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Sustainable crop models for fruit, vegetable and flower quality productions.
Elia Antonio,De Pascale Stefania,Inglese Paolo
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2008, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2008.1s.143
Abstract: Sustainable development is a paradigm that has evolved over the time, since the ideas of socially acceptable and compatible development, on which it was originally based, are now supported by the more recent notions of ecological equilibria and production process economy, both of which need to be also preserved. Environmental and health safety, rational use of the natural resources and technological tools, upkeep of high social growth rates and respect of a social equity are the basis of the sustainability for any production process, including the agriculture. The new globalization framework has penalized small farms and, at the same time, has put serious constraints to the development of stronger economic systems (medium/large farms), as well. As consequence, the EU has outlined several strategic programs to support small agricultural systems in marginal areas by: 1) strengthening all the quality- related aspects of agricultural production, including nutritional and cultural traits associated to local, typical and in some cases to neglected crops; 2) improving traditional cultural practices by adapting the cropping cycles and fomenting new partnerships between the different parts of the production chain, as for example; promotion of small horticultural chains. Specific political actions for the horticultural production sector have also been developed. Some of these policies are specifically addressed to preserve the biodiversity and to create quality labels certifying typical and/or organic products. All of these are possible strategies that may counteract and cope with the globalization process and increase the competitiveness of many production systems especially those performed by local and small entrepreneurs. New sustainable development models are required by both the market and the implicit requirements of the production system, inside a context on which Europe must face with new emerging economies with lower production costs, by increasing the added value of the final product.
Sustainable crop models for fruit, vegetable and flower quality productions.  [cached]
Elia Antonio,De Pascale Stefania,Inglese Paolo
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2008.1s.143
Abstract: Sustainable development is a paradigm that has evolved over the time, since the ideas of socially acceptable and compatible development, on which it was originally based, are now supported by the more recent notions of ecological equilibria and production process economy, both of which need to be also preserved. Environmental and health safety, rational use of the natural resources and technological tools, upkeep of high social growth rates and respect of a social equity are the basis of the sustainability for any production process, including the agriculture. The new globalization framework has penalized small farms and, at the same time, has put serious constraints to the development of stronger economic systems (medium/large farms), as well. As consequence, the EU has outlined several strategic programs to support small agricultural systems in marginal areas by: 1) strengthening all the quality- related aspects of agricultural production, including nutritional and cultural traits associated to local, typical and in some cases to neglected crops; 2) improving traditional cultural practices by adapting the cropping cycles and fomenting new partnerships between the different parts of the production chain, as for example; promotion of small horticultural chains. Specific political actions for the horticultural production sector have also been developed. Some of these policies are specifically addressed to preserve the biodiversity and to create quality labels certifying typical and/or organic products. All of these are possible strategies that may counteract and cope with the globalization process and increase the competitiveness of many production systems especially those performed by local and small entrepreneurs. New sustainable development models are required by both the market and the implicit requirements of the production system, inside a context on which Europe must face with new emerging economies with lower production costs, by increasing the added value of the final product.
Maximum Likelihood Estimates and Determinants of Technical Efficiency of Leafy Vegetable Producers in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria  [cached]
Inibehe George Ukpong,Idiong Christopher Idiong
Journal of Agricultural Science , 2013, DOI: 10.5539/jas.v5n3p139
Abstract: Leafy vegetables are important delicacies in the diet of most people in Nigeria and have played important role in helping to solve food security problems mainly in the rural areas. This study was carried out to determine the influence of some socio-economic and environmental factors on technical efficiency of leafy vegetable producers in Akwa Ibom State, Southern Nigeria. The results show that leafy vegetable production in the study area is female dominated. The Maximum Likelihood Estimates (MLEs) of the Cobb-Douglas stochastic production frontier function indicated that age of vegetable producers have a negative and significant influence on their technical efficiency, while, educational level, farming experience, farm size, household size and soil quality have positive and significant influence on their technical efficiency. The study recommends the formulation and implementation of policies that would encourage establishment of Adult and Continuing Education in the State, and adoption of sustainable systems of farming that will enhance good soil quality and environmental sustainability, with adequate supply of inputs to promote efficient production of vegetables in the area.
