from Myanmar to Thailand who harbor nocturnally periodic W. bancrofti microfilaremic infection causing the emergence of imported bancroftian filariasis (IBF). Thus, this paper discusses the apparent issues and problems pertaining to epidemiological surveillance and postgenomic MDA evaluation for 2010–2020 convalescent BBF and IBF. In particular, the population migration linked to fitness of benzimidazole-resistant W. bancrofti population is a topic of interest in this region whether the resistance is associated with pressure of the MDA 2 drugs and the vulnerabilities epidemiologically observed in complex BBF or IBF settings. 1. Global and Regional Perspectives on Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Life-threatening lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a mosquito-borne parasitic disease caused by two main filarial nematodes: Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi, and to a very lesser extent by Brugia timori. The disease affects about 1.3 billion people in 81 countries and territories in Asia-Pacific, Africa, and Americas; of these, estimated 120 million people are infected (Figure 1) [1]. It is estimated that about 600 million people live in endemic countries in South and East Asia (SEA) region accounting for 60% of global figure. Approximately, 60 million SEA people harboring microfilaremic infections account for a half of globally active LF burden [2]. The infection with either of these parasites in an endemic population can be eliminated as the result of large-scale control, that is, reducing the infection prevalence to the level below transmission threshold or to be considered as no longer public health problem. Thus, this potentially eradicable disease has been addressed as public health problem worldwide as the
Extralymphatic disease due to bancroftian filariasis
Dreyer, G.;Dreyer, P.;Piessens, W.F.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X1999001200003
Abstract: infection with wuchereria bancrofti, brugia malayi, or b. timori not only affects the structure and function of lymphatic vessels but is also associated with extralymphatic pathology and disease. because it is now possible to detect living adult worms by ultrasonography, much emphasis is placed on lymphatic pathology. however, the finding of renal damage in asymptomatic microfilaremic carriers has led to increased recognition of the importance of extralymphatic clinical manifestation in bancroftian filariasis. the authors present a number of clinical syndromes that may be manifestations of extralymphatic filarial disease and discuss possible mechanisms that cause these conditions. the main purpose of this paper is to raise the awareness of students and physicians of the prevalence and the importance of extralymphatic disease in bancroftian filariasis so that it is diagnosed and treated properly and also to alert for the need of additional research in this area.
Extralymphatic disease due to bancroftian filariasis  [cached]
Dreyer G.,Dreyer P.,Piessens W.F.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 1999,
Abstract: Infection with Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, or B. timori not only affects the structure and function of lymphatic vessels but is also associated with extralymphatic pathology and disease. Because it is now possible to detect living adult worms by ultrasonography, much emphasis is placed on lymphatic pathology. However, the finding of renal damage in asymptomatic microfilaremic carriers has led to increased recognition of the importance of extralymphatic clinical manifestation in bancroftian filariasis. The authors present a number of clinical syndromes that may be manifestations of extralymphatic filarial disease and discuss possible mechanisms that cause these conditions. The main purpose of this paper is to raise the awareness of students and physicians of the prevalence and the importance of extralymphatic disease in bancroftian filariasis so that it is diagnosed and treated properly and also to alert for the need of additional research in this area.
Bancroftian Filariasis in the Niger Delta Area of Eastern Nigeria
C.M.U. Ajero,B.E.B. Nwoke,N.J.C. Okolie,H.U. Nwanjo,G. Oze,M.C. Okafor,D. Nwosu,B. Anyaehie,G.C. Uloneme
Research Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: In a study to determine the prevalence and intensity of Bancroftian Filariasis (BF) in the Niger Delta area of Eastern Nigeria, 3,400 people in 34 villages were examined. Four hundred and twenty one (12.38%) subjects had Wuchereria bancrofti microfilarIae in their blood. There was a significant difference in the prevalence based on the villages sampled (p< 0.05). More males (15.0%) were infected than females (9.10%) with the female prevalence significantly lower in most of the villages (p< 0.05). The prevalence was age dependent with a progressive rise and decline after 59 years. The intensity of the microfilariae among infected subjects showed a generally low microfilarial count with a mean microfilariae load of 5.5.
