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A Framework to Examine the Role of Epigenetics in Health Disparities among Native Americans  [PDF]
Teresa N. Brockie,Morgan Heinzelmann,Jessica Gill
Nursing Research and Practice , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/410395
Abstract: Background. Native Americans disproportionately experience adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) as well as health disparities, including high rates of posttraumatic stress, depression, and substance abuse. Many ACEs have been linked to methylation changes in genes that regulate the stress response, suggesting that these molecular changes may underlie the risk for psychiatric disorders related to ACEs. Methods. We reviewed published studies to provide evidence that ACE-related methylation changes contribute to health disparities in Native Americans. This framework may be adapted to understand how ACEs may result in health disparities in other racial/ethnic groups. Findings. Here we provide evidence that links ACEs to methylation differences in genes that regulate the stress response. Psychiatric disorders are also associated with methylation differences in endocrine, immune, and neurotransmitter genes that serve to regulate the stress response and are linked to psychiatric symptoms and medical morbidity. We provide evidence linking ACEs to these epigenetic modifications, suggesting that ACEs contribute to the vulnerability for developing psychiatric disorders in Native Americans. Conclusion. Additional studies are needed to better understand how ACEs contribute to health and well-being. These studies may inform future interventions to address these serious risks and promote the health and well-being of Native Americans. 1. Introduction Reservation-based Native Americans live in pervasively adverse social and physical environments that place them at increased risk of exposure to a myriad of stressors during childhood which impact their psychological and physical health over their lifetimes [1]. About 1 of 2.9 million Native Americans that identify as Native American alone resides on reservations [2]. Indian reservations were established by treaty during the Removal and Relocation (1827–1887) period and are lands set aside for tribes in exchange for ceded land and resources. Today there exist 275 Indian land areas in the USA administered as Indian reservations [3]. Of the ten poorest counties in America, five are home to an Indian reservation [4]. Concentrated poverty results in higher crime rates, underperforming public schools, poor housing, and poor health and limits access to many services and job opportunities [5]. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) that are substantial contributors to health disparities include childhood physical and sexual abuse, witnessing violence, poverty, and racism. The concept that these experiences become biologically
Genetic Variation and Population Structure in Native Americans  [PDF]
Sijia Wang equal contributor,Cecil M Lewis Jr. equal contributor,Mattias Jakobsson equal contributor,Sohini Ramachandran,Nicolas Ray,Gabriel Bedoya,Winston Rojas,Maria V Parra,Julio A Molina,Carla Gallo,Guido Mazzotti,Giovanni Poletti,Kim Hill,Ana M Hurtado,Damian Labuda,William Klitz,Ramiro Barrantes,Maria Cátira Bortolini,Francisco M Salzano,Maria Luiza Petzl-Erler,Luiza T Tsuneto,Elena Llop,Francisco Rothhammer,Laurent Excoffier,Marcus W Feldman,Noah A Rosenberg ,Andrés Ruiz-Linares
PLOS Genetics , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.0030185
Abstract: We examined genetic diversity and population structure in the American landmass using 678 autosomal microsatellite markers genotyped in 422 individuals representing 24 Native American populations sampled from North, Central, and South America. These data were analyzed jointly with similar data available in 54 other indigenous populations worldwide, including an additional five Native American groups. The Native American populations have lower genetic diversity and greater differentiation than populations from other continental regions. We observe gradients both of decreasing genetic diversity as a function of geographic distance from the Bering Strait and of decreasing genetic similarity to Siberians—signals of the southward dispersal of human populations from the northwestern tip of the Americas. We also observe evidence of: (1) a higher level of diversity and lower level of population structure in western South America compared to eastern South America, (2) a relative lack of differentiation between Mesoamerican and Andean populations, (3) a scenario in which coastal routes were easier for migrating peoples to traverse in comparison with inland routes, and (4) a partial agreement on a local scale between genetic similarity and the linguistic classification of populations. These findings offer new insights into the process of population dispersal and differentiation during the peopling of the Americas.
