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Improvement in nutrient uptake and yield of wheat by combined use of urea and compost
Muhammad Akhtar, Asif Naeem*, Javed Akhter, Syed Atif Bokhari and Wajid Ishaque
Soil & Environment , 2011,
Abstract: Organic city wastes are recycled to prepare composts with improved physical properties and enriched with nutrientsfor their better utilization. Combined application of composts along with inorganic fertilizers may sustain cropproductivity and soil fertility. Present study was conducted to assess the impact of 3 city waste composts (2 nonenrichedand 1 enriched with 25% N requirement of crop) on the economical utilization of urea in wheat. Generally,fertilizer application along with compost increased the yield, N and P uptake by wheat compared to the fertilizeralone. Performance of the treatments was found in the order: NEC (nitrogen enriched compost) + fertilizer > nonenrichedcompost + fertilizer > fertilizer. The NEC along with lower fertilizer-N rate (75 mg kg-1 soil) was found atpar with that of the highest fertilizer rate (175 mg N kg-1 soil) alone. The results showed that the use of NEC (200mg kg-1 soil) for wheat production could be a useful tool to improve the efficiency of commercial N-fertilizer.
Effect of Municipal Solid Waste Composting on Availability of Insoluble Phosphate

WEI Zi-min,WANG Shi-ping,XI Bei-dou,ZHAO Yue,LIU Hong-liang,

环境科学 , 2007,
Abstract: During municipal solid waste (MSW) composting, both organic acid production and sparingly soluble inorganic phosphate solubilization occur simultaneously. In this study, compost consisted of residual MSW with metal, plastic and glass removed, and sparingly soluble phosphate (ground rock phosphate) was mixed in municipal solid wastes composting. The effects of composting on soluhilization of sparingly soluble phosphate as well as the effects of compost production (P-enriched MSW compost) on soil rapidly available phosphorus were studied. Mixing ground rock phosphate into composting, rapidly available phosphorus increase at initial stage, achieved maximum at medium stage, and stabilize at final stage of MSW composting. At final stage of composting, the content of rapidly available phosphorus in treatment P1 and P2 increase respectively by 0.87 g x kg(-1), 0.76 g x kg(-1) compared with that with no mixing ground rock phosphate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals a number of cavities in ground rock phosphate surface. After compost products amended soil, the content of soil rapidly available phosphorus and acid phosphatase activity of P-enriched MSW compost amendment increase obviously compared with MSW compost, chicken manure compost, and chemical fertilizer amendment during crop duration.
Growth, Nutrient Uptake Efficiency and Yield of Upland Rice as Influenced by Two Compost Types in Tropical Rainforest-Derived Savannah Transition Zone  [PDF]
Oyeyemi Adigun Dada, Adeniyi Olumuyiwa Togun, James Alabi Adediran, Francis E. Nwilene
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/as.2014.55040

Cultivating traditional upland rice cultivars on nutrient depleted soil causes poor and low yield. Little attention is paid to performance of inter-specific NERICA cultivars grown on nutrient deficient soil augmented with different types of compost. Therefore, field trials were conducted during 2010 and 2011 planting seasons in Ibadan to evaluate growth, dry matter, nutrient uptake efficiency and grain yield of upland rice grown on nutrient deficient soil augmented with different types of compost. There were nine treatments comprising of three upland rice cultivars: NERICA I, NERICA II and Ofada, two compost types applied at the rate of 8 t·ha-1: poultry dropping + maize stover (PDMC) and cattle dung + maize stover (CDMC) and control. The treatments were laid out in randomized complete block design and replicated three times. CDMC enhanced growth, nutrient use efficiency, dry matter and grain yield of upland rice cultivars. Performance of Ofada was better than NERICA cultivars. N (24.55 g), P (12.45 g) and K (35.41 g) uptake concentration and grain yield (5.45 t/ha) were highest in Ofada plots augmented with CDMC. Residual effect of compost on growth, yield and nutrient uptake efficiency of upland rice on nutrient deficient soil was marginal.

