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Modelling and Refinement in CODA  [PDF]
Michael Butler,John Colley,Andrew Edmunds,Colin Snook,Neil Evans,Neil Grant,Helen Marshall
Computer Science , 2013, DOI: 10.4204/EPTCS.115.3
Abstract: This paper provides an overview of the CODA framework for modelling and refinement of component-based embedded systems. CODA is an extension of Event-B and UML-B and is supported by a plug-in for the Rodin toolset. CODA augments Event-B with constructs for component-based modelling including components, communications ports, port connectors, timed communications and timing triggers. Component behaviour is specified through a combination of UML-B state machines and Event-B. CODA communications and timing are given an Event-B semantics through translation rules. Refinement is based on Event-B refinement and allows layered construction of CODA models in a consistent way.
Especializaciones cognitivas: El caso del procesamiento de consonantes y vocales
Juan Manuel Toro
Ciencia Cognitiva : Revista Electrónica de Divulgación , 2010,
Abstract: Las consonantes y la vocales parecen tener funciones diferentes. Mientras las consonantes están más directamente implicadas en el procesamiento léxico, las vocales tienden a marcar rasgos sintácticos. Estudios recientes con lenguajes artificiales confirman esta hipótesis. Los resultados muestran que las palabras se reconocen más fácilmente sobre las consonantes, mientras que se extraen y generalizan reglas más fácilmente sobre las vocales
CONSIDERACIONES TEóRICO-METODOLóGICAS SOBRE LA ADQUISICIóN DE CONSONANTES POSNUCLEARES DEL INGLéS THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS ON THE ACQUISITION OF ENGLISH POSTNUCLEAR CONSONANTS
BERTHA CHELA-FLORES
RLA : Revista de Lingüística Teórica y Aplicada , 2006,
Abstract: En este trabajo se analizan algunas de las dificultades que presenta el hispanohablante en la adquisición de consonantes y agrupaciones consonánticas posnucleares del inglés, en base a procesos fonológicos característicos del inglés y del espa ol. Nuestros datos nos indican que la dificultad persiste en el habla de estudiantes avanzados e incluso en hispanohablantes que ense an el inglés como lengua extranjera. Los errores fueron detectados en el discurso hablado, tanto en la lectura en voz alta, como en la conversación espontánea, mas no en la lectura de palabras aisladas. Esto parece indicar un desconocimiento y/o falta de suficiente ejercitación de los procesos fonético-fonológicos que sufren las consonantes posnucleares del inglés dentro del contexto prosódico y lingüístico del habla conexa. Se sugieren algunas consideraciones pedagógicas que se deben tomar en cuenta en cursos de inglés con enfoque comunicativo para superar los problemas discutidos This article analyzes some of the difficulties that Spanish speakers find in the acquisition of postnuclear consonants in English; the analysis is done based on characteristic English and Spanish phonological processes. Our corpus indicates that the difficulty persists not only in the speech of advanced students of English but also in Spanish speakers that teach English as a foreign language. the errors were detected in spoken discourse, both reading aloud and in spontaneous conversations, but not reading isolated words. This seems to indicate lack of knowledge and/or proper instruction on the phonetic and phonological processes that postnuclear consonants undergo within prosodic and linguistic contexts in connected speech. Some pedagogical considerations are suggested for English courses with a communicative approach in order to avoid the problems discussed
Características de tiempo-frecuencia para la estimación de la posición de los órganos articuladores en consonantes explosivas Time-Frequency Energy Features for Articulator Position Inference on Stop Consonants
Alexander Sepulveda-Sepulveda,German Castellanos-Domínguez
Ingeniería y Ciencia , 2012,
Abstract: La inversión articulatoria ofrece nuevas perspectivas y aplicaciones interesantes en el campo de la voz; sin embargo, es aún un problema por resolver. El presente trabajo ofrece un método para la estimación de la distribución de la información articulatoria contenida en la acústica de consonantes explosivas, cuya parametrización se realiza mediante la transformada wavelet packet. El trabajo se centra principalmente en estimar la información acústica relevante, en términos de asociación estadística, para la inferencia de la posición de los órganos articuladores críticos involucrados en la producción de consonantes explosivas. Se usa el coe ciente de Kendall a modo de medida de relevancia. Los mapas de relevancia de tiempo-frecuencia se calculan para la base de datos MOCHA–TIMIT; de la cual, las zonas correspondientes a las consonantes explosivas son analizados. El método propuesto entrega un conjunto de componentes de tiempo-frecuencia intimamente relacionados al fenómeno articulatorio, lo cual ofrece un entendimiento más profundo de la relación existente entre los fenómenos articulatorio y acústico. Los mapas de relevancia se prueban en un sistema de inversión articulatoria basado en modelos de mezclas gausianas, donde se muestra que mejoran el desempe o de los mencionados sistemas aplicados sobre consonantes explosivas. El método se puede extender a otras categorías articulatorias, p.e. fricativas, con el n de adaptar el presente método a sistemas de inversión articulatoria sobre voz continua Acoustic-to-Articulatory inversion offers new perspectives and interesting applicationsin the speech processing field; however, it remains an open issue. Thispaper presents a method to estimate the distribution of the articulatory informationcontained in the stop consonants’ acoustics, whose parametrizationis achieved by using the wavelet packet transform. The main focus is on measuringthe relevant acoustic information, in terms of statistical association, forthe inference of the position of critical articulators involved in stop consonantsproduction. The rank correlation Kendall coefficient is used as the relevancemeasure. The maps of relevant time–frequency features are calculated for theMOCHA–TIMIT database; from which, stop consonants are extracted andanalysed. The proposed method obtains a set of time–frequency componentsclosely related to articulatory phenemenon, which offers a deeper understandinginto the relationship between the articulatory and acoustical phenomena.The relevant maps are tested into an acoustic–to–articulatory mapping systembased on Gauss
