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Impact of HIV/AIDS on Human Capital in Africa: Implications for African Economic Developments
Samuel Akinyemi
Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: This study examines the impact of HIV/AIDS epidemic on human capital in relation to economic developments of African societies. It focuses on the incidence of HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa and argues that the epidemic has posed a serious problem to human capital in the African economies through tragic and untimely loss of productive citizens. The study draws data from the top 15 HIV/AIDS prevalence African countries and notes that by the year 2005, Swaziland, with 33.4% of population infected with HIV/AIDS, toped the list while Kenya, with 6.1% of population infected with the epidemic, had the lowest percentage.This study establishes that epidemic does not only reduce the number of workforce and adversely affect total productivity in key economic sectors in Africa, but also lead to higher government expenditure on HIV/AIDS related health concerns and shift household consumption patterns. The study therefore, justifies the need for undertaking preventive measure, reducing poverty and other health factors that increase workers’ vulnerability to HIV/AIDS infection and providing anti-retrovirals to African citizens.
Examining the impact of HIV&AIDS on South African educators
J Louw, O Shisana, K Peltzer, N Zungu
South African Journal of Education , 2009,
Abstract: Our aim in this study was to examine the impact of HIV&AIDS on South African educators. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in public schools combining HIV testing and a face-to-face interview with participants from a nationally representative sample of public educators. The results show that HIV is highly prevalent among South African public educators (12.7%) and the educators who are absent from school for longer periods (20 days or more) compared with those who are absent for less than four days have higher HIV prevalence (16.8% vs 11.95%). Educators also spend time away from teaching while they attend funerals for colleagues who have died (6.7%), for family members (13.4%) and for members of their communities (47.6%). This makes them feel depressed (71%). These results suggest that HIV&AIDS has an impact on the quality of education. There is a need to prevent new HIV infections and reduce morbidity through the implementation of comprehensive integrated prevention and treatment programmes targeted at educators. There is also a need to support educators in coping with the problem of HIV&AIDS at work and in the community.
Examining the impact of HIV&AIDS on South African educators
Julia Louw,Olive Shisana,Karl Peltzer,Nompumelelo Zungu
South African Journal of Education , 2009,
Abstract: Our aim in this study was to examine the impact of HIV&AIDS on South African educators. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in public schools combining HIV testing and a face-to-face interview with participants from a nationally representative sample of public educators. The results show that HIV is highly prevalent among South African public educators (12.7%) and the educators who are absent from school for longer periods (20 days or more) compared with those who are absent for less than four days have higher HIV prevalence (16.8% vs 11.95%). Educators also spend time away from teaching while they attend funerals for colleagues who have died (6.7%), for family members (13.4%) and for members of their communities (47.6%). This makes them feel depressed (71%). These results suggest that HIV&AIDS has an impact on the quality of education. There is a need to prevent new HIV infections and reduce morbidity through the implementation of comprehensive integrated prevention and treat-ment programmes targeted at educators. There is also a need to support educators in coping with the problem of HIV&AIDS at work and in the community.
Impact of HIV/AIDS on Gross Domestic Product (GGP) in the WHO Africa Region
Joses M Kirigia, Luis G Sambo, Tuoyo Okorosobo, Germano M Mwabu
African Journal of Health Sciences , 2002,
Abstract: HIV/AIDS is hypothesized to have substantive negative impact on health status and economic development of individuals, households, communities and nations. The objective of this study was to estimate the burden of HIV/AIDS on GDP in the WHO African Region using a production function approach. The economic burden analysis was done using a double-log econometric model and a cross-sectional data on 45 to 46 countries in the WHO African Region. The data were obtained from WHO, UNAIDS, ECA, UNDP and the World Bank publications. The coefficient for Capital (K), Education (EN), Export (X) and Imports (M) were found to be statistically significant determinants of per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at 5% level of significance (using a one-sided t-distribution test). Unfortunately, HIV/AIDS morbidity (V) and HIV/AIDS deaths (VD), at the same level of significance, were found to have statistically insignificant impact on GDP. However, the coefficients of these variables had negative signs as expected. In all African countries, there is need for more detailed research on the total economic cost of HIV/AIDS (probably estimated using micro-level costing and willingness-to-pay methods) and for economic evaluations of treatment, prevention and promotion programmes. [Afr. J. Health Sci. 2002; 9: 27-39]
The Impact of HIV/AIDS Regarding Informal Social Security: Issues and Perspectives from a South African Context
C Tshoose
Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad , 2010,
Abstract: The purpose of the article is to examine the right to social assistance for households living with HIV/AIDS in South Africa. In particular, the article focuses on the impact of this pandemic on households' access to social assistance benefits in the wake of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, which has wrought untold sorrow and suffering to the overwhelming majority of households in South Africa. The article analyses the consequences of HIV/AIDS in relation to households' support systems, care and dependency burdens, and the extent to which the household members either acknowledge the illness (enabling them to better engage with treatment options) or alternatively, deny its existence. The article commences by reviewing the literature concerning the effects and social impact of HIV/AIDS on the livelihoods of households and their families. The social reciprocity that underpins households' livelihoods is briefly recapitulated. The article concludes that, while recent policy developments are to be welcomed, the current South African legal system of social security does not provide adequate cover for both people living with HIV/AIDS and their families. More remains to be done in order to provide a more comprehensive social security system for the excluded and marginalised people who are living with HIV/AIDS and their families.