Effect of Municipal Waste Compost on Some Chemical Characteristics of Clay Soils  [PDF]
Orhan Yuksel
Journal of Agronomy , 2004,
Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different concentrations of municipal waste compost (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 t ha-1) on soil chemical properties of Vertisol and Non-calcareous Brown Soils. According to results of soil that sampled from pots, waste compost application to soil increased soil total nitrogen (TN), phosphorus (P2O5) and potassium (K2O) compared to control. 160 t ha-1 compost application levels resulted in the highest organic matter, TN and K2O among applied doses for both soil types
Effects of municipal waste compost and its compound fertilizers on the turf quality of ryegrass

FAN Hairong,HUA Luo,CAI Dianxiong,WANG Xuejiang,ZHU Fengyun,YIN Xunxiao,ZHANG Zhenxian,GAO Juan,HUA Liping,

生态学报 , 2005,
Abstract: More than a hundred million tons of municipal waste are generated every year in China.Compost is an effective approach to municipal waste disposal.Waste compost conceives such characters as follows:(1) it contains organic matters;(2) it contains a lot of nutrition elements such as nitrogen,phosphorus,potassium and so on;(3)it contains various concentrations of trace elements and synthetic organic compounds;(4) it contains heavy metal elements.How to improve waste compost quality is a hotspot of research.The...
Indian Streams Research Journal , 2013,
Abstract: To utilize the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), it was composted – ordinarily, with help of Effective Microorganisms (EM) - (Lactobacillus casei, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Epigeic earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae. Efficiency of ordinary compost, compost mad with EM and vermicompost were tested on the growth and yield of blackgram Vigna mungo (L.) in different doses of application. The result suggests that the vermicompost applied at the rate of 5t/ha was superior to any other treatment.
Effect of municipal solid waste compost on yield and quality of eggplant  [cached]
Hadi Shabani,Gholam-Ali Peyvast,Jamal-Ali Olfati,Parvin Ramezani Kharrazi
Comunicata Scientiae , 2011,
Abstract: Organic agriculture aspires to return to more closed cycles of energy and materials, maximize reuse,employ rotation systems, use nutrients of organic origin and renewable energy sources, etc.Production of municipal solid waste compost, including organic waste is increasing while soils areprogressively losing organic matter due to intensive cultivation and climatic conditions. This makesthe recycling of organic waste as soil amendments a useful alternative to incineration, landfillor rubbish dumps. In this study that carry out in the summer of 2008, four levels of municipal solidwaste compost (50, 100, 150 and 200 t. ha-1) with control had applied. Through measured factors,marketable yield per m2, number of weed per plot, soil born disease reduction, number of leafper plant, lateral branch rate, plants height had significant effect in 0.05 levels. The best of yieldachieved of 50 t. ha-1 fertilizer level. Municipal solid waste compost also had significant effect on Caroot, fruit, leaf and root P and leaf Mg.
Growth and yield of tomato cultivated on composted duck excreta enriched wood shavings and source-separated municipal solid waste  [cached]
Vincent Zoes,Théophile Paré,Henri Dinel,Stefano Dumontet
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2011.e2
Abstract: A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the use of growth substrates, made with duck excreta enriched wood shaving compost (DMC) and the organic fraction of source-separated municipal solid waste (MSW) compost, on the growth and yield of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. cv. Campbell 1327). Substrate A consisted of 3:2 (W/W) proportion of DMC and MSW composts. Substrates B and C were the same as A but contained 15% (W/W ratio) of brick dust and shredded plastic, respectively. Three control substrates consisted of the commercially available peat-based substrate (Pr), an in-house sphagnum peat-based substrate (Gs), and black earth mixed with sandy loam soil (BE/S) in a 1:4 (W/W) ratio. Substrates (A, B, C) and controls received nitrogen (N), phosphate (P) and potassium (K) at equivalent rates of 780 mg/pot, 625 mg/pot, and 625 mg/pot, respectively, or were used without mineral fertilizers. Compared to the controls (Pr, Gs and BE/S), tomato plants grown on A, B, and C produced a greater total number and dry mass of fruits, with no significant differences between them. On average, total plant dry-matter biomass in substrate A, B, and C was 19% lower than that produced on Pr, but 28% greater than biomass obtained for plant grown, on Gs and BE/S. Plant height, stem diameter and chlorophyll concentrations indicate that substrates A, B, and C were particularly suitable for plant growth. Although the presence of excess N in composted substrates favoured vegetative rather than reproductive growth, the continuous supply of nutrients throughout the growing cycle, as well as the high water retention capacity that resulted in a reduced watering by 50%, suggest that substrates A, B, and C were suitable growing mixes, offering environmental and agronomic advantages.
