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Allelopathic Activity of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) on Growth and Nodulation of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.)  [PDF]
U. Batlang,D.D. Shushu
Journal of Agronomy , 2007,
Abstract: Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the allelopathic activity of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) on seed germination, seedling growth, flowering and nodulation of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc.). Bambara groundnut seeds were treated with diluted and undiluted sunflower extracts under laboratory conditions. Sunflower was also mixed-planted with bambara groundnut in the greenhouse. The effect of sunflower plant residues on bambara groundnut was also determined. Sunflower leaf and root extracts reduced seed germination, seedling growth and reduced seedling dry weight of bambara groundnut under laboratory conditions. Root length was reduced more than the shoot length. Diluted extracts also inhibited seed germination and seedling growth in a concentration-dependent manner. There was no significant difference in the shoot length, number of leaves, nodules and flowers of bambara groundnut which was mix-planted with sunflower compared to bambara groundnuts grown on their own under greenhouse conditions; except for dry weight which was reduced. However, there was an increase in dry weight of sunflower that was mix-planted with bambara groundnut compared to sunflower grown on their own. Flowering and nodulation was completely inhibited in bambara groundnuts grown in soils mixed with sunflower plant residues at 75:25 and 50:50 (w/w) soil:residue mixture. Seed germination, shoot elongation and leaf formation was also reduced. Similar results were also obtained when the amended soil was re-used to grow bambara groundnut. The results of this study suggest that sunflower contains allelochemicals that have strong inhibitory effect on growth, especially flowering and nodulation, of bambara groundnuts. The results indicate the implications of cropping systems between sunflower and bambara groundnuts.
Efficacy of Carbofuran in Controlling Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne javanica Whitehead, 1949) on Cultivars of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) in Yola, Nigeria  [PDF]
M. Y. Jada,D. T. Gungula,I. Jacob
International Journal of Agronomy , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/358213
Abstract: Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterrenea L. Verdc.) is an important crop produced in Adamawa State of Nigeria. However, the production of the crop is seriously threatened by root-knot nematodes (RKNs; Meloidogyne spp.). Since cultural methods have not been very effective in controlling RKN, carbofuran was evaluated to determine its efficacy in controlling M. javanica in Yola during 2002 and 2003. Three bambara groundnut cultivars (Kwachanjiwa, Kwaheuma, and Kwatolotolo) were evaluated using three application timings (at planting, 3 and 6 weeks after planting, and none). Results indicated that applying carbofuran at planting provided the greatest reduction in M. javanica population levels, which lead to increased yields in bambara groundnuts compared to the other two application timings. Furthermore, both Kwachanjiwa and Kwatolotolo provided similar high yields compared to Kwaheuma, which was most likely related to the M. javanica tolerance in these cultivars. 1. Introduction Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc.) is a tropical leguminous crop. According to Rowland [1], the crop contains 4.6% oil, 16–21% protein, and 50–61.3% carbohydrate. It is cultivated throughout northern Nigeria and many African and Asian countries [2]. Unlike other legumes particularly cowpea, bambara groundnut is known to have less insect pests, but it is highly susceptible to root-knot nematode [1]. Bambara groundnut yields are generally low in Africa, averaging between 650 and 850?kg/ha [2]. One of the major causes of the low yield of bambara groundnut apart from genetic potential is the effect of diseases and pests like nematodes. Therefore, to increase the yield of the crop, pest and disease management is a critical criterion. Farmers in this locality have used several cultural methods to manage pests but have recorded little or no success. Several of them have thus opted for other crops thus reducing the cultivation of bambara groundnut. This has negative effects on the production of the crop. Carbofuran has been reported to control nematodes [3]. Low galling index in soybean plants treated with carbofuran by both soil drench and soil drench + foliar application has been reported [4]. Furthermore it has been reported that the application of 700?ppm on soyabean plants as soil drench reduced the number of M. incognita eggs that hatched into juveniles [4]. In an experiment where carbofuran 3G was applied at the rates of 0, 100, 200, and 300?kg/ha to three hybrid yam varieties in southwestern Nigeria [5] there was an increase in the yield of the three hybrid yam varieties,
Physiological Responses of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc) to Short Periods of Water Stress During Different Developmental Stages  [cached]
R. Vurayai,V. Emongor and B. Moseki