The Impact of HIV/AIDS Regarding Informal Social Security: Issues and Perspectives from a South African Context
C Tshoose
Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad , 2010,
Abstract: The purpose of the article is to examine the right to social assistance for households living with HIV/AIDS in South Africa. In particular, the article focuses on the impact of this pandemic on households' access to social assistance benefits in the wake of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, which has wrought untold sorrow and suffering to the overwhelming majority of households in South Africa. The article analyses the consequences of HIV/AIDS in relation to households' support systems, care and dependency burdens, and the extent to which the household members either acknowledge the illness (enabling them to better engage with treatment options) or alternatively, deny its existence. The article commences by reviewing the literature concerning the effects and social impact of HIV/AIDS on the livelihoods of households and their families. The social reciprocity that underpins households' livelihoods is briefly recapitulated. The article concludes that, while recent policy developments are to be welcomed, the current South African legal system of social security does not provide adequate cover for both people living with HIV/AIDS and their families. More remains to be done in order to provide a more comprehensive social security system for the excluded and marginalised people who are living with HIV/AIDS and their families.
HIV/AIDS in the workplace and the impact on firm efficiency and firm competitiveness: The South African manufacturing industry as a case study  [cached]
Gerhardus van Zyl,Carol Lubisi
South African Journal of Human Resource Management , 2009, DOI: 10.4102/sajhrm.v7i1.206
Abstract: The aim of the article was to determine the extent of the negative impact of HIV/AIDS in the workplace on firm efficiency and firm competitiveness. The South African manufacturing sector was used as a case study. The above-mentioned research was deemed necessary, as very limited research has been published specifically on the technical measuring of the extent of the impact of HIV/AIDS on firm efficiency and firm competitiveness in South Africa. A survey questionnaire was designed for use in the research in order to capture the extent of the impact of HIV/AIDS on all levels of firm efficiency and firm competitiveness. A detailed statistical analysis of the results of the survey questionnaire and the parameter estimates of impact log-linear econometric power functions indicated that the negative impact of HIV/AIDS on firm efficiency and firm competitiveness was becoming more prevalent and serious, as it is underpinned by the statistical significance of the results and the high elasticity coefficients of the estimated log-linear power functions. It is recommended that human resource managers implement and manage HIV/AIDS programmes more effectively in order to counter the extent of the negative impact on firm efficiency and firm competitiveness. How to cite this article: Van Zyl, G., & Lubisi, C. (2009). HIV/AIDS in the workplace and the impact on firm efficiency and firm competitiveness: The South African manufacturing industry as a case study. SA Journal of Human Resource Management/SA Tydskrif vir Menslikehulpbronbestuur, 7(1), Art. #206, 14 pages. DOI: 10.4102/sajhrm.v7i1.206
A Review of the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Education, the Workforce and Workplace: The African Experience
G.R.I. Pennap,M. Chaanda,L. Ezirike
The Social Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/sscience.2011.164.168
Abstract: The impact of HIV/AIDS cuts across all sectors of economic activities and social life. For example, it not only reduces the stock of human capital but also the capacity to maintain the required turnover of many sought after skills and training like engineers, doctors, teachers, artisans and others. In the educational sphere, it leads to among other things a decrease in potential clientele for education, resources and even donor support. On the workforce, its impact increases expenditure on the one hand and decreases productivity on the other. In fact, economists posit that even when unemployment rates are high, retirement and death of a large number of skilled and unskilled workers will cause an increase in wages.
Task-shifting of HIV/AIDS services down the professional ladder: Current status in Ethiopia and lessons from other African countries
Y Belayneh, F Tekola, M Madeo, C Resti
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2009,
Abstract: This review tried to bring to light success stories and challenges of other African countries on the same topic as lesson for current endeavors in Ethiopia where the process of implementation of task shifting is in its early stage. It concluded that task shifting can help improve access, coverage and quality of HIV/AIDS related services only if other human resource, financial, health care quality issues and the need for ongoing evaluation and research are addressed.
Socio-Demographic Variables Associated With Aids Epidemic: Evidence From The Organization For Economic Cooperation And Development And The African Countries
A M El-Asfahani, J T Girvan
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2008,
Abstract: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has been spreading rapidly worldwide for the past two decades, causing a variety of symptoms known as the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), which has killed millions of people, and which looks likely to kill millions more. Generally, HIV infection rates are currently decreasing in several countries, but globally the number of people living with HIV/AIDS continues to rise both geographically and among specific demographic groups. For example, despite the remarkable efforts that are being made throughout Africa to avert the spread of HIV and reduce its impact, the HIV/AIDS pandemic in Africa continues to spread obstinately. Among the vexing issues related to the AIDS epidemic are the insufficient provisions of planners, policy makers and the public in general in curbing its devastating consequences to the health sector, households, schools, workplaces, economies and the quality of life as a whole. This paper presents information on the association between socio-demographic variables and AIDS prevalence in some African and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. The studied variables included size of population; population density; urbanization; average life expectancy; average female life expectancy; average male life expectancy; literacy; female and male literacy; population increase; infant mortality; average daily calorie intake; gross domestic product (GDP) per capita; religion; fertility rates; death rates; and AIDS-rate. Several parametric and nonparametric statistical techniques were adopted including Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests. Insignificant difference in the means of AIDS-rates between the OECD countries and the African group was found, but the difference was significant when the USA was excluded from the analysis. As initially expected, life expectancy in the OECD countries was significantly higher than that of the African group while the average rates of infant mortality, population growth, fertility, and death were significantly higher within the African group. Significant association between AIDS-rate and life expectancy was only found for African males, while association with fertility, infant mortality, population density, and calorie intakes was statistically insignificant. No clear difference between urban and rural areas with respect to AIDS-rates was discerned. Communities of Muslims were less subject to the AIDS problem. In conclusion, future studies should devote more attention toward impacts on HIV/AIDS prevalence of other equally important variables such as access to social and health care services, cultural norms, ethnic diversity, and educational facilities.
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