The Impact of Repeated Rounds of Mass Drug Administration with Diethylcarbamazine Plus Albendazole on Bancroftian Filariasis in Papua New Guinea  [PDF]
Gary J. Weil ,Will Kastens,Melinda Susapu,Sandra J. Laney,Steven A. Williams,Christopher L. King,James W. Kazura,Moses J. Bockarie
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000344
Abstract: Background This study employed various monitoring methods to assess the impact of repeated rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) on bancroftian filariasis in Papua New Guinea, which has the largest filariasis problem in the Pacific region. Methodology/Principal Findings Residents of rural villages near Madang were studied prior to and one year after each of three rounds of MDA with diethylcarbamazine plus albendazole administered per World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. The mean MDA compliance rate was 72.9%. Three rounds of MDA decreased microfilaremia rates (Mf, 1 ml night blood by filter) from 18.6% pre-MDA to 1.3% after the third MDA (a 94% decrease). Mf clearance rates in infected persons were 71%, 90.7%, and 98.1% after 1, 2, and 3 rounds of MDA. Rates of filarial antigenemia assessed by card test (a marker for adult worm infection) decreased from 47.5% to 17.1% (a 64% decrease) after 3 rounds of MDA. The filarial antibody rate (IgG4 antibodies to Bm14, an indicator of filarial infection status and/or exposure to mosquito-borne infective larvae) decreased from 59.3% to 25.1% (a 54.6% decrease). Mf, antigen, and antibody rates decreased more rapidly in children <11 years of age (by 100%, 84.2%, and 76.8%, respectively) relative to older individuals, perhaps reflecting their lighter infections and shorter durations of exposure/infection prior to MDA. Incidence rates for microfilaremia, filarial antigenemia, and antifilarial antibodies also decreased significantly after MDA. Filarial DNA rates in Anopheles punctulatus mosquitoes that had recently taken a blood meal decreased from 15.1% to 1.0% (a 92.3% decrease). Conclusions/Significance MDA had dramatic effects on all filariasis parameters in the study area and also reduced incidence rates. Follow-up studies will be needed to determine whether residual infection rates in residents of these villages are sufficient to support sustained transmission by the An. punctulatus vector. Lymphatic filariasis elimination should be feasible in Papua New Guinea if MDA can be effectively delivered to endemic populations.
Bancroftian filariasis in an endemic area of Brazil: differences between genders during puberty
Braga, Cynthia;Dourado, Inês;Ximenes, Ricardo;Miranda, Janaína;Alexander, Neal;
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0037-86822005000300003
Abstract: gender differences in susceptibility to infectious diseases have been observed in various studies. a survey was performed in a bancroftian filariasis endemic area in the city of olinda, brazil. all residents aged 5 years or older were examined by thick blood film. people aged 9 to 16 years were interviewed and also tested for filarial antigenaemia. data were analyzed by contingency table methods and regression models. the risk of microfilaraemia for males was significantly higher. among those aged 9 to 16 years, the analysis of gender and filariasis by age showed that boys from 15 to 16 years had a higher risk of infection than girls. no association was found between menarche and filariasis in girls. the data suggest that variations between gender in filariasis could result, at least in part, from an increase in susceptibility of men. this epidemiologic feature needs to be considered while formulating elimination plans.
Bancroftian filariasis in an endemic area of Brazil: differences between genders during puberty
Braga Cynthia,Dourado Inês,Ximenes Ricardo,Miranda Janaína
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical , 2005,
Abstract: Gender differences in susceptibility to infectious diseases have been observed in various studies. A survey was performed in a bancroftian filariasis endemic area in the city of Olinda, Brazil. All residents aged 5 years or older were examined by thick blood film. People aged 9 to 16 years were interviewed and also tested for filarial antigenaemia. Data were analyzed by contingency table methods and regression models. The risk of microfilaraemia for males was significantly higher. Among those aged 9 to 16 years, the analysis of gender and filariasis by age showed that boys from 15 to 16 years had a higher risk of infection than girls. No association was found between menarche and filariasis in girls. The data suggest that variations between gender in filariasis could result, at least in part, from an increase in susceptibility of men. This epidemiologic feature needs to be considered while formulating elimination plans.