Enigma as a Literary Device in Native American Folklore: Jarold Ramsey’s Analysis of Two Clackamas Chinook Tales  [PDF]
Daniel J. Frim
Folklore : Electronic Journal of Folklore , 2013, DOI: 10.7592/fejf2013.53.frim
Abstract: This paper discusses Jarold Ramsey’s classic article, The Wife Who Goes Out Like a Man, Comes Back as a Hero: The Art of Two Oregon Indian Narratives. It analyzes Ramsey’s arguments against the backdrop of Alan Dundes’s work in Native American folklore as well as more recent controversies in this field. Some scholars, such as Dundes, have attempted to vindicate Native American folklore against Eurocentric criticism by fitting it into Western literary molds. Ramsey, on the other hand, brings to light the distinctive aesthetic qualities of two tales from the Pacific Northwest by recognizing the ways in which these narratives often stray from the literary expectations of Western readers. In this respect, Ramsey’s approach is preferable to that of Dundes, and it provides a model for the careful, aesthetically oriented analysis of the idiosyncratic features of individual folklore traditions.
Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Kaingang native americans in southern Brazil
Anjos, Heloisa Nakai Kwabara dos;Toledo, Max Jean de Ornelas;Mota, Lúcio Tadeu;Previdelli, Isolde Terezinha Santos;Anjos, Adriano Félix dos;Saruhashi, Tiago Ribeiro;Carrara, Márcia Aparecida;Batista, Márcia Regina;
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89132011000100011
Abstract: the aim of this work was to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and obesity among a brazilian indigenous population. a cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008 among kaingang native americans from the central region of the state of paraná, brazil. eighty two of the inhabitants aged 15 or older were selected. height, weight, blood pressure, waistline circumference, and hip circumference were measured. after fasting, the blood was collected for the measurement of glucose, hdl cholesterol, triglyceride, total cholesterol, ai and b apolipoprotein, and hemoglobin. the prevalences found were: fasting hyperglycemia (9.8%), hypercholesterolemia (4.9%), reduced hdl cholesterol (13.4%), hypertriglyceridemia (11%), abdominal obesity (37.8%), generalized obesity (26.8%), arterial hypertension (26.8%), and anemia (46.3%). the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the kaingang was 11%, all in females 20 to 49 years of age. the results suggested that the changes in the indigenous lifestyle, especially in eating habits and physical activity, have occurred.
Evolutionary diversity of bile salts in reptiles and mammals, including analysis of ancient human and extinct giant ground sloth coprolites
Lee R Hagey, Nicolas Vidal, Alan F Hofmann, Matthew D Krasowski
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-10-133
Abstract: While there is significant variation of bile salts across species, bile salt profiles are generally stable within families and often within orders of reptiles and mammals, and do not directly correlate with differences in diet. The variation of bile salts generally accords with current molecular phylogenies of reptiles and mammals, including more recent groupings of squamate reptiles. For mammals, the most unusual finding was that the Paenungulates (elephants, manatees, and the rock hyrax) have a very different bile salt profile from the Rufous sengi and South American aardvark, two other mammals classified with Paenungulates in the cohort Afrotheria in molecular phylogenies. Analyses of the approximately 8,000 year old human coprolites yielded a bile salt profile very similar to that found in modern human feces. Analysis of the Shasta ground sloth coprolites (approximately 12,000 years old) showed the predominant presence of glycine-conjugated bile acids, similar to analyses of bile and feces of living sloths, in addition to a complex mixture of plant sterols and stanols expected from an herbivorous diet.The bile salt synthetic pathway has become longer and more complex throughout vertebrate evolution, with some bile salt modifications only found within single groups such as marsupials. Analysis of the evolution of bile salt structures in different species provides a potentially rich model system for the evolution of a complex biochemical pathway in vertebrates. Our results also demonstrate the stability of bile salts in coprolites preserved in arid climates, suggesting that bile salt analysis may have utility in selected paleontological research.Bile salts are amphipathic, water-soluble end-metabolites of cholesterol that facilitate intestinal absorption of lipids, enhance proteolytic cleavage of dietary proteins, and exert potent antimicrobial activity in the small intestine [1]. The synthesis of bile salts is the major route for elimination of cholesterol (a wat