Asian Journal of Agricultural Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The study was conducted to evaluate the responses of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc) to short periods of water stress imposed at different growth stages, and the recuperative ability of the species from drought stress. A major problem associated with Bambara groundnut production is its very low yields due to intra-seasonal and inter-seasonal variability in rainfall in semi-arid regions. The response pattern of physiological processes to water stress imposed at different growth stages might provide a basis for development of strategies in order to stabilize yields. Water stress reduced relative w ater content, chlorophyll fluorescence, stomatal conductance and the reduction was more pronounced in plants stressed during the pod filling stage and less pronounced in plants stressed during the vegetative stage. Chlorophyll content was not affected by water stress at all stages of grow th and development. Proline levels were increased by water stress mostly during the pod filling stage. When plants were rewatered after each stress treatment, plants stressed during the pod filling stage failed to fully recover the relative w ater content and chlorophyll fluorescence. A ll water stressed plants at different stages of growth and development fully recovered in stomatal conductance and proline concentration. Bambara groundnuts appear to reduce water loss under water stress and have the ability to recover from the effects of water stress after rainfall or irrigation. The nature and extend of damage and the ability of bambara groundnut to recover from water stress depends on the developmental stage at which the plant encounters water deficit.
Possible Effects of Fungal Fermentation on Bambara Groundnut (Vigna Subterranea (L) Verdc.) As a Feedstuff Resource
L.C. Nwanna,V.N Enujiugha,A.O Oseni,E.E. Nwanna
Journal of Food Technology , 2013,
Abstract: The possibility of using fungal-fermented bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L) Verdc.) cotyledon and hulls as feedstuffs resources was investigated.The whole seed and hulls were separately fermented with a mixed culture of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium sp., Trichoderma sp. and yeast. Also the organisms were each used separately to ferment the seed cotyledons. The samples were then examined for proximate nutrient composition, minerals, cellulose, lignin and sugar contents as well as some anti-nutritional factors (phytates and tannins). Analysis was also carried out on the unfermented whole seed, unfermented dehulled seed, untreated hulls and naturally fermented seeds.The results indicate that the organisms have variable effects on the nutritional and anti-nutritional contents of the seeds. Fermenting the seeds with yeast or Penicillium separately significantly (p<0.05) increased the protein content, but a combined organism fermentation did not produce any noticeable nutritional advantage. Fermenting the seed hulls positions them for use as an excellent livestock or fish feed source.
Analysis of genetic diversity in bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc] landraces using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers
Wazael H Ntundu, Inga C Bach, J rgen L Christiansen, Sven B Andersen
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2004,
Abstract: Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was used to assess genetic diversity among 100 selected bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc] landraces from a diverse geographic area of Tanzania. Eleven informative AFLP primer combinations generated a total of 49 scorable polymorphic amplification fragments across the bambara groundnut accessions. Genetic distances between all accessions based on Jaccard's variability index ranged from 0.1 to 0.68, with a total average of 0.3. The results showed that bambara groundnut landraces from Tanzania form a genetically diverse population, and AFLP markers can be effectively employed to assess genetic diversity and to measure genetic relationship among accessions. Cluster analysis revealed that bambara groundnut from Tanzania constitute two major groups in line with their putative geographic origins, one genetically distinct group from the Southern agro-ecological zone and a mixed group with accessions from Central, Lake Victoria and Western agro-ecological zones. The clustering of accessions compared relatively well to clustering based on phenotypic characters. However, correlation of the AFLP marker distances with phenotypic distances showed r-values of 0.4 only. Key Words: AFLP markers; genetic diversity; landraces; Tanzania; Vigna subterranean. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 3 (4), 2004: 220-225
Growth, Yield, Water Status and Ionic Distribution Response of three Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) Landraces Grown under Saline Conditions
V.D. Taffouo,O.F. Wamba,E. Youmbi,G.V. Nono
International Journal of Botany , 2010,