Seasonal changes of infectivity rates of Bancroftian filariasis vectors in coast province, Kenya  [PDF]
Sichangi Kasili,Florence Oyieke,C. Wamae,Charles Mbogod
Journal of Vector Borne Diseases , 2009,
Abstract: Background & objectives: Bancroftian filariasis in Kenya is endemic in coastal districts with anestimated number of 2.5 million people at risk of infection. The main mosquito genera involved intransmission of Wuchereria bancrofti in these areas are Anopheles, Culex and Mansonia. Thestudy was envisaged to compare the infectivity rates of Bancroftian filariasis vectors between thehigh transmission (wet) and the low transmission (dry) seasons.Methods: Mosquitoes were sampled from houses and compounds from two study sites, Gazi andMadunguni, on the Kenyan coast. Day resting indoor collection (DRI), pyrethrum spray catch(PSC) and CDC light traps were used to collect mosquitoes. After identification, female mosquitoeswere dissected to search for W. bancrofti III stage larvae.Results: A total of 1832 female mosquitoes were dissected. Infectivity rates of vectors in Madunguniwere 1.49 and 0.21% in wet and dry seasons respectively, whereas in Gazi, these were 1.69 and0%, respectively. There was a significant difference in the infectivity rates between the two seasonsin both Madunguni and Gazi villages (p <0.05). Anopheles gambiae s.l. was the main vector inboth study sites followed by Culex quinquefasciatus and An. funestus.Conclusion: There was a difference in infectivity rates of Bancroftian filariasis vectors betweenthe wet and dry seasons. The abundance of An. gambiae s.s. during the transmission season couldbe responsible for the increased infectivity rates of vectors in this season.
Epidemiological study of bancroftian filariasis in Recife, Northeastern Brazil
Maciel, Amélia;Rocha, Abraham;Marzochi, Keyla Belizia F;Medeiros, Zulma;Carvalho, Alexandre B;Regis, Leda;Souza, Wayner;Lapa, Tiago;Furtado, André;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1996, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761996000400011
Abstract: wuchereria bancrofti in pernambuco was first documented in 1952 (azevedo & dobbin 1952), and since then it has been reported in surveys carried out in selected areas of recife. several surveys were carried out from 1981 to 1991 by sucam. in the 1985 sucam's report the disease is considered under control. the cpqam filariasis research program was established in 1985 and a filarial survey was carried out in the town of olinda, greater recife. in order to verify the real epidemiological situation, a study was conducted in the city of recife. 21/36 of the special zones of social interest (zeis), were randomly selected for the present study. from 10,664 persons screened, 683 were positive and the prevalence rate for microfilaraemia (mf) varied from 0.6% to 14.9%. a mean mf prevalence of 6.5%, showed that the infection occurs in a wide geographic distribution in greater recife and that the intensity of transmission is a real and potential threat to public health in affected communities. mf rate among males and females differed significantly. due to the rapid increase in population, unplanned urban settlements, poor sanitary facilities and the favorable geographical conditions to the development of the vector, filariasis may actually be increasing in recife.
Management of filariasis using prediction rules derived from data mining  [cached]
Duvvuri Venkata Rama Satya Kumar,Kumarawsamy Sriram,Kadiri Madhusudhan Rao,Upadhyayula Suryanarayana Murty
Bioinformation , 2005,
Abstract: The present paper demonstrates the application of CART (classification and regression trees) to control a mosquito vector (Culex quinquefasciatus) for bancroftian filariasis in India. The database on filariasis and a commercially available software CART (Salford systems Inc. USA) were used in this study. Baseline entomological data related to bancroftian filariasis was utilized for deriving prediction rules. The data was categorized into three different aspects, namely (1) mosquito abundance, (2) meteorological and (3) socio-economic details. This data was taken from a database developed for a project entitled “Database management system for the control of bancroftian filariasis” sponsored by Ministry of Communication and Information Technology (MC&IT), Government of India, New Delhi. Predictor variables (maximum temperature, minimum temperature, rain fall, relative humidity, wind speed, house type) were ranked by CART according to their influence on the target variable (month). The approach is useful for forecasting vector (mosquito) densities in forthcoming seasons.
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