Effects of Livelihood Strategies and Sustainable Land Management Practices on Food Crop Production Efficiency in South-West Nigeria
Y.A. Awoyinka,J.A. Akinwumi,V.O. Okoruwa,O.A. Oni
Agricultural Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Efficiency in food crop production is a topical issue in food security programme of Nigerian government. However, past policies directed for increased food crop production efficiency have not been effective because of neglect of Livelihood Strategy (LS) and attributes of Land Management Practices (LMP) used by farmers in food crop production policy analysis. The effect of LS and LMP on crop production efficiency was investigated. Multistage random sampling was used to collect primary data from 400 farmers in South West Nigeria. Data collected were analyzed with Translog stochastic model. The four LS identified were staple crops/off-farm income (LS1 = 30.0%); staple crops/wages and salary (LS2 = 22.5%); LS1/vegetable/ fruits/livestock production (LS3 = 27.5%); LS3/Tree Crops (LS4 = 20.0%). Farmers adopted multiple LMPs for crop production. Agronomic Practices (AP = 80.0%) was preferred to others including Soil Management Practices (SMP = 65.0%), Conservation Practices (CP = 60.0%), Structural and Mechanical Erosion Control Practices (SMECP = 34.0%). The mean Technical Efficiency (TE) was 0.52 for the farmers and TE increased with LS3 (p<0.01) and LS4 (p<0.1). The level of LMP used by farmers, joint effects of LMP and physical inputs (except for fertilizer) and LMP and LS (except for LS4) was unsustainable with respect to crop output and TE (p<0.05). The most beneficial LS that ensured sustainable LMP for food crop production efficiency among farming households is LS4. The LS4 significantly improved TE in South-West Nigeria.
Aspects of Costs Calculation in a Vegetable Production Farm
Teodor HADA
Risk in Contemporary Economy , 2012,
Abstract: This paper deals with the aspects of the issue of costs calculation for a vegetable production farm in terms of theory and practice. Aspects of the active accounting regulations, applicable to vegetable production farms, are presented in the content. Features of the vegetable production are detailed, and the applicability of costs calculation methods is shown by the example of the “to order” method. In terms of accounting, there are presented the records made in the management accounting, in the financial accounting and also the conclusions to be drawn in terms of management accounting utility in financial decision making.
Vegetable Farm Types and Hydromorphic Soil Properties in Ojo Area of Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria
Fatai Olakunle Ogundeel, Maria Claire Folami
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1100391
Abstract:

Vegetable cultivation is practiced in cities around the world as urban agriculture aimed at meeting the food and vegetable demand of the urban population. However, like every other human activity it has the potential to cause damage to soil health leading to poor productivity and large environmental impacts. Previous studies on the impact of vegetable cultivation on soil nutrients status have focused on the difference in soil properties of vegetable farms and undisturbed lands. This study examined the impacts of vegetable cultivation under different vegetable farm types in Ojo area of Lagos state, Nigeria. Simple random sampling was used to collect soil samples from the vegetable farms (which were categorized using the dominant vegetable crop grown in each farm). The collected soil samples were analyzed for soil properties (soil pH, Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Potassium, Calcium, Organic Carbon, Sodium, Manganese, Magnesium, Iron etc.) using standard laboratory procedures. The data collected were subjected to descriptive and inferential statistics analysis. The mean and standard deviation was used to show the pattern of distribution as well as Pearson moment correlation to establish the type of association among the soil properties. The results obtained from this analysis revealed that the lettuce farm had the lowest soil pH value at 6.12 while the amaranthus and pumpkin leaf farms had the highest pH value (6.51), organic Carbon, total Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium were lowest in the pumpkin leaf farm (2.014 g/kg, 0.259 g/kg, 0.641 Mg/g and 0.14 Cmol/kg respectively) and highest in the amaranthus farm (6.426 g/kg, 0.649 g/kg, 3.147 Mg/g and 1.23 Cmol/kg respectively), Calcium was lowest in the pumpkin leaf farm (0.25 Cmol/kg) and highest in the spinach farm (1.95 Cmol/kg), Magnesium ranged from 0.31 Cmol/kg in the control to 3.32 Cmol/kg in the spinach farm, Sodium ranged from 0.19 Cmol/kg in the pumpkin leaf farm to 0.41 Cmol/kg in the green onion farm and micronutrients; Manganese, Iron, Copper and Zinc were lowest in the control (3.0 Mg/kg) and highest in the amaranthus farm (137.5 Mg/kg), lowest in the pumpkin leaf (57.2 Mg/kg) and highest in the spinach farm (226.1 Mg/kg), ranged from 2.37 Mg/kg in the control to 4.45 Mg/kg in the spinach farm and ranged from 0.13 Mg/kg in the pumpkin leaf farm to 1.25 Mg/kg in the control respectively. The soil physical and chemical and micronutrient properties as investigated had positive and significant relationship with each other (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05) under all the vegetable farms studied. However, sand of the spinach farm had negative association with silt, clay, saturated hydraulic conductivity and bulk density with (r = -0.607, r = -0.641, r = -0.574 and r = -0.624, P < 0.05) respectively. Magnesium and organic Carbon of the control also had negative association (r = -0.034, P < 0.05). The Amaranthus and Scent leaf farms had the highest concentrations in majority of the soil properties while the pumpkin leaf farm had the lowest concentrations of the soil properties. Therefore, the pumpkin leaf vegetable extracts more soil nutrients from the soil than the other vegetable crops. There is need for adequate soil management, more organic matter application and Nitrogen and Potassium should be added in their fertilization programmes in all the vegetable farms especially the pumpkin leaf farm.