Phase statistics of seismic coda waves  [PDF]
D. Anache-Ménier,L. Margerin,B. A. van Tiggelen
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.248501
Abstract: We report the analysis of the statistics of the phase fluctuations in the coda of earthquakes recorded during a temporary experiment deployed at Pinyon Flats Observatory, California. The practical measurement of the phase is discussed and the main pitfalls are underlined. For large values, the experimental distributions of the phase first, second and third derivatives obey universal power-law decays whose exponents are remarkably well predicted by circular Gaussian statistics. For small values, these distributions are flat. The details of the transition between the plateau and the power-law behavior are governed by the wavelength. The correlation function of the first phase derivative along the array shows a simple algebro-exponential decay with the mean free path as the only length scale. Although only loose bounds are provided in this study, our work suggests a new method to estimate the degree of heterogeneity of the cr
PHONETIC EVIDENCE FOR THE NASAL CODA SHIFT IN MANDARIN  [PDF]
James H. Yang
Taiwan Journal of Linguistics , 2010,
Abstract: This paper presented phonetic evidence to resolve the transcription disagreement concerning the syllable-final nasal shift in the variety of Mandarin spoken in Taiwan. Although three judges agreed that the rhyme /i / underwent a sound change, they perceived the nasal coda shift differently. Two of them transcribed it as a modification from /i / to /in/, whereas the other asserted that the velar nasal disappears with its preceding vowel nasalized. In order to resolve this transcription conflict, this study analyzed the acoustic attributes of the speculative sound alterations in question, including /in/, /i /, /i/ and / /. The phonetic analysis indicated that the Taiwanese participants did not nasalize the preceding vowel deleting the nasal coda but tended to pronounce the post-vocalic velar nasal as its dental counterpart. This study concluded by discussing the implications of the synchronic variation for the theories of the nasal coda shift in Chinese dialects.
Geometría de los perfiles alveolares  [cached]
Monfort Lleonart, José
Informes de la Construccion , 1988,
Abstract: The most common castellated profiles series are established from a reduced set of templates to cut the original profiles. This means that no consideration is given to some parameters that could improve the beam strength behavior obtained from the same profile. In this paper the influence of some of these parameters are studied and some easy to use charts are given for simple beams with uniform load. Las series de perfiles alveolares, usualmente utilizadas, se establecen a partir de un conjunto reducido de plantillas/patrón para realizar el corte del perfil original, cuya utilización sistemática equivale a no considerar la influencia de algunos parámetros que podrían mejorar el comportamiento resistente de la viga alveolada obtenida a partir del mismo perfil original. En este trabajo se analiza la influencia de algunos de estos parámetros, y se obtienen gráficas de fácil aplicación para el caso de vigas bi apoyad as con carga uniformemente repartida.
Origin of coda waves: earthquake source resonance  [PDF]
Yinbin Liu
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Seismic coda in local earthquake exhibits the characteristics of uniform spatial distribution energy, selective frequency, and slow temporal decay oscillation. It is usually assumed to be the incoherent waves scattered from random heterogeneity in the earth's lithosphere. Here I show by wave field modeling for 1D heterogeneity that seismic coda is related to the natural resonance of earthquake source around the earthquake's focus. This natural resonance is a kind of wave coherent scattering enhancement phenomenon or coupling oscillations happened in steady state regime in strong small-scale heterogeneity. Its resonance frequency is inversely proportional to the heterogeneous scale and contrast and will shift toward lower frequency with increasing random heterogeneous scale and velocity fluctuations. Its energy weakens with decreasing impedance contrast and increasing random heterogeneous scale and velocity fluctuations.
Amplitude coda of classical waves in disordered media  [PDF]
Mauro S. Ferreira,Gerrit E. W. Bauer
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.65.045604
Abstract: The propagation of classical waves in the presence of a disordered medium is studied. We consider wave pulses containing a broad range of frequencies in terms of the configurationally averaged Green function of the system. Damped oscillations in the time-dependent response trailing behind the direct arrival of the pulse (coda) are predicted, the periods of which are governed by the density of scatterers.
Determinación de consonantes fricativas mediante indicadores de densidad de cruces por cero y de energía de las sílabas
Pérez Pe?ate,Yoandy; Ferrer Riesgo,Carlos; Mujica Faife,Yadisley;
Ingenier?-a Electr?3nica, Autom??tica y Comunicaciones , 2012,
Abstract: a fricative/non-fricative consonant classification algorithm for monosyllables is proposed. some indexes, like syllable energy index and syllable sonority index, have been previously proposed to characterize and classify consonants. their main drawback has been the weak separation between fricatives and voiceless plosives. this work attempts to separate fricatives and voiceless plosive consonants by means of a zero crossing measure. the proposal is evaluated on monosyllabic speech samples and results are satisfactory.
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