Participation and Activity Rates: Monitoring Exposure Potential for Native Americans and Others in the United States  [PDF]
Joanna Burger
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.28116
Abstract: Managers and regulators are concerned about potential human health effects from exposure on lands contaminated by chemicals and radionuclides. Determining target cleanup levels is partly dependent upon future land use, and potential exposure from human use. This paper provides data from surveys of activity patterns of people attending festivals in four states, located in the vicinity of Department of Energy facilities. There were significant differences in both participation rates, and activity rates as a function of both location and ethnicity that can be used by managers to track exposure, land use, and preferred activities on natural lands. In general, 1) a higher percent of Native Americans engaged in consumptive activities than others, 2) a higher percent of Caucasians engaged in some non-consumptive activities than Native Americans, 3) a higher percentage of Native Americans engaged in activities on sacred grounds, 4) activity rates were generally higher for Native Americans for consumptive activities and religious/cultural than for Caucasians, 5) fishing rates were higher than other consumptive activities, and camping/hiking were higher than other non-con- sumptive activities, and 6) hunting rates were higher in subjects from Idaho than elsewhere. Baseline human use is critical for monitoring potential exposure, and provides the basis for monitoring, risk assessment and future land use, and these data can be used by managers for assessment and management. Tracking changes over time will reflect changing recreational, subsistence, and cultural/religious trends that relate to land use, public perceptions, and exposure.
A Bayesian Approach to Genome/Linguistic Relationships in Native South Americans  [PDF]
Carlos Eduardo Guerra Amorim, Rafael Bisso-Machado, Virginia Ramallo, Maria Cátira Bortolini, Sandro Luis Bonatto, Francisco Mauro Salzano, Tábita Hünemeier
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064099
Abstract: The relationship between the evolution of genes and languages has been studied for over three decades. These studies rely on the assumption that languages, as many other cultural traits, evolve in a gene-like manner, accumulating heritable diversity through time and being subjected to evolutionary mechanisms of change. In the present work we used genetic data to evaluate South American linguistic classifications. We compared discordant models of language classifications to the current Native American genome-wide variation using realistic demographic models analyzed under an Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) framework. Data on 381 STRs spread along the autosomes were gathered from the literature for populations representing the five main South Amerindian linguistic groups: Andean, Arawakan, Chibchan-Paezan, Macro-Jê, and Tupí. The results indicated a higher posterior probability for the classification proposed by J.H. Greenberg in 1987, although L. Campbell's 1997 classification cannot be ruled out. Based on Greenberg's classification, it was possible to date the time of Tupí-Arawakan divergence (2.8 kya), and the time of emergence of the structure between present day major language groups in South America (3.1 kya).
Activity Patterns And Perceptions Of Goods, Services, And Eco-Cultural Attributes By Ethnicity And Gender For Native Americans And Caucasians  [cached]
Joanna Burger,Michael Gochfeld,Christian Jeitner,Taryn Pittfield
International Journal of Sport Management, Recreation & Tourism , 2012,
Abstract: Managing ecosystems requires understanding how people use and value them. The objective of this study was to examine gender differences in resource use and perceptions of environmental quality in Native Americans and Caucasians interviewed at an Indian festival in East-central Idaho. More men than women engaged in consumptive activities, but there were no differences for non-consumptive or religious/spiritual. More Caucasian males engaged in hunting, and more females engaged in collecting herb and, berries, and bird-watching. More Native American males engaged in hunting and fishing, and more females engaged in picnics and walking/running. Women had higher rates of hike, walk and bike than did men, and there were no ethnic differences. The data indicate that both the percent participation and the frequency of participation varied both ethnically and by gender.