Technical Efficiency and Productivity of Yam in Kogi State Nigeria  [PDF]
Peter A. Ekunwe,Sylvester I. Orewa
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: The study examined the technical efficiency and productivity of yam in Kogi States of Nigeria. Specifically the study examined the socioeconomic characteristics of yam producers in Kogi State, determined the technical efficiency and productivity of yam farmers in the study areas and made recommendations on ways of improving the efficiency of yam production in Kogi State. Primary data were collected using a set of structured questionnaire from 200 selected Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) contact yam farmers from the State. A multi-stage sampling technique was used in selecting the farmers. The first stage was a purposive sampling of 5 Local Government Areas (LGAs) each from Kogi States. The LGAs selected were Omala, Ofu, Ankpa, Dekina and Ida. This was based on the high concentration of the population of yam producers and the availability of market for yam products. The second stage involved a simple random sampling of 5 villages from each LGA and 8 yam farmers from each village. In all 200 yam farmers were interviewed by trained enumerators. Out of the 200 only 144 copies of the questionnaires were found adequate and used in the analysis for the study. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation, as well as the stochastic frontier production function. Results from the study showed that on the average more males (98.6%) were involved in yam production as compared to 1.4% in the case of female. The mean age of farmers was 53 years. The average years of schooling by farmers was about 4 years suggesting that the farmers were not well educated. The average farming years was 25 years. In terms of cropping pattern all the farmers practiced sole yam cropping. Their average farm sizes were 0.97 ha. The technical efficiency of the farmers in the State varied. The technical efficiency of farmers varied from 0.05 to 0.95 with a mean of 0.62, while only about 23% of the farmers had technical efficiencies exceeding 0.80. The results also showed that yam production was profitable in State with net profit of N 108,299.67 ha-1.
Competency Improvement Needs of Farmers in Soil Erosion Prevention and Control for Enhancing Crop Production: Case Study of Kogi State, Nigeria  [PDF]
F. M. Onu, Abu Mohammed
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/as.2014.511103
Abstract: This study investigated the competency improvement needs of farmers in soil erosion prevention and control for enhancing crop production in Kogi state of Nigeria and was carried out between January and June, 2014. The study adopted descriptive survey research design and was guided by two research questions. The study found out that farmers needed improvement on 37 cultural practices as follows: 10 competencies in mulching, 12 in cover cropping, 8 in strip cropping, 7 in contour farming and 45 mechanical field practice as follows: 10 competencies in contour bonding, 11 in terracing, 12 in channeling and 11 in tunneling for success in soil erosion prevention and control. The study recommended the organization of rural based programmes for the training of farmers in the practice identified to enhance their competencies in soil erosion prevention and control for increased crop production.
Democratization, Identity Transformation, and Rising Ethnic Conflict in Kogi State, Nigeria
J. Shola Omotola
Kasarinlan : Philippine Journal of Third World Studies , 2008,
Abstract: This article explores the linkages between democratization, identity transformation, and rising ethnic conflicts in Kogi State, Nigeria. It argues that the changing character of identity politics in the state, partly a reflection of the contradictory character of the state such that it empowers some people and disempowers others, has been boosted by the democratization process. Ethnic identities have thus become an instrument for the construction and deconstruction of trust in the struggle for power among the competing ethnicities, which the democratization process typifies. The result has been rising ethnic conflicts across the state that do not bode well for sustainable democracy and development. The article concludes with a recommendation of the need for equitable power sharing/balancing devices among competing ethnicities, including minority groups. One viable path to this is to institutionalize a mutually agreed principle of power rotation on a one-term (four-year) basis among the various groups. This has the potential to generate a sense of belonging and ownership in all in plural and complex settings as Kogi State.
Simulation of the Agro-Energy Farm with the X-Farm Model: Calibration of the Crop Module for Sorghum Yield
Francesco Danuso,Alvaro Rocca,Valeria Andreoni,Elena Bulfoni
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2010.275
Abstract: This paper presents the X-farm model, a dynamic farm simulation model created to manage sustainable farming systems and to improve the planning capability of farms. X-farm considers an “agro-energy farm” where energy self-sufficiency results from the production, transformation and use of biomass obtained from the farm crops. The X-farm model is formed by different modules, integrated to describe the components of the agro-energy farm and grouped into management, production, soil and accountability (in terms of energy, environment and economy) sections. The main farm productions are the field crop yields. The model simulates a farm in which cereal and forage yield, oil seeds, milk and meat can be sold or reused. A preliminary calibration of the crop module of X-farm has been performed using experimental data from Sorghum bicolor L. (Moench) trials. X-farm has been implemented and calibrated using the SEMoLa language and simulation framework. Simulations of different cropping scenarios have been performed to test the X-farm capabilities to simulate complex farming systems, in order to be used as a decision-support tool.
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