Abstract: The effects of NaCl salinity of the growth, yield, water status and ion partitioning response of three bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc., landraces: White Seed Coat (WSC), Black Seed Coat (BSC) and Light Red Seed Coat (RSC)) were investigated with the long-term aim of extending the cultivation in the environments with varying salinity. A laboratory experiment was conducted where four NaCl applications (0, 50, 100 and 200 mM) were applied to a sandy soil. Na+, K+ concentrations and water content were determined. A similar study was conducted in the field at University of Douala research farm. The agronomic parameters evaluated during vegetative and harvesting phases were dry weight, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pods, 1000 grains weight, total chlorophyll concentrations, grains yield and pods yield. The addition of NaCl resulted in a decrease of the K/Na ratio, water content partitioning of BSC and RSC landraces. Na+ concentration was significantly increased by NaCl treatment, while K+ concentration significantly decreased in all bambara groundnut landraces. NaCl had a negative effect on growth and yield component in BSC and RSC cultivars. There were a significant decrease in the dry weight of whole plant, the number of pods per plant, the number of seeds per pods, the 1000 grains weight, the chlorophyll content, the pods and grains yield. In the analysis of combining growth and yield components of the parameters measured, the results suggested that WSC cultivar was relatively more tolerant to salinity than others; suggesting that WSC cultivar could be cultivated in the coastal and semi-arid saline soils and studied further as a source of genes for salt tolerance.
Observations préliminaires de la variabilité entre quelques morphotypes de voandzou (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc., Fabaceae) de C te d'Ivoire
Djè Y.,Bonny BS.,Zoro Bi IA.
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement , 2005,
Abstract: Preliminary observations of variability between some morphotypes of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc., Fabaceae) from C te d’Ivoire. Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc.), is a food legume mainly cultivated by women for whom it represents a source of income for the household. In C te d’Ivoire, the cultivation of bambara groundnut is located in the western and northern parts of the country. These zones are characterised by contrasted agroecology including tropical rain forest and dry savanna. In these zones, bambara groundnut plays a key role in both food and culture of peoples. Four morphotypes of C te d’Ivoire (ICU, BPR, RBU, NFU) were used in a preliminary study to assess the phenotypic variability between morphotypes. For each morphotype, 100 individuals were sampled to analyse 26 agromorphological traits selected from the list of bambara groundnut descriptors. Results of statistical analyses showed an important variability among morphotypes suggesting that 22 of these characters could be powerful to distinguish diversity among bambara groundnut morphotypes of C te d’Ivoire. Three morphotypes (ICU, BPR and RBU) show a shorter reproductive cycle than the other (NFU). In our experimental conditions, morphotypes with a shorter reproductive cycle give a higher percentage of matured pods (87 to 95%), compared to morphotype NFU (60%). The morphotype ICU was particularly earlier, maturing 90 days after sowing (DAS), whereas the long reproductive cycle morphotype (NFU) required about 137 days. Based on the analysed agronomic traits, possibilities to improve bambara groundnut yield and to promote its cultivation in C te d’Ivoire are discussed.
Bambara nut: A review of utilisation, market potential and crop improvement
RJ Hillocks, C Bennett, OM Mponda
African Crop Science Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) originated in West Africa but has become widely distributed throughout the semi-arid zone of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Sharing a high nutritive value with other widely consumed legumes, bambara has an appealing flavour which is reflected in demand from small local and niche markets. Despite its high and balanced protein content, bambara remains under-utilised because it takes a long time to cook, contains anti-nutritional factors and does not dehull easily. Bambara yields well under conditions which are too arid for groundnut (Arachis hypogea), maize (Zea mays L.) and even sorghum (Sorghum bicolar). Its drought tolerance makes bambara a useful legume to include in climate change adaptation strategies. Existing bambara products are not well promoted in the local or international markets and new products are needed that highlight its inherent nutritional and culinary advantages. A number of projects on bambara, involving several countries in SSA since the 1980s, have failed to stimulate a sustainable increase in the production of the crop. The absence of functioning value chains has been a factor in this failure, as accessible market outlets might provide the required incentive for smallholder households to obtain improved seed and invest more of their land and labour in the crop. There is little documented evidence of trade in bambara but circumstantial evidence indicates considerable international demand. More attention should be given, therefore, to market research and development, with crop improvement programmes being more market-led, if bambara is to make a greater contribution to household income and rural development in SSA.