Genetic Divergence Disclosing a Rapid Prehistorical Dispersion of Native Americans in Central and South America  [PDF]
Yungang He, Wei R. Wang, Ran Li, Sijia Wang, Li Jin
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044788
Abstract: An accurate estimate of the divergence time between Native Americans is important for understanding the initial entry and early dispersion of human beings in the New World. Current methods for estimating the genetic divergence time of populations could seriously depart from a linear relationship with the true divergence for multiple populations of a different population size and significant population expansion. Here, to address this problem, we propose a novel measure to estimate the genetic divergence time of populations. Computer simulation revealed that the new measure maintained an excellent linear correlation with the population divergence time in complicated multi-population scenarios with population expansion. Utilizing the new measure and microsatellite data of 21 Native American populations, we investigated the genetic divergences of the Native American populations. The results indicated that genetic divergences between North American populations are greater than that between Central and South American populations. None of the divergences, however, were large enough to constitute convincing evidence supporting the two-wave or multi-wave migration model for the initial entry of human beings into America. The genetic affinity of the Native American populations was further explored using Neighbor-Net and the genetic divergences suggested that these populations could be categorized into four genetic groups living in four different ecologic zones. The divergence of the population groups suggests that the early dispersion of human beings in America was a multi-step procedure. Further, the divergences suggest the rapid dispersion of Native Americans in Central and South Americas after a long standstill period in North America.
Continent-Wide Decoupling of Y-Chromosomal Genetic Variation from Language and Geography in Native South Americans  [PDF]
Lutz Roewer equal contributor ,Michael Nothnagel equal contributor,Leonor Gusm?o,Veronica Gomes,Miguel González,Daniel Corach,Andrea Sala,Evguenia Alechine,Teresinha Palha,Ney Santos,Andrea Ribeiro-dos-Santos,Maria Geppert,Sascha Willuweit,Marion Nagy,Sarah Zweynert,Miriam Baeta,Carolina Nú?ez,Bego?a Martínez-Jarreta,Fabricio González-Andrade,Elizeu Fagundes de Carvalho,Dayse Aparecida da Silva,Juan José Builes,Daniel Turbón,Ana Maria Lopez Parra,Eduardo Arroyo-Pardo,Ulises Toscanini,Lisbeth Borjas,Claudia Barletta,Elizabeth Ewart,Sidney Santos,Michael Krawczak
PLOS Genetics , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003460
Abstract: Numerous studies of human populations in Europe and Asia have revealed a concordance between their extant genetic structure and the prevailing regional pattern of geography and language. For native South Americans, however, such evidence has been lacking so far. Therefore, we examined the relationship between Y-chromosomal genotype on the one hand, and male geographic origin and linguistic affiliation on the other, in the largest study of South American natives to date in terms of sampled individuals and populations. A total of 1,011 individuals, representing 50 tribal populations from 81 settlements, were genotyped for up to 17 short tandem repeat (STR) markers and 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs), the latter resolving phylogenetic lineages Q and C. Virtually no structure became apparent for the extant Y-chromosomal genetic variation of South American males that could sensibly be related to their inter-tribal geographic and linguistic relationships. This continent-wide decoupling is consistent with a rapid peopling of the continent followed by long periods of isolation in small groups. Furthermore, for the first time, we identified a distinct geographical cluster of Y-SNP lineages C-M217 (C3*) in South America. Such haplotypes are virtually absent from North and Central America, but occur at high frequency in Asia. Together with the locally confined Y-STR autocorrelation observed in our study as a whole, the available data therefore suggest a late introduction of C3* into South America no more than 6,000 years ago, perhaps via coastal or trans-Pacific routes. Extensive simulations revealed that the observed lack of haplogroup C3* among extant North and Central American natives is only compatible with low levels of migration between the ancestor populations of C3* carriers and non-carriers. In summary, our data highlight the fact that a pronounced correlation between genetic and geographic/cultural structure can only be expected under very specific conditions, most of which are likely not to have been met by the ancestors of native South Americans.
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