An Improvement of Yasothon Soil Fertility (Oxic Paleustults) Using Municipal Fermented Organic Compost and Panicum maximum TD 58 Grass
T. Chuasavathi,V. Trelo-ges
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2001,
Abstract: An investigation on the improvement of Yasothon soil (Oxic Paleustults) fertility by Khon Kaen`s municipal fermented waste was carried out at Khon Kaen University for the treatments with and without sowing Panicum maximum TD 58 grass. The results showed that Khon Kaen`s municipal waste had a tremendous effect in improving Yasothon soil fertility. Decomposition rate of organic compost in soil was most rapid due to high environmental temperature. The improvement of soil fertility was greater for treatments with the growth of Panicum maximum TD 58 grass than those without. An increase in the amount of organic compost added to the soil increased the percentages of soil nitrogen, soil available P and exchangeable K. Municipal organic compost increased soil pH, but a greater result was found for treatments with the growth of Panicum maximum TD 58 grass. Municipal waste contented the majority of plant materials and garbage and they should be sorted out daily and recycled as a fermented compost to improve soil fertility for better crop production and sustainable agriculture.
Runoff and Nutrient Losses from Constructed Soils Amended with Compost  [PDF]
N. E. Hansen,D. M. Vietor,C. L. Munster,R. H. White,T. L. Provin
Applied and Environmental Soil Science , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/542873
Abstract: Composted organic materials used to stabilize roadside embankments in Texas promote rapid revegetation of soils disturbed by construction activities. Yet, adding compost to soil may increase total and soluble plant nutrients available for loss in runoff water. Composted municipal biosolids and dairy manure products were applied to soils in Texas according to prescribed Texas Department of Transportation specifications for stabilizing roadside soils. The specifications included a method for incorporating compost into soils prior to seeding or applying a compost and woodchip mix over a disturbed soil and then seeding. Applying compost and woodchips over the soil surface limited sediment losses (14 to 32 fold decrease) compared to incorporating compost into the soil. Yet, the greatest total phosphorus and nitrogen losses in runoff water occurred from soils where the compost and woodchip mix was applied. The greatest losses of soluble phosphorus also occurred when the compost and woodchip mix was applied. In contrast, nitrate-nitrogen losses in runoff were similar when compost was incorporated in the soil or applied in the woodchip mix. Compost source affected the nutrient losses in runoff. While the composted municipal biosolids added greater nutrient loads to the soil, less nutrient loss in runoff occurred. 1. Introduction State Departments of Transportation (SDOT) are mandated to manage highway construction sites as potential nonpoint pollution sources. Soil particulate loads are often the greatest fraction of soil components in runoff from highway construction sites [1]. Soil erosion can occur when disturbed soils are unprotected from rainfall and flowing water. Silt fences, straw mulch, and material blankets are among several practices used to control erosion [2]. Additionally, composted biosolids and blends of biosolids with yard waste are among materials top-dressed or incorporated on constructed soil slopes to control erosion and enhance vegetation establishment [3–5]. Persyn et al. [5] reported 5 or 10?cm blankets of composted biosolids, yard waste, or industrial waste reduced runoff water and sediment compared to exposed subsoil or imported topsoil to high-way construction sites. In a complementary report, Glanville et al. [3] reported top-dressing composted materials decreased nutrient loss in runoff water during a simulated 30?min rain event compared to excavated soil alone. Specifications for the composition and application of composted materials to soil on construction sites vary among SDOTs [6]. Generally, application rates are depth- or
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