Effect of Bambara Groundnut Flour (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) Supplementation on Chemical, Physical, Nutritional and Sensory Evaluation of Wheat Bread  [PDF]
Mohammed A.Y. Abdualrahman,Ali O. Ali,Elamin A. Elkhalifa,Abdelmoneim E. Sulieman
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterrenea (L) Verdc) is a major source of vegetable protein in sub-Saharan Africa. And the aim of this study was to enhance the nutritional value of wheat bread through the addition of bambara groundnut flour to wheat four. For this, bambara groundnut seeds were soaked in tap water, manually decorticated, sun dried and milled into fine flour. Proximate analysis of flours of de-hulled bambara groundnut and wheat were conducted. Flour of de-hulled bambara groundnut was used for bread supplementation in ratios of 5, 10 and 15%. Rheological properties of the control flour and wheat flour supplemented with 10% of de-hulled bambara groundnut flour were conducted. The total area and dough development time increased. However, water absorption, stability and extensibility respectively decreased, from 71.3; 8.5; 190 in the control flour to 71.0; 5.5; 180 in the 10% supplemented flour. The increases in the resistance to extension and proportional number from 260 to 280 and 1.37 to 1.56, respectively resulted in stiff dough. The most important effect of wheat bread supplementation was the improvement of protein quantity from 13.74±0.02% for the control bread to 15.49±0.02, 17.00±0.05 and 18.98±0.02% for the 5, 10 and 15% blending ratios, respectively. The in-vitro protein digestibility progressively increased from 84.33±0.03 in the control bread to 85.42±0.04, 86.57±0.04 and 87.64±0.03 in breads containing 5, 10 and 15% bambara groundnut flour. The sensory attributes of different types of bread showed that, a significant difference was observed in texture, colour and overall acceptability. However, the panelists gave higher score for 10% de-hulled bambara groundnut flour bread than bread made from other blends. The loaf weights, loaf volume and specific volume increased. However, while the loaf weight increased with addition of 15% de-hulled bambara groundnut flour, both of loaf volume and specific volume decreased. Nutritional value of wheat bread can be enhanced by the addition of de-hulled bambara groundnut flour at a level of up to 10%.
Selection of High Yielding and Farmers’ Preferred Genotypes of Bambara Nut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc) in Malawi  [PDF]
Lawrent Pungulani, Davie Kadyampakeni, Lucius Nsapato, Modester Kachapila
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.312A221
Abstract:

Bambara nut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc) is a nutritious legume, however, its production is characterised by use of landraces, which have been maintained by farmers. Lack of improved varieties has contributed to low yields. This re- search was done to identify potentially high yielding and farmers’ preferred genotypes for improved production of Bambara in Malawi. A completely Randomised Block Design experiment with eight genotypes (181CR, 181RD, 194, 137CR, 137RD, 317, 2762 and 2768) and four replicates was implemented at Chitedze, Chitala and Mbawa Research Sta- tions to identify high yielding genotypes. In addition to the yield, farmers’ criteria based on plant vigour, ability to fully bury its pods in the ground (mounding), yield at harvest, maturity period, seed colour, grain size, taste of boiled dry grain and taste of fresh pods were used to identify farmers’ preferred genotypes. Significant yield differences were identified between genotypes (P < 0.0001), sites (P < 0.001) and interaction between genotypes and sites (environment) (P < 0.001). Yield means across sites show that genotype 181CR yielded highly (1322 kg/ha) followed by 2768 (1066 kg/ha), 181RD (1064 kg/ha) and 2762 (841 kg/ha). In contrast to the high yielding genotypes, genotype 137RD gave the lowest yield (485 kg/ha) followed by 194 (573 kg/ha), 317 (617 kg/ha) and 137CR (620 kg/ha). Mbawa Research Sta- tion showed significantly high yields with site mean of 1177 kg/ha compared with Chitedze and Chitala with site means of 703 kg/ha and 530 kg/ha respectively. Farmers ranked the eight accessions in order of importance as follows: 